To ensure the most secure, efficient and economical environmental management of all types of waste
To contribute to the conservation of natural resources and the reduction of pollution through solid waste reduction programs, electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) waste recycle/reuse initiatives, and proactive and ecological hazardous waste management practices
To prevent environmental contamination and negative ecological impacts on landfills, specifically from organic leachates and run-offs originated from discharges, and gaseous emissions
To minimize the impact of EEE waste chemicals on human health and the environment through more rigorous management requirements (i.e. convenient, secure and environmentally sound solutions for managing end-of-life EEE waste), disposal bans, or restrictions on hazardous chemicals that may be present
To prevent the release of persistent hazardous wastes into the environment by reducing the amount of hazardous materials that CSC institutions use and by storing them in a secure manner. Ensure that the hazardous waste generated by CSC operations complies with the requirements of applicable federal, provincial and municipal regulations
Applies to all types of waste produced by CSC and/or CORCAN activities and/or contractors, whether solid, hazardous, electronic, electrical or special wastes
The Chief, Facility Management (CFM), or his/her delegate will be responsible for implementing and monitoring this ISD. For EEE waste, this responsibility is shared by Contracting and Materiel Services, Information Management Services and the CFM.
Heads of each division producing hazardous waste (Works and Maintenance, CORCAN Industries, Health Care Services, etc.) are responsible for the handling, storage and safe disposal of hazardous waste produced by their own division.
The CFM or his/her delegate must manage a program that satisfies the requirements of provincial and federal regulations.
The Regional Coordinator, Environmental Programs, will train institutional staff and/or the CFM about the program and responsible end-of-life EEE waste management.
The release of waste in open water must comply with the provisions of the Fisheries Act which prohibits the release of hazardous substances in water habitats frequented by fish. The Act also states that: "no person shall deposit or permit the deposit of a deleterious substance of any type in water frequented by fish or in any place under any conditions where the deleterious substance or any other deleterious substance that results from the deposit of the deleterious substance may enter any such water".
Landfilling, disposing of, or allowing the landfill or disposal of wastes or contaminated soils on CSC's sites is prohibited.
Burning, incinerating, or allowing the burning or incineration of wastes or any residues on CSC's sites is prohibited.
The use of kitchen garburetors (where food wastes are disposed of as sewage) on CSC's sites is prohibited.
Processing of recovered EEE waste materials into marketable products (e.g., smelting) is prohibited because it has a much greater negative environmental impact as compared to recycling (sorting and dismantling).
Requirements for each waste group – solid waste, EEE waste, hazardous waste, and special waste respectively.
Waste Management Planning
Annually or on a continuous improvement basis, the CFM or his/her delegate shall review and plan improvements (corrective measures) of the overall waste management practices and performance at the institution. He/she must first focus on minimizing the total amount of waste created through waste reduction at source, and then improve source separation, reuse, recycling, recovering-composting, and safe disposal practices. To improve the procedures in place, it is recommended that solid waste audits be conducted and that annual estimates be made of the weight of waste sent to landfills.
If source separation practices cannot operate efficiently, consider establishing a garbage sorting facility at the institution or in the region.
If a viable municipal, regional or commercial composting service is not available, consider establishing and operating a composting facility at the institution.
The CFM or his/her delegate who is assigned to the management of institutional waste shall develop, implement and maintain an action plan for waste reduction.
The CFM or his/her delegate who is assigned to the management of institutional waste must put in place viable mechanisms and procedures that will enable environmentally sound management of waste in accordance with the principle of the 4Rs and municipal safety and security regulations.
The CFM or his/her delegate must put in place mechanisms and procedures that will enable environmentally sound management of hazardous waste, as well as changes in procedures to avoid/reduce using hazardous or toxic substances.
Waste Management System
Staff and inmates should contribute to source separation of solid waste. Each responsibility centre should ensure that:
where composting facilities exist, food and yard wastes are separated from other garbage, and that food waste is not too wet for composting [inserting a layer of peat or shredded paper at the bottom of compostable waste containers can sop up excess liquid (i.e. dewatering)]
food and similar solid wastes that are disposed of as sewage are reduced to a minimum
recyclable waste is separated from other garbage (this is usually done through a blue box or similar program and typical separations are white paper, other paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal and cans).
Note: To complement source separation efforts made by staff and inmates, it may be necessary to establish a mechanism to separate recyclable items from mixed garbage.
The CFM or his/her delegate is responsible for:
collecting and delivering compostable waste to a suitable compost facility
collecting and delivering recyclable waste to a suitable recycling facility
collecting and delivering the remaining garbage to a suitable disposal facility – typically a provincially accredited municipal landfill or incinerator.
Electronic and Electrical Equipment Waste
Reuse or Recycle/Disposal
Reuse is a key part of EEE waste solutions. The CFM or his/her delegate (or responsible authority) should send EEE waste for reuse. The following programs are available:
it is possible to donate electronic equipment to organizations who will reuse and/or refurbish the items. Reuse organizations shall operate in accordance with all applicable municipal, provincial and federal regulatory requirements. Provincial contacts can be found on the Electronics Product Stewardship Canada website (at www.epsc.ca)
the end-of-life electronics program was developed by the Electronics Product Stewardship Canada as a responsible solution. It is a not-for-profit organization comprised of industries and retailers, in cooperation with a Program Manager. The program has been set up to address end-of-life electronics issues by keeping these products out of landfills and allowing the resources to be recovered and hazardous materials to be disposed of properly and safely
Computers for Schools is a program across Canada. It is a federal government-led initiative that operates in cooperation with all the provinces and territories, as well as the private and volunteer sectors. Program funding recipients collect, repair and refurbish donated surplus computers from public and private sector sources and distribute them to schools, public libraries, not-for-profit learning organizations and Aboriginal communities throughout Canada. Industry Canada provides a list of provincial workshop locations: www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cfs-ope.nsf/eng/h_00056.html.
The CFM or his/her delegate can contact the following participating provincial programs (non-exhaustive list) for safe disposal and recycling of EEE waste (Annex B provides a list of common recyclable EEEs):
Whether EEE wastes are being reused or recycled, proper disposal of protected information is required for digital data. Before computers are sent for reuse or brought to a Return-It depot (see the participating provincial program contact list) to be recycled, ensure that protected data on the hard drive has been wiped. For security purposes, steps should have been taken by the user or by Information Management Services to ensure that no protected data remains on any equipment.
If data was not properly deleted, the CFM or his/her delegate will follow the standards established by the Government of Canada: Clearing and Declassifying Electronic Data Storage Devices (ITSG06). This document published by Communications Security Establishment Canada provides specific standards for sanitizing hard drives and a variety of electronic data storage devices at varying levels of protection.
Note: Pressing "Delete" on a computer does not mean that information on the hard drive is permanently deleted. Traces of documents or files can potentially be recovered unless a data sanitization process has been carried out.
The CFM or his/her delegate will package EEE waste using one of the following methods:
palletizing – pallets are appropriate for packaging televisions, computers, and other electronic items with a fixed/defined shape that allows them to be easily stacked on top of one another. Pallets are most easily assembled when similar items are placed together. To ensure stability and mobility, pallets should not be assembled higher than 6'0"
Note: Most institutions do not have equipment to weigh palletized EEE waste. This poses a challenge as a weight estimate is typically required when making arrangements for transportation. Annex C provides estimated weights for palletized EEE waste for different types of equipment. If there is access to weighing, exact weights of pallets should be provided.
Gaylord/Tri-Wall boxes – they have the same base dimensions as a standard pallet and are 36" tall. The empty box is placed on a pallet so that it can be moved with standard warehouse equipment. The boxes are suitable for packaging non-standard or oddly shaped equipment that cannot easily be stacked. Examples include: computer peripherals such as mice, keyboards and speakers, cables, calculators, electric staplers, electric pencil sharpeners, telephones, etc. In short, all that uses electricity
individual boxes – packaging material in smaller individual boxes is also acceptable and may be necessary where CSC does not have the capacity to palletize material. Boxes must not be overfilled to the point where they bulge or cannot be properly sealed when closed. Caution should be used regarding the weight of boxes if they are to be handled manually. The content and destination of boxes should be clearly labeled on the outside of the box. This will enable the identification of items in storage prior to the pick-up and transportation of material to the correct destination.
Temporary storage of EEE waste is acceptable as an interim measure to allow time for the collection of sufficient volumes of waste for cost-effective transport to a recycler or disposal facility.
EEE waste should be stored according to the following criteria:
use safe containers
label packaging accordingly
keep the waste sealed or closed at all times
protect from the weather and physical damage
use wooden pallets to keep waste off the ground during storage and transport
store in a secure area with controlled access.
Depending on the quantities and location of the material, transportation may be provided at no cost by a provincial program or its recyclers. This information is available on provincial recycling program websites. See Annex D for contact information and web links.
Note: Most provincial programs require similar items to be packaged together. If the items are packaged properly, some provincial recycling programs will allow EEE waste to be shipped directly to recyclers, bypassing consolidation and warehousing points. This provides greater protection against theft or loss and allows easier tracking of the material throughout the recycling process.
The CFM or his/her delegate will develop written procedures concerning the movement of hazardous waste within the institution from the point of origin to the storage area and, as the case may be, from the storage area to the collection point for external disposal. The procedures must set out the internal path for the hazardous waste, the equipment required, the staff members designated to handle the waste, and any other pertinent information. They should also focus on minimizing the movement of hazardous waste, particularly in occupied areas, and on reducing the risk of spills or injuries.
Hazardous waste must be contained in packaging that is:
constructed of materials appropriate to the nature of the hazardous waste
strong enough to remain intact during handling, storage, transportation and disposal, so as to prevent leaks, spills or injuries.
Temporary storage facilities and/or areas for hazardous waste must meet the requirements of a permanent site.
All containers or receptacles used for storing hazardous waste must at all times be clearly labelled or have signs posted explicitly identifying the contents, quantity and storage date. An inventory of what is stored must be maintained.
Buildings, sheds, cupboards, etc. where hazardous waste is stored must be identified with appropriate signage both on site and on the plans for the facility.
Identification of stored incompatible hazardous materials and waste must be made using material safety data sheets (as prescribed by WHMIS), which normally contain information on substance incompatibility.
Access to hazardous waste storage areas must be controlled through appropriate physical barriers or surrounds (walls, fences, cupboards), with doors or gates that are kept locked. Access should be limited to authorized employees only.
Storage areas must have the technical controls required by applicable legislation, codes and directives, depending on which hazardous materials are stored in them. These controls may include:
internal fire resistance, fire suppression or containment components
secondary containment equipment, catch basins, interception ditches in case of spills, drain inlets
absorbent materials (spill kits), extinguishers, first-aid kits, etc. (outside)
explosion-proof facilities, accessories and electrical equipment
give the completed shipping document to the initial carrier.
Institutions must only use contractors/carriers who have experience and are licensed to handle the type of hazardous waste being disposed of.
Special waste described below must be managed in accordance with the appropriate requirements.
Construction, renovation and demolition (CRD) waste includes any solid and hazardous materials or contaminated soils generated during construction, renovation and/or demolition projects. Many municipalities throughout Canada have bylaws in place banning the landfilling of specific CRD materials in order to divert these materials from landfills and prevent them from being dumped illegally. Be sure to consult and comply with all provincial and municipal legislation, and all other relevant environmental regulations, prior to handling and disposing of any CRD waste. For CRD projects:
collect, segregate, safely store and dispose of hazardous construction waste
collect and safely store waste from wood preservatives and paints
ensure that alkyd paints, lacquers, chemical thinners, wood fillers, stains, etc. are as environmentally friendly as possible. For more information on environmentally-friendly products, consult the website Environmental Choice (EcoLogo certified products).
Note: For all CRD projects, the request for proposal should include a requirement to conduct a waste audit as well as a waste reduction work plan. This includes auditing the project for the types and quantities of materials and expected waste, generating a work plan for the reduction, reuse and recycling of these materials, and monitoring waste.
Fluorescent tubes, ballasts and high-density mercury lamps:
fluorescent tubes and high-density mercury lamps usually contain enough mercury to be considered hazardous waste. Therefore, they must not be sent to landfills but should instead be recycled by firms that use safe and effective methods (Refer to the documents on the website of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.)
fluorescent tube (old) ballasts may also contain polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Environment Canada has produced a guide on Identification of Lamp Ballasts Containing PCBs. Such ballasts should be dealt with in accordance with the recommendations set out below concerning PCBcontaminated waste.
PCB-contaminated waste must comply with the requirements and standards set out in the PCB Regulations
collect and safely store waste materials that contain PCBs
arrange for their disposal in accordance with the time limits for storage set out in the PCB Regulations.
Note: PCBs are mostly found in old fluorescent lamp ballasts and in old electricity transformers, capacitors, etc. Since it is illegal to use PCBs in new products, the prevalence of items containing PCBs will diminish over time.
when environmental provisions in provincial and/or municipal regulations governing the use, storage and disposal of pesticides and fertilizers are more restrictive than federal requirements, the federal government should achieve compatibility with provincial and municipal regulations
for CSC lands, the CFM or his/her delegate should, when required, prepare/update annually a comprehensive plan for managing ornamental grounds keeping in a manner that reduces or eliminates the use of pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, and immature sewage sludge or composts.
in the absence of specific federal regulations or recommendations on the management of used batteries, the federal government should achieve compatibility with provincial and/or municipal regulations
recycling of batteries is recommended wherever accredited services (complying with applicable standards and regulations) are available and viable. If recycling is not practical, dispose of used batteries as required by municipal regulations.
The CFM or his/her delegate who is responsible for institutional waste management can provide an annual report to National Headquarters and Regional Headquarters on the results of the institution's overall waste reduction program.
The CFM or his/her delegate who is responsible for institutional waste management can establish a program whereby progress results are regularly posted, mainly for the benefit of those who participate in the waste reduction program.
The CFM or his/her delegate who is responsible for institutional waste management should coordinate the measures necessary for ensuring ongoing training and coaching sessions for institutional staff in waste management techniques as well as awareness activities for inmates.
Correctional Service of Canada Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS)
Management of electrical and electronic equipment is governed largely by provincial and municipal bylaws and regulations.
4Rs: waste principle based on reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering.
Composting: an aerobic biological treatment process used for the management of biodegradable residential waste, such as leaf, yard or food wastes.
Contaminated soils: is defined as a soil for which substances occur at concentrations: (1) above background levels and pose or are likely to pose an immediate or long-term hazard to human health or the environment, or (2) exceeding levels specified in policies and regulations.
Data sanitization: the process by which data is removed from a device in such a way that there is assurance that the data may not be recovered or reconstructed using normal system functions or software file/data recovery utilities.
Deleterious substance: any substance that, if added to any water, would degrade or alter or form part of a process of degradation or alteration of the quality of that water so that it is rendered or is likely to be rendered deleterious to fish or fish habitat or to the use by man of fish that frequent that water.
Divert/diversion: the quantity of materials diverted from disposal facilities and the sum of all materials processed for recycling or composting.
EEE waste: electronic and electrical equipment waste. The Government of Canada currently defines federal EEE waste as "all federal surplus of electronic and electrical equipment that no longer has reuse potential within the Federal Government". Any electronic and electrical equipment that is no longer deemed to have a use within the federal government is referred to as "surplus electronic and electrical equipment". Electronic and electrical equipment is considered to be "any equipment with a plug/battery or that uses electricity to perform its intended functions". A list of EEE waste that is typically accepted for recycling can be found in Annex B of this Directive.
Hazardous waste: any residual hazardous materials which by their nature are potentially hazardous to human health and/or the environment, as well as any materials, wastes or objects assimilated to (containing) a hazardous material. Hazardous waste may be explosive, gaseous, flammable, toxic, radioactive, corrosive, combustive or leachable.
Pallet: a flat transport structure that can be lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, or pump truck. The goods are layered on a pallet and secured with plastic shrink wrap.
Recover/recovered: the processing of a material that was considered as waste into another product. This process allows savings in raw materials and gives a second life to various materials. Organic residue composting and scrap tire pyrolysis are good examples of waste recovery.
Recycling: aims to bring residual materials collected to a secondary processing stage where they will be turned into other products containing a quantity of recycled materials.
Reduction at source: the basic principle of sound waste management which aims to prevent the production of wastes rather than eliminating them. The cumulative effect of source reduction has a major impact on long-term waste management. The idea is to develop work habits directed toward reduction of inputs, i.e. reduction of demand in terms of raw materials or goods and products.
Reuse: to give a second life to a product (e.g. waste) without the need to transform its appearance or its properties. Good examples of reuse are repairing items, using used goods or finding other uses for an item.
Safe disposal: the act of getting rid of something (e.g. wastes) in the most secure and environmentally responsible manner possible, by prioritizing, reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering. Disposal through landfills or incineration must be a last-resort solution. A safe disposal site is one that has been approved by the appropriate authorities and that has adequate controls relating to containment and/or environmental impact mitigation.
Solid waste: residual solids resulting from industrial, commercial, institutional or agricultural activities, trash, household waste, rubble, waste plaster and other solid waste with the exception of: scrapped vehicles, contaminated earth/sand/soil (e.g. with hydrocarbons), pesticides, biomedical waste, manure, radioactive waste, sludge, and hazardous materials.
Toxic: causing or having the potential to cause adverse effects to organisms or populations.
WHMIS: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System which is Canada's national hazard communication standard. The key elements of the system are cautionary labelling of containers of WHMIS "controlled products", the provision of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and worker education and training programs. A material subject to WHMIS becomes a hazardous waste.
COMMON RECYCLABLE EEEs
Typical Products Accepted
Television, computer monitor, professional displays, all-in-one computer
Desktop or Portable Computers
Computer terminal, desktop computer used as a server, laptop computer, notebook computer, tablet computer, netbook computer
Printers, Scanners and Fax Machines
Desktop printers including camera dock printers and label – barcode – card printers, desktop fax machines, desktop scanners including business card scanners, cheque scanners and photo negative scanners
Mouse, trackball, keyboard, keypad
Non-Cellular Phones and Answering Machines
Telephones (corded and cordless, VoIP, satellite phones), telephone line answering machines (cassette and digital), speaker/conference phone
Home Audio/Video Systems
AM/FM radios, video cassette recorders (VCRs), digital video recorders (DVRs), personal video recorders (PVRs), disc players/recorders (DVD, Blu-ray, etc.), laser disc players/recorders, cable and satellite receivers, digital TV, set-top boxes
Counter Top Microwave Ovens
Counter top microwave oven (typically less than 2.2 cubic feet)
Personal Portable Audio/Video
Clock radios, portable stereos, MP3 players, portable docking/compact speakers, headphones, and microphones, headsets (wired and wireless, including Bluetooth), digital and non-digital cameras, digital photo key chains, video cameras/camcorders, multi-function satellite radios, web cameras, digital frames, and portable displays – screen size up to 10"
NOTE: For a more complete list of acceptable recyclable products for each province, see link "Product listing" in Annex D of this ISD.
ESTIMATED WEIGHTS OF EEE WASTE
The following may be used for calculating estimates of EEE waste shipping weights:
1 pallet of computers: 1220 lb / 555 kg – 48 units approx.
1 pallet of laptops: 1200 lb / 546 kg – 120 units approx.
1 pallet of flat screen monitors: 750 lb / 341 kg – 50 units approx.
1 pallet of CRT monitors: 960 lb / 436 kg – 24 units approx.
1 pallet of desktop printers: 800 lb / 364 kg – 16 units approx.
1 Gaylord box of miscellaneous EEE waste (mouse, cables, etc.): 890 lb / 405 kg
1 Gaylord box of shredded/broken hard drives: 1100 lb / 500 kg
The following may be useful when estimating the weight of mixed pallets of EEE waste:
1 computer unit: 30 lb / 14 kg approx.
1 17" CRT monitor: 40 lb / 15 kg approx.
1 desktop laser printer: 50 lb / 23 kg approx.
1 desktop inkjet printer: 10 lb / 5 kg approx.
1 17" flat screen monitor: 15 lb / 7 kg approx.
1 laptop: 10 lb / 5 kg approx.
1 hard drive: 1 lb / 0.5 kg approx.
For large miscellaneous items, weight may be estimated based on a standard of 10 lb / 5 kg per cubic foot: if an item is 4' x 4' x 4', its volume would be 64 cubic feet and its weight would be estimated at 64 ft3 x 10 lb = 640 lb / 320 kg.