following the resolution of an incident, ensure an operational debriefing with all individuals involved in the incident is conducted.
Situation Management Model
All interventions used to manage or control incidents that jeopardize the security of an institution and/or a person will be consistent with the Situation Management Model and will:
when possible, promote the peaceful resolution of the incident using verbal intervention and/or negotiation
be based on the safest and most reasonable measures to prevent, respond, and resolve the situation
be limited to only what is necessary and proportionate to attain the purposes of the CCRA
respond to changes in the situation through continuous assessment.
Assessment of the Situation
Each situation must be assessed in terms of the CAPRA (client, acquiring and analyzing, partnership, response, and assessment) problem-solving model.
Responses to the situation will be reformulated to reflect any significant changes, and the risk that the new situation represents.
Continual assessment of the effectiveness of the response is an integral aspect of CAPRA.
The inmate’s current behaviour, the situational factors, the tactical considerations and the risk relating to the incident will be assessed on an ongoing basis.
When time and circumstances permit, mental health needs, the inmate’s Aboriginal social history, and self-injurious and/or suicidal behaviour (or history of) must be considered when formulating response options including consultation with a health care professional, the Offender Management System and/or the Case Management file.
When necessary and possible, staff members will consider withdrawing, reassessing and re-planning their response option so that the most appropriate response is implemented. The effectiveness of previous interventions will be part of this ongoing assessment.
Staff will consider the inmate's current behaviour and assess it as:
Inmate behaviour is only one component of the assessment process. There are other situational factors that staff will consider when formulating a response, such as but not limited to:
self-injurious or suicidal behaviour (or history of)
inmate’s mental state and ability to comprehend direction
presence of weapons
number of inmates.
When formulating a response, staff will take into account tactical considerations such as but not limited to:
inmate(s)’s past behaviour
size of inmate(s)
skills of the officer(s)
availability of resources
Selection of Appropriate Management Strategies
Every incident will be managed using the safest and most reasonable response, and be limited to only what is necessary and proportionate to attain the purposes of the CCRA section 4 and to respond to the situation.
The appropriate management strategies will be chosen following the initial and ongoing assessment of the situation, including the inmate’s current behaviour, situational factors and tactical considerations.
Once the assessment has identified the goal or mission, one or more of the following management strategies will be selected:
Isolate & Contain: minimize the incident to the smallest area, and the opportunity for others to become involved
Communication: use of normal verbal intervention, conflict resolution, conflict management, verbal orders, physical presence and non-verbal cues
Controlled Non-intervention: a situation that does not require immediate intervention where time and communication may reduce resistance and gain compliance
Tactical Manoeuvring and/or Intervention: may involve strategically manoeuvring an individual away from an antagonist or away from a vulnerable location; or tactically intervening using a force response option to gain compliance and control.
The partners involved in the application of the management strategies may include, but are not limited to, front-line staff, Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors, Chaplaincy, Health/Mental Health Professionals, Extraction Teams, Crisis Negotiators, Emergency Response Teams, Crisis Management Teams, police or military assistance.
Staff will manage situations using ongoing verbal and non-verbal communication when circumstances permit that may include dynamic security, staff presence, verbal intervention, negotiations, verbal orders and/or conflict resolution, which includes de-escalating the situation by defusing inmate emotions.
When dealing with an inmate who refuses verbal orders and is deemed to be passive resistant any escalation in response options must be carefully re-assessed.
Security restraint equipment may be used:
in routine situations, such as an escort or transfer, where it is specified by policy that such equipment may be applied on a cooperative inmate
as one of several response options to manage a situation when the inmate's behaviour is within the cooperative to assaultive range.
Physical handling is normally expected to be used in combination with other response options when:
situational factors include inmate behaviour that is physically uncooperative or assaultive
verbal intervention has proven ineffective or has been assessed as an inappropriate option for the situation.
may be the safest and most reasonable options when inmate behaviour is assaultive or shows potential to cause grievous bodily harm or death
may be considered when verbal intervention, chemical/inflammatory agents and/or physical handling have proven ineffective, are assessed as inappropriate options for the situation or are not available
may be appropriate prior to utilizing firearms to manage escapes, or more serious assaultive situations (e.g. riots and major disturbances) or behaviours likely to cause grievous bodily harm or death.
Pursuant to section 25 of the Criminal Code, an aimed shot at an individual may be used to prevent death or grievous bodily harm when all lesser means are not available, have proven unsuccessful or are not the safest and most reasonable intervention given situational factors.
By virtue of the population in medium, maximum, and multi-level security institutions, or clustered sites consisting of medium, maximum, or multi-level security units, staff can reasonably assume that the inmates within the secured perimeter of those institutions meet the criteria pursuant to section 25(5) of the Criminal Code. In accordance with these criteria, an aimed shot at an individual may be used to prevent escapes when all lesser means are not available, have proven unsuccessful or are not the safest and most reasonable intervention given situational factors.
Firearms may also be used indirectly via physical presence with a firearm, charging of the firearm as a show of force and/or use of a warning shot.
Following an Incident
Staff and management will debrief and report throughout the management of the entire situation in order to facilitate the ongoing assessment of situational factors and management options.
Inmates who require attention following critical incidents will be offered support services by Mental Health Professionals, Chaplaincy, and/or Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors. Services will normally take the form of individual counselling interviews.
A list of inmates who may be in need of assistance will be developed as soon as possible after an incident (through consultation with inmate representatives, if appropriate):
the list will also be developed with Mental Health Professionals, Chaplains or Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors who have offered to meet with inmates affected by a critical incident
the participation by inmates is voluntary.
Support services will also be available, upon request, to other inmates not previously identified.
Mental Health Professionals, Chaplains and Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors providing services will document their interventions within the inmate’s file and submit to their supervisors the names of inmates to which services were offered.
Management and Control Framework
Situations will be managed and controlled using a framework which includes, but is not limited to, the following:
CD 567-1 - Use of Force identifies the processes and requirements, ensuring that the response and the manner in which force is used are appropriate and in accordance with CSC policy and applicable legislation
threatens verbally, or implies through physical behaviours, actions or gestures, the intent to apply force to harm or injure another person, or
directly or indirectly applies force against another person in a manner that causes, or has the potential to cause, harm or injury
CAPRA problem-solving model: a model that facilitates the acquisition and analysis of client and situational information, and the consideration, through partners, of response strategies.
Cooperative: when there is no verbal or physical resistance and the inmate responds to staff presence, verbal communication, and complies voluntarily with verbal commands or orders.
Dynamic security: regular and consistent interaction with offenders and timely analysis of information and sharing through observations and communication (e.g. rapport building, training, networking, intelligence gathering and strategic analysis). Dynamic security is the action that contributes to the development of professional, positive relationships between staff and inmates, and is a key tool to assess an inmate's adjustment and stability.
Escape: any act or attempted act to breach (break) prison, escape from lawful custody, or without lawful excuse be at large before the expiration of a term of imprisonment to which that person has been sentenced.
Grievous bodily harm: any injury having the potential to endanger life, or which results in permanent physical impairment, significant disfigurement or protracted loss of normal functioning. It includes, but is not limited to, major bone fractures, the severing of limbs or extremities, and wounds involving damage to internal organs.
Medical emergency: an injury or condition that poses an immediate threat to a person's health or life which requires medical intervention.
Other intermediary weapons: includes impact munitions, high pressure water, and any other equipment that may be approved for use in the Security Equipment Manual.
Physically uncooperative: there are two main categories of the component physically uncooperative:
passive resistant: the inmate uses little or no physical action when refusing to cooperate with staff’s direction/orders (this can be a verbal refusal or a physical inactivity such as the inmate letting his/her body go limp, or having a lack of understanding of the verbal orders due to his/her mental/physical state)
active resistant: the inmate uses non-assaultive physical action to resist or while resisting a staff’s direction/orders (e.g., he/she may prevent or may escape control by pulling away, or walking/running away from staff).
Situation Management Model: a model/graphic representation (see Annex B) used to assist staff in determining the correct response options to be used in managing security situations.
Verbally resistive: when the inmate displays behaviours that include, but are not limited to, verbal assaults, profanity, taunts, or refusal to communicate with staff but complies with verbal orders.
Warning shot: a shot that is directed into a safe area and is not intended to harm anyone.
Situation Management Model
CSC Staff and Management will prevent, respond and resolve situations using the safest and
most reasonable intervention.
Situation Management Model
The Situation Management Model is based on the CAPRA (client, acquiring and analyzing, partnership, response, and assessment)
problem-solving model. It consists of a series of overlapping circles that represent inmate behavior and appropriate
responses used by correctional staff and management to prevent, respond and resolve situations using the safest and
most reasonable intervention.
The first innermost circle represents a range of inmate behaviors: cooperative, verbally resistive, physically
uncooperative, assaultive, grievous bodily harm and escape.
The surrounding circle indicates that when there is an opportunity to isolate and contain a situation, this is the
best management strategy to be used.
The next circle represents possible non-physical responses to be used by staff: dynamic security, staff presence,
verbal intervention, conflict resolution, negotiation and verbal orders. This is the only complete circle for staff
response to demonstrate that it is always an option.
The following three circles represent possible physical responses to be used by staff. The lowest of the three
includes restraint equipment, inflammatory agents, chemical agents and physical handling. The next level is
intermediary options such as batons. The highest level is the use of firearms, which is a last resort. The responses
are in direct correlation to the inmate's behavior and the imminent harm they may pose to others. The more dangerous
the behavior, the more responses are available to staff.
The circle which surrounds the entire model indicates the need to continually reassess the situation and response
options to reflect any significant change in the situation and re-evaluate the risk it presents, which can change from
one moment to the next. Once the situation is resolved, staff and management must be debriefed and a report must be