Commissioner's Directive

Management of Security Incidents

AUTHORITIES

PURPOSE

  • To maintain safe institutional environments
  • To maintain respectful environments that promote dynamic security and interventions between staff and inmates and encourages inmates to actively participate in their Correctional Plan
  • To return the institution to normal operations in a safe and timely manner after an incident

APPLICATION

Applies to all institutional staff, not including Community Correctional Centres

RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES

  1. The Director General, Security, will:
    1. provide direction and support to regions in relation to policy, safety and security issues
    2. inform the Assistant Commissioner, Correctional Operations and Programs, of any issues or deficiencies arising from security policies, their procedures or implementation.
  2. The Assistant Deputy Commissioner, Correctional Operations, will:
    1. provide support to the operational units during and following an incident
    2. report to the Director General, Security, any issues or deficiencies arising from security policies/procedures or their implementation.
  3. The Institutional Head will:
    1. following an incident, return the institution to a safe and secure environment as soon as possible, managing any resulting challenges
    2. ensure staff are equipped and trained in their duties, including training on the Situation Management Model
    3. establish processes to monitor compliance and the effective implementation of policies related to the management of security incidents
    4. ensure staff follow processes and respond to medical emergencies pursuant to GL 800-4 – Response to Medical Emergencies
    5. following the resolution of an incident, ensure an operational debriefing with all individuals involved in the incident is conducted.

Situation Management Model

  1. All interventions used to manage or control incidents that jeopardize the security of an institution and/or a person will be consistent with the Situation Management Model and will:
    1. when possible, promote the peaceful resolution of the incident using verbal intervention and/or negotiation
    2. be based on the safest and most reasonable measures to prevent, respond, and resolve the situation
    3. be limited to only what is necessary and proportionate to attain the purposes of the CCRA
    4. respond to changes in the situation through continuous assessment.

Assessment of the Situation

  1. Each situation must be assessed in terms of the CAPRA (client, acquiring and analyzing, partnership, response, and assessment) problem-solving model.
  2. Responses to the situation will be reformulated to reflect any significant changes, and the risk that the new situation represents.
  3. Continual assessment of the effectiveness of the response is an integral aspect of CAPRA.
  4. The inmate’s current behaviour, the situational factors, the tactical considerations and the risk relating to the incident will be assessed on an ongoing basis.
  5. When time and circumstances permit, mental health needs, the inmate’s Aboriginal social history, and self-injurious and/or suicidal behaviour (or history of) must be considered when formulating response options including consultation with a health care professional, the Offender Management System and/or the Case Management file.
  6. When necessary and possible, staff members will consider withdrawing, reassessing and re-planning their response option so that the most appropriate response is implemented. The effectiveness of previous interventions will be part of this ongoing assessment.

Inmate Behaviour

  1. Staff will consider the inmate's current behaviour and assess it as:
    1. cooperative
    2. verbally resistive
    3. physically uncooperative (passive resistance and active resistance)
    4. assaultive
    5. showing the potential to cause grievous bodily harm or death, or
    6. escaping

Situational Factors

  1. Inmate behaviour is only one component of the assessment process. There are other situational factors that staff will consider when formulating a response, such as but not limited to:
    1. self-injurious or suicidal behaviour (or history of)
    2. inmate’s mental state and ability to comprehend direction
    3. location
    4. presence of weapons
    5. number of inmates.

Tactical Considerations

  1. When formulating a response, staff will take into account tactical considerations such as but not limited to:
    1. inmate(s)’s past behaviour
    2. size of inmate(s)
    3. skills of the officer(s)
    4. availability of resources
    5. containment options.

Selection of Appropriate Management Strategies

  1. Every incident will be managed using the safest and most reasonable response, and be limited to only what is necessary and proportionate to attain the purposes of the CCRA section 4 and to respond to the situation.
  2. The appropriate management strategies will be chosen following the initial and ongoing assessment of the situation, including the inmate’s current behaviour, situational factors and tactical considerations.
  3. Once the assessment has identified the goal or mission, one or more of the following management strategies will be selected:
    1. Isolate & Contain: minimize the incident to the smallest area, and the opportunity for others to become involved
    2. Communication: use of normal verbal intervention, conflict resolution, conflict management, verbal orders, physical presence and non-verbal cues
    3. Controlled Non-intervention: a situation that does not require immediate intervention where time and communication may reduce resistance and gain compliance
    4. Tactical Manoeuvring and/or Intervention: may involve strategically manoeuvring an individual away from an antagonist or away from a vulnerable location; or tactically intervening using a force response option to gain compliance and control.
  4. The partners involved in the application of the management strategies may include, but are not limited to, front-line staff, Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors, Chaplaincy, Health/Mental Health Professionals, Extraction Teams, Crisis Negotiators, Emergency Response Teams, Crisis Management Teams, police or military assistance.

Verbal Intervention, Conflict Resolution, Negotiation

  1. Staff will manage situations using ongoing verbal and non-verbal communication when circumstances permit that may include dynamic security, staff presence, verbal intervention, negotiations, verbal orders and/or conflict resolution, which includes de-escalating the situation by defusing inmate emotions.
  2. When dealing with an inmate who refuses verbal orders and is deemed to be passive resistant any escalation in response options must be carefully re-assessed.

Restraint Equipment

  1. Security restraint equipment may be used:
    1. in routine situations, such as an escort or transfer, where it is specified by policy that such equipment may be applied on a cooperative inmate
    2. as one of several response options to manage a situation when the inmate's behaviour is within the cooperative to assaultive range.

Physical Handling

  1. Physical handling is normally expected to be used in combination with other response options when:
    1. situational factors include inmate behaviour that is physically uncooperative or assaultive
    2. verbal intervention has proven ineffective or has been assessed as an inappropriate option for the situation.

Chemical and Inflammatory Agents

  1. Chemical and inflammatory agents are normally expected to be used, pursuant to CD 567-4 – Use of Chemical and Inflammatory Agents in combination with other response options when:
    1. situational factors include inmate behaviour that is actively resistive, as part of the physically uncooperative component of inmate behaviours, or more severe in terms of risk
    2. verbal intervention has proven ineffective or has been assessed as an inappropriate option for the situation.

Batons and Other Intermediary Weapons

  1. The use of batons and other intermediary weapons:
    1. may be the safest and most reasonable options when inmate behaviour is assaultive or shows potential to cause grievous bodily harm or death
    2. may be considered when verbal intervention, chemical/inflammatory agents and/or physical handling have proven ineffective, are assessed as inappropriate options for the situation or are not available
    3. may be appropriate prior to utilizing firearms to manage escapes, or more serious assaultive situations (e.g. riots and major disturbances) or behaviours likely to cause grievous bodily harm or death.

Firearms

  1. Pursuant to section 25 of the Criminal Code, an aimed shot at an individual may be used to prevent death or grievous bodily harm when all lesser means are not available, have proven unsuccessful or are not the safest and most reasonable intervention given situational factors.
  2. By virtue of the population in medium, maximum, and multi-level security institutions, or clustered sites consisting of medium, maximum, or multi-level security units, staff can reasonably assume that the inmates within the secured perimeter of those institutions meet the criteria pursuant to section 25(5) of the Criminal Code. In accordance with these criteria, an aimed shot at an individual may be used to prevent escapes when all lesser means are not available, have proven unsuccessful or are not the safest and most reasonable intervention given situational factors.
  3. Firearms may also be used indirectly via physical presence with a firearm, charging of the firearm as a show of force and/or use of a warning shot.

Following an Incident

  1. Staff and management will debrief and report throughout the management of the entire situation in order to facilitate the ongoing assessment of situational factors and management options.
  2. Staff will be provided with critical incident stress management services pursuant to CD  253  - Employee Assistance Program and GL  253-2  - Critical Incident Stress Management.
  3. Inmates who require attention following critical incidents will be offered support services by Mental Health Professionals, Chaplaincy, and/or Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors. Services will normally take the form of individual counselling interviews.
  4. A list of inmates who may be in need of assistance will be developed as soon as possible after an incident (through consultation with inmate representatives, if appropriate):
    1. the list will also be developed with Mental Health Professionals, Chaplains or Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors who have offered to meet with inmates affected by a critical incident
    2. the participation by inmates is voluntary.
  5. Support services will also be available, upon request, to other inmates not previously identified.
  6. Mental Health Professionals, Chaplains and Aboriginal Elders/Spiritual Advisors providing services will document their interventions within the inmate’s file and submit to their supervisors the names of inmates to which services were offered.

Management and Control Framework

  1. Situations will be managed and controlled using a framework which includes, but is not limited to, the following:
    1. CD  567-1 - Use of Force identifies the processes and requirements, ensuring that the response and the manner in which force is used are appropriate and in accordance with CSC policy and applicable legislation
    2. CD  567-2 - Use of and Responding to Alarms identifies the processes and requirements for the use of and responding to alarms
    3. CD  567-3 - Use of Restraint Equipment for Security Purposes identifies the processes and requirements for the appropriate use of restraint equipment
    4. CD  567-4 - Use of Chemical and Inflammatory Agents identifies the processes and requirements for the appropriate use of chemical and inflammatory agents
    5. CD  567-5 - Use of Firearms identifies the processes and requirements for the appropriate use of firearms
    6. CD  600 - Management of Emergencies identifies the processes and requirements to ensure that all critical locations are prepared to deal effectively with emergencies

Commissioner,

Original Signed by:
Don Head

ANNEX A

CROSS-REFERENCES AND DEFINITIONS

CROSS-REFERENCES

CD 253 - Employee Assistance Program
GL 253-2 - Critical Incident Stress Management
CD 560 – Dynamic Security and Supervision
CD 567-1 - Use of Force
CD 567-2 - Use of and Responding to Alarms
CD 567-3 - Use of Restraint Equipment for Security Purposes
CD 567-4 - Use of Chemical and Inflammatory Agents
CD 567-5 - Use of Firearms
CD 568-1 - Recording and Reporting of Security Incidents
CD 600 - Management of Emergencies
CD 702 - Aboriginal Offenders
CD 800 - Health Services
GL 800-4 – Response to Medical Emergencies
CD 843 - Management of Inmate Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviour

Security Equipment Manual

DEFINITIONS

Assaultive: when the inmate:

  1. threatens verbally, or implies through physical behaviours, actions or gestures, the intent to apply force to harm or injure another person, or
  2. directly or indirectly applies force against another person in a manner that causes, or has the potential to cause, harm or injury

CAPRA problem-solving model: a model that facilitates the acquisition and analysis of client and situational information, and the consideration, through partners, of response strategies.

Cooperative: when there is no verbal or physical resistance and the inmate responds to staff presence, verbal communication, and complies voluntarily with verbal commands or orders.

Dynamic security: regular and consistent interaction with offenders and timely analysis of information and sharing through observations and communication (e.g. rapport building, training, networking, intelligence gathering and strategic analysis). Dynamic security is the action that contributes to the development of professional, positive relationships between staff and inmates, and is a key tool to assess an inmate's adjustment and stability.

Escape: any act or attempted act to breach (break) prison, escape from lawful custody, or without lawful excuse be at large before the expiration of a term of imprisonment to which that person has been sentenced.

Grievous bodily harm: any injury having the potential to endanger life, or which results in permanent physical impairment, significant disfigurement or protracted loss of normal functioning. It includes, but is not limited to, major bone fractures, the severing of limbs or extremities, and wounds involving damage to internal organs.

Medical emergency: an injury or condition that poses an immediate threat to a person's health or life which requires medical intervention.

Other intermediary weapons: includes impact munitions, high pressure water, and any other equipment that may be approved for use in the Security Equipment Manual.

Physically uncooperative: there are two main categories of the component physically uncooperative:

  1. passive resistant: the inmate uses little or no physical action when refusing to cooperate with staff’s direction/orders (this can be a verbal refusal or a physical inactivity such as the inmate letting his/her body go limp, or having a lack of understanding of the verbal orders due to his/her mental/physical state)
  2. active resistant: the inmate uses non-assaultive physical action to resist or while resisting a staff’s direction/orders (e.g., he/she may prevent or may escape control by pulling away, or walking/running away from staff).

Situation Management Model: a model/graphic representation (see Annex B) used to assist staff in determining the correct response options to be used in managing security situations.

Verbally resistive: when the inmate displays behaviours that include, but are not limited to, verbal assaults, profanity, taunts, or refusal to communicate with staff but complies with verbal orders.

Warning shot: a shot that is directed into a safe area and is not intended to harm anyone.

ANNEX B

Situation Management Model

CSC Staff and Management will prevent, respond and resolve situations using the safest and most reasonable intervention.

Situation Management Model
Situation Management Model

The Situation Management Model is based on the CAPRA (client, acquiring and analyzing, partnership, response, and assessment) problem-solving model. It consists of a series of overlapping circles that represent inmate behavior and appropriate responses used by correctional staff and management to prevent, respond and resolve situations using the safest and most reasonable intervention.

The first innermost circle represents a range of inmate behaviors: cooperative, verbally resistive, physically uncooperative, assaultive, grievous bodily harm and escape.

The surrounding circle indicates that when there is an opportunity to isolate and contain a situation, this is the best management strategy to be used.

The next circle represents possible non-physical responses to be used by staff: dynamic security, staff presence, verbal intervention, conflict resolution, negotiation and verbal orders. This is the only complete circle for staff response to demonstrate that it is always an option.

The following three circles represent possible physical responses to be used by staff. The lowest of the three includes restraint equipment, inflammatory agents, chemical agents and physical handling. The next level is intermediary options such as batons. The highest level is the use of firearms, which is a last resort. The responses are in direct correlation to the inmate's behavior and the imminent harm they may pose to others. The more dangerous the behavior, the more responses are available to staff.

The circle which surrounds the entire model indicates the need to continually reassess the situation and response options to reflect any significant change in the situation and re-evaluate the risk it presents, which can change from one moment to the next. Once the situation is resolved, staff and management must be debriefed and a report must be submitted.

For more information

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