Evaluation Report: CSC’s Grants Program

Evaluation Report

File #: 394-2-97

Evaluation Report: CSC’s Grants Program

Evaluation Division
Policy Sector
March 2016

Signatures

EVALUATION OF CSC'S GRANTS PROGRAM

Original signed by


Don Head

Commissioner

Date : March 31, 2016


Original signed by


Brigitte de Blois

Director, Evaluation Division

Date : March 29, 2016

Contributions

Authors:

Bernard Marquis, Senior Evaluation Manager

Colleen MacDonald, Evaluation Officer

Felicia Tse, Junior Evaluation Analyst


Evaluation Team:

Nicole Allegri, Senior Evaluation Manager

Colleen MacDonald, Evaluation Officer

Bernard Marquis, Senior Evaluation Manager

Bertha May, Evaluation Officer

Nicole Rosati, Student

Felicia Tse, Junior Evaluation Analyst


The evaluation team would like to recognize and thank the staff of CSC's Research Branch, CSC Health Services - Prairie Region, the Regional Psychiatric Centre and the CSC Resource Management Branch for providing information and reports.

List of Key Findings

Finding 1: There is a Continued Need for the Grants Program

There is a continued and demonstrable need for correctional research and training opportunities funded through CSC's Grants Program, specifically related to the mental health needs of offenders and the needs of Aboriginal offenders.

Finding 2: The Grants Progam is Aligned with CSC Priorities and Federal Roles and Responsibilities

CSC's Grants Program aligns with and continues to support government and CSC corporate priorities.

Finding 3: The Grants Program is Achieving Expected Outcomes

The Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies grant is achieving results and progressing towards expected outcomes.

Finding 4: The Centre Grant's Funding Mechanisms are Functioning Efficiently

The funding mechanisms for the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies grant are functioning well, and funding is being distributed as expected.

Finding 5: Not all of the Funds Available Under the Resident Grant were Expended

Differences exist between the amounts CSC expects to invest in the Resident grant and the amounts actually invested; the Resident grant is regularly under spent.

List of Key Recommendations

This report is an abridged version of the final report, it has been amended in accordance with Section 21(1)(a) of the Access to Information Act.

1.0 Introduction

1.1     Background

The Evaluation Division has undertaken an evaluation of Correctional Service of Canada's (CSC) Grants Program. CSC currently funds two grants with the University of Saskatchewan (the University) that create opportunities for training and research, and support CSC's mandate and priorities. The grants function under separate Memorandum of Agreements (MOAs) with the University. CSC has been collaborating with the University through MOAs under the Grants Program for over 25 years; in the area of psychiatry since 1990 and in the area of forensic psychology since 2000. CSC last completed an evaluation of its grants and contributions in 2011.

Previously, from 2005-06 to 2009-10, CSC managed two class contributions programs, the National Reintegration Assistance Class Contribution Program and the National Aboriginal Reintegration Assistance Class Contribution Program. The programs provided services to offenders and engaged the community in reintegration. Both programs were combined into one program, the National Reintegration Assistance Class Contribution Program (NRACCP) in 2010. NRACCP was subsequently ended as part of CSC's contribution to Canada's Economic Action Plan where a series of measures were undertaken to reduce financial expenditures.

This evaluation addresses issues of relevance and performance (effectiveness, efficiency, and economy) and was calibrated based on the low risk and materiality in accordance with TBS's Policy on Evaluation. Footnote 1 The results will provide senior management with the necessary information to inform strategic policy and investment decisions regarding CSC's Grants Program. Grants are unconditional transfer payments; recipients are not required to report on them, although eligibility and entitlement may be verified.

Historically, CSC evaluates its grants and contributions programs together; presently, there are no contribution agreements that meet the requirements to be evaluated. Under s. 42.1 of the Financial Administration Act and s. 6.1.8 and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat's (TBS) Policy on Evaluation, contribution agreements that are not ongoing and or of less than five years in length are not required to be evaluated. CSC currently manages one contribution program, the National Infrastructure Contribution Agreement (June 2013 to March 2016) that is less than five years in length and subsequently exempt from evaluation.Footnote 2

1.2      Policy and Legislation

The Evaluation Division must complete an evaluation of all CSC grant agreement expenditures every five years, as required by the Financial Administration Act (s. 42.1(1)) and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat's (TBS) Policy on Evaluation (s. 6.1.8). Footnote 3

1.3      Program Description

The grants being evaluated are the grant for the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies for ongoing training  and research (2014-2019; value of $600, 000); and, the grant for the College of Medicine for a Psychiatric Resident Seat for a post graduate medical trainee (2011-2016; value of $586,904).

Combined the grants represent approximately 0.01% of CSC's total Department Performance Report spending for 2014-15. This calculation was based on $221,682 of Grants Program expenditures in 2014-2015.Footnote 1, Footnote iv

The Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies grant (the Centre grant)

  • The objective of the grant is to support the continued development of the Centre in its goal to provide "research and training related to strategies for crime prevention, health and mental health needs of offenders, addictions, Aboriginal populations and the justice system, and evidence based practice in youth and adult corrections." Footnote v
  • The current grant, as established in an MOA between CSC and the University, is in effect from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2019.Footnote vi
  • The objectives of the grant have remained the same, although the grant has had three different titles as the work evolved from the initial grant for a Chair in Forensic Psychology (2000-2008), to a grant to establish a Prairie Centre for Enhanced Research and Training in Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies (2009-2014), to the current grant to support the work of the Centre (2014-2019).
  • The Centre was formally recognised by the University in 2011.
  • The Research Branch within CSC's Policy Sector is responsible for this grant.
  • CSC provides a total of $600,000 ($120,000 per year) for operations of the Centre through the grant.Footnote vii
  • The Centre uses the grant to develop a research and training capacity through scholarships and fellowships for graduate students and post-graduate trainees; faculty research grants; administrative/research support; and, supporting and encouraging academic and public dialogue through conferences and symposiums.Footnote viii
  • The grant provides CSC with "forensic, mental health and corrections based research that address practical questions of direct importance to correctional agencies." It also provides CSC with a "readily available, highly trained and specialized resource with which [it] may consult" in regards to its operations.Footnote ix
  • CSC is responsible for providing the Centre access to the Regional Psychiatric Centre (RPC)Footnote 2 and other CSC institutions as required.Footnote x
  • In addition to CSC (including the RPC), the Centre has two other key partners: the Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice and the RCMP, F Division (Saskatchewan).Footnote xi
  • The Centre's Executive Committee is responsible for developing and implementing strategies, engaging students and faculty, approving internal program processes, and overseeing the Centre's budget and finances.Footnote xii
  • The Executive Committee consists of the Director and one representative from each of the four core colleges: College of Nursing, College of Law, College of Medicine, and College of Arts and Science. Each member is elected from and by the Centre's faculty.Footnote xiii
  • The Centre has an Advisory Board, which "provides input and advice on a range of issues fundamental to the long-term viability of the Centre."Footnote xiv

The post graduate Psychiatric Resident Seat grant (the Resident grant)

  • The current grant, as established by an MOA between CSC RPC and the University of Saskatchewan, is in effect from July 1, 2011 to March 31, 2016.Footnote xv
  • The Resident grant is managed by CSC Health Services, Prairie Region/RPC.
  • The Resident grant pays for one individual per year to be "taught as a postgraduate medical trainee in the clinical services of the affiliated teaching hospitals and/or postgraduate programs." Footnote xvi
  • Under the current MOA, the grant has a value of $586,904. Funds are distributed per fiscal year, with the maximum payable amounts as follows: $116,904 in 2012-13; $150,000 in 2013-14; $160,000 in 2014-15; and $160,000 in 2015-16.Footnote xvii
  • While the RPC is an affiliated institution; there is no requirement for the resident to participate in clinical studies at the RPC.
  • The Resident grant contributes to the training, recruitment and retention of Psychiatrists in the Prairie Region; it is intended to provide incentive for graduates to work in the field of forensic psychiatry.

2.0 Evaluation Method

2.1 Evaluation Method

The evaluation focused on qualitative data research methods. Lines of evidence included document reviews of CSC corporate reports and University of Saskatchewan annual reports and an environmental scan of other grant programs in Canada.

2.2 Limitations

A number of factors limited the data collection for the evaluation. Firstly, data collection efforts were commensurate with the low materiality and risk of the Grants Program. Secondly, there is no formal requirement for grant recipients to report on progress; therefore, available data from the University was limited to Centre annual reports and discussions with CSC liaisons. Subsequently, not all types of information presented in the report were consistently available for all years included in the review. Lastly, given the structure of the Resident Grant, in that there was one recipient, it was not possible to collect performance data while also maintaining the privacy of the recipient; information available with respect to the Resident Grant was primarily contained in the MOA.

3.0 Key Findings

The key findings of the Evaluation of CSC's Grants Program are presented under the following two components:

  • Component 1: Relevance
  • Component 2: Performance

Component 1: Relevance

3.1 Continues Need for the Grants Program

Finding 1 : There is a Continued Need for the Grants Program There is a continued and demonstrable need for correctional research and training opportunities funded through CSC's Grants Program, specifically related to the mental health needs of offenders and the needs of Aboriginal offenders.

Evidence

  • CSC contributes funding to the Grants Program, which continues to provide faculty and students at the University with opportunities for research, training and public engagement.
  • CSC benefits from projects funded by the Grants Program, notably in relation to mental health research. From 2009-10 to 2014-15, seventeen research projects were funded through the Centre in the area of mental health (see Figure 1 and Appendix B). A recent finding from CSC's ongoing evaluation of CSC's Health Services found that "mental disorders are among the most frequent chronic conditions affecting federal offenders. According to the treatment-based definition utilized by CSC Health Services,Footnote 3 28% of incarcerated offenders have mental health needs. This includes 57% of women offenders (26% of men offenders), and 32% of Aboriginal offenders (26% of non-Aboriginal offenders)." Footnote xviii, Footnote 4
  • As part of CSC's Mental Health Strategy, CSC provides training and education for staff; conducts screening, assessment, monitoring and treatment for inmates at risk for self-injurious behaviour (SIB); and participates in National Boards of Investigation into SIBs. In 2014-15, the Centre continued its work in the area of self-harm in women offenders through an examination of institutional factors that may play a role and evidence-based treatment and approaches for reducing self-harm behaviour in forensic populations.
  • This work contributes to CSC's ongoing efforts to address issues related to preventing and reducing self-injury through evidence-based interventions. A recent research study examining incidents of SIB found that men's SIBs resulted in more serious bodily harm than women's SIBs, whereas women engaged in SIB more frequently. The difference in bodily harm may be related to the different types of SIB committed by men and women offenders.Footnote xix
  • The Centre funded fifteen activities related to the needs of Aboriginal offenders (see Appendix B). Aboriginal offenders are overly represented in CSC offender populations. While the Aboriginal population represents 4.3% of the total Canadian population, Aboriginal offenders represent 21% of the CSC's incarcerated population.Footnote xx The proportion of women Aboriginal offenders has increased by 90% over the last ten years; in the same period, the increase in Aboriginal men offenders was 44%.Footnote xxi Aboriginal offenders in the Prairie Region accounted for half of all Aboriginal offenders in CSC institutions in 2013-14.Footnote xxii
  • Direct benefit was demonstrated to CSC in terms of enhancement of interventions for Aboriginal offenders. For example in 2014-15:
  • A faculty research project examined evidence-based treatment of sexual offenders. To improve future delivery for offenders based on this information, CSC updated its Tupiq Program, a sex offender program for Inuit men who are at moderate or high risk of sexual reoffending. The program aims to help participants understand the impact of sexual violence on victims, and to develop skills to prevent reoffending.Footnote xxiii
  • A process review was undertaken of the Buffalo Sage Wellness House, a Section 81 Healing Lodge for federally sentenced women offenders, which will include suggestions for CSC's management and treatment of women offenders. It also identifies areas for improving the relationship between CSC and Buffalo Sage Wellness House.Footnote xxiv
  • In 2014 and 2015,Footnote 5 the committee received the following number of applications:Footnote xxv
  • In 2014, there were six applicants for the Post-Doctoral Fellowship; one was granted.
  • From 2014 to 2015, there were seven applicants for Faculty Research Grants; six were awarded.
  • In 2015, there were four applicants for Research Awards; three were awarded.
  • In 2015, there were four applicants for Scholarships; two were awarded.

Examination of CSC Grant activities with other grants in Canada

  • The Evaluation Division conducted an environmental scan of Canadian university grants for similar research activities. The majority of grants included federal government funding. The scan showed that Canadian universities have several research centres and institutions that conduct research on a wide variety of topics. The scan was limited to online searching of Canadian universities' websites. The scan examined eight universities and affiliated research institutes.
  • The scan showed that while other groups were working in the area of mental health and on issues of importance to Aboriginal populations, CSC's Grant program was not duplicating the work of other groups. Further, the scan provided examples of complimentary research projects on issues important to CSC; and provided potential future collaboration opportunities. Relevant results included:
    • York University hosted public engagement activities similar to those organized by the Centre. Like the Centre, multiple funders supported the activities, although they collaborated with other universities. For example, York organized a "Guns, Crime and Social Order" workshop that was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), the Law Foundation of Ontario, and Ryerson University.Footnote xxvi This demonstrates the Centre's continued relevance in providing forums for discussion on important areas of research.
    • The majority of the activities examined were research projects that focused on health issues, particularly public health issues, such as HIV/AIDS. For example, in 2012, Simon Fraser University conducted a research project on prescription opioid misuse, harm, and interventions.Footnote xxvii The project was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Department of Justice, and the British Columbia Ministry of Health. Ryerson University also awarded a faculty grant for a multi-year project examining HIV prevention with men who have sex with men.Footnote xxviii As the Centre supports many research activities in the area of mental health, its work is differentiated from other universities that focus on issues related to general health and public health.
    • Of the research projects examined, few were related to corrections and/or mental health in the context of the criminal justice system. However, of those that did, they appeared to complement the Centre's existing work. For example, York University supported a research project on masculinity and risk in Canadian prisons; this was funded by SSHRC.Footnote xxix In 2013, Simon Fraser University funded a research project, "Male suicide in Canada: Policy implications".Footnote xxx The apparently limited research in corrections and mental health within the correctional environment indicates a clear need for the Centre to continue its extensive work in criminal justice-related research.
    • While some of the research projects examined issues of relevance to Aboriginal populations, they primarily focused on health issues within this population. For example, Dalhousie University supported a research project on a poverty reduction approach to improving the health and well-being of First Nation communities.Footnote xxxi In 2012, Lakehead University conducted a research project, "Translating indigenous knowledge into palliative care policy and practice: Creating a dialogue between four First Nations communities, health care decision-makers and researchers." Footnote xxxii Both projects, which were funded by CIHR, complement and demonstrate the continued relevance of the Centre's research in health-related issues and at-risk populations.
  • The Grants program funds research that complements the work being done by other universities - this represents an opportunity for collaboration. For example:
    • The Centre funded a project examining housing and homelessness of federal offenders released in Saskatchewan. York University conducted a pilot study of health and access to care of homeless and at-risk individuals. These two institutions could collaborate to conduct a study of access to health care for homeless federal offenders. The results would have important implications for CSC's pre-release process and its partnership with provincial health authorities and community service agencies.
    • The Centre organized the Mental Health and Justice Forum in 2012. The Forum presented key findings of a needs assessment of forensic mental health programs and services of offenders in Saskatchewan, and recommendations for further action. In 2013, Simon Fraser University conducted a research project, "Trends in male suicide in Canada: Policy implications".  A collaborative study could examine gaps in mental health services for male offenders, and the outcomes for those who have accessed such services. The study could also examine the impact of legislative/policy changes on the accessibility and delivery of mental health services.
  • Overall, the environmental scan suggests that while there is a great deal of research being conducted at other universities on health topics, there is limited research being conducted on issues related to criminal justice and subsequently, issues related to the needs of specific populations such as Aboriginal offenders, offenders with mental health needs or women offenders. It indicates the continued need for the Centre's extensive research in areas that are directly relevant to CSC's delivery of programs and services.

3.2 Alignment with Priorities and Federals Roles and Responsibilities

Finding 2: The Grants Program is Aligned with CSC Priorities and Federal Roles and Responsibilities CSC’s Grants Program aligns with and continues to support government and CSC corporate priorities.

Evidence

  • The Grants Program funded one training activity in the area of mental health per year (from 2012-13 to 2015-16) through the Resident grant and forty-four research and training activities through the Centre (from 2009-10 to 2014-15). Of these, 39% (n=17) related to mental health; 34% (n=15) related to Aboriginal offenders; and 11% (n=5) pertained to women offenders. See Figure 1 and Appendix B for additional information.Footnote 6
  • The Grants Program supports Public Safety's work with the Ministers of Justice and of Indigenous and Northern Affairs to address gaps in services to Indigenous Peoples and those with mental illness throughout the criminal justice system.Footnote xxxiii For example, the Centre held the 14th Biennial Violence and Aggression Symposium that focused on topics related to corrections, criminal justice, mental health, and Aboriginal justice, and funded a research project, "Needs Assessment and Environmental Scan of the Forensic Mental Health Services and Programming for Offenders in Saskatchewan." Footnote xxxiv
  • The Grants Program supports the Government's ongoing work to keep all Canadians safe, including the areas of domestic violence and sexual assault.Footnote xxxv The Centre funded a research assistantship on the effectiveness of domestic violence programs as they pertain to Aboriginal and in particular Métis offenders, and a scholarship for a project that analyzed Aboriginal women's violence against intimate partners.Footnote xxxvi The Centre also supports research on sex offender risk assessment (e.g., "An examination of the long-term predictive accuracy and evaluation of therapeutic change by the VRS-SO and Stable 2007 in a treated sex offender sample").Footnote xxxvii Lastly, the Centre has held three Symposiums on Violence and Aggression, which were meant to encourage academic and public dialogue.Footnote xxxviii

Figure 1: The Centre grant, Proportion of grant funded activities by priority area(2009-10 to 2014-15)

Source: The Centre's annual reports from 2009-10 to 2014-15)

Source: The Centre's annual reports from 2009-10 to 2014-15)

This pie chart indicates the proportion of grant funded activities by priority area (from 2009/2010 to 2014/2015)

  • Mental Health 39%
  • Aboriginal Offenders 34%
  • Women Offenders 11%
  • Sex Offenders 7%
  • Domestic Violence 7%

CSC's contributions through the Grants Program are aligned with five of CSC's six corporate priorities

  • CSC's contributions through the Grants Program are aligned with five of CSC's six corporate priorities, namely:Footnote xxxix
    • Safe management of eligible offenders during their transition from the institution to the community, and while on supervision. The Centre granted a research award for a study on the early release of federal Aboriginal offenders,Footnote xl and a research award for a study on the housing and homelessness of federal offenders released in Saskatchewan.Footnote xli
    • Supporting the safety and security of members of the public, victims, staff and offenders in our institutions and in the community. The Centre supported this priority as evidenced by a research award examining the correctional orientation of corrections workers in adult correctional facilities.Footnote xlii It also granted a scholarship for studies on violent offender rehabilitation and implications for case management.Footnote xliii
    • Promoting effective, culturally appropriate interventions for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit offenders. This is demonstrated by the Centre's faculty research grant for examining crime prevention among Indigenous peoples, specifically through Opaskwayak restorative justice. Footnote xliv, Footnote xlv
    • Supporting offenders' mental health needs through timely assessment, effective management and appropriate intervention, relevant staff training and rigorous oversight. The Centre granted a research assistantship for studies on criminal behaviour and mentally disordered offenders, and risk assessment in sex offenders and mentally disordered offenders. Footnote xlvi The Centre also funded a research assistantship for studies on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among mentally disordered offenders in Saskatchewan correction facilities.Footnote xlvii The Resident grant funds one individual per year in the University's postgraduate medical program in psychiatry.
    • Sustaining productive relationships with diverse partners, stakeholders, victims' groups, and others involved in public safety. Through the Grants Program, CSC has established and maintained a long-standing partnership with the University. Public engagement/awareness occurs through sponsorship of the Centre's annual conferences and symposium on corrections related topics.Footnote xlviii The Centre also provides a forum for enhanced collaboration with other criminal justice and or community service partners; for example, the Buffalo Sage Wellness House process review was a collaboration between the Centre and Native Counselling Services of Alberta.
  • Both components of the Grants Program, the Centre Grant and the Resident Grant, are aligned with CSC's priorities. The alignment of the Resident Grant is somewhat indirect however, because it is not known if the named trainee in the Resident Grant participated in training or research related to forensic psychiatry. Given the structure of the Resident Grant, in that there was one recipient, it was not possible to collect performance information while safeguarding the privacy of the recipient.

CSC's contributions through the Grants Program are aligned with six of Aboriginal Initiative Directorate's (AID) seven priorities

  • CSC's contributions through the Grants Program align with six of AID's seven priorities, for example:Footnote xlix
    • Ensuring a federal correctional system that is responsive to the needs of Aboriginal offenders and that contributes to safe and healthy communities. The Centre supported a research award for studies on the early release of federal Aboriginal offenders.Footnote l
    • Enhancing capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders. The Centre supported a research project that conducted a process review of Buffalo Sage Wellness House and also granted a research assistantship for examining factors of socialization and resilience among Indigenous offender populations in Saskatchewan. Footnote li, Footnote lii
    • Supporting culturally appropriate interventions that address the specific criminogenic needs of First Nations, Métis and Inuit men and women offenders. For example, the Centre granted a scholarship for studies on trans-generational issues and social determinants of offending among indigenous offenders with compromised mental health and/or criminogenic worldviews.Footnote liii
    • Enhancing horizontal collaboration and coordination within CSC, within the Public Safety portfolio, and with other levels of government, Aboriginal organizations and stakeholders. The Grants Program also supports Aboriginal community development while supporting Aboriginal offenders initiate and sustain their healing journeys.Footnote liv The Centre supported a research project that reviewed cultural programs and services in provincial correctional facilities in Saskatchewan.Footnote lv
    • Helping CSC address systemic barriers internally and increase its cultural competence. The Centre supported this priority through a study on risk assessment and Gladue.Footnote lvi
    • Providing programs designed particularly to address the needs of Aboriginal offenders. The Centre granted a scholarship for studies focused on mentally disordered, Aboriginal, and women offenders.Footnote lvii

CSC's contributions through the Grants Program are aligned with three of Health Services' five priorities.

  • CSC's contributions through the Grants Program are aligned with three of Health Services' five priorities, for example: Footnote lviii
    • Supporting CSC in focusing on patient safety and continuous quality improvement of health services delivery. The Centre funded a research assistantship for the study of mental illness training in Canada's criminal justice system Footnote lix. It also supported the three Biennial International Custody and Caring Conferences, each of which focused on the nurse's role in the criminal justice system.Footnote lx
    • Improving capacity to address the health needs of Aboriginal offenders, aging offenders, and offenders with mental health disorders. The Centre supported a faculty research grant for studies on palliative care in corrections,Footnote lxi and a Research Project that reviewed self-harm in women offenders.Footnote lxii
    • Supporting CSC in strengthening a sustainable healthy workforce in a healthy workplace. The Centre supported a faculty research grant for studies on the roles, responsibilities, and learning needs of Saskatchewan provincial correctional nurses.Footnote lxiii

Component 2: Performance

3.3   Achievement of Expected Outcomes

Finding 3: The Centre Grant Program is Achieving Expected Outcomes The Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies grant is achieving results and progressing towards expected outcomes.

Evidence:

CSC grants are achieving expected results.

  • Since 2009-10, through the Centre grant, CSC has helped fund eight faculty research grants; four research projects; eight research awards; eight research assistantships; eight scholarships; and, eight conferences and/ or symposiums.
  • The Centre has been engaged in various activities including building research and training capacity, supporting and developing criminal justice-related research, and supporting and encouraging academic and public dialogue.Footnote lxiv
  • Expected benefits to CSC realised through Centre Grant activities included:
    • More mental health, corrections, including Aboriginal corrections, and forensic based research (see Figure 1 above and Appendix B);
    • Greater opportunities for collaborative, multidisciplinary research; funded students and faculty are from the areas of Nursing, Psychology, Sociology, Psychiatry, Law and Education;
    • Opportunities for exposure to other criminal justice organisations through participation in conferences and or symposiums on corrections related topics;
    • A readily available, highly trained and specialized resource for research and evaluation; and,
    • Promotion of careers in corrections, the public service and forensics to undergraduate students, for example five former Centre-funded graduate students are working at the RPC.Footnote lxv
  • Results from the Centre for 2013-2014 include:
    • Evaluative and research-based contributions to correctional, policing and justice programs and services;
    • Awarded eight graduate students with scholarships and research funding;
    • Maintained a close relationship with the RPC and NHQ Research Branch; and
    • Conducted research projects that have demonstrated interdisciplinary collaboration.
  • CSC sponsored projects for 2014-2015 at the Centre included:Footnote lxvi
    • Review of Self-Harm in Women Offenders – The Centre continued to work with clinician researchers at the RPC to develop a research project and proposal to examine the issue of self-harm within RPC specifically.
    • Buffalo Sage Wellness House Process Review – The purpose of this study was to better understand Buffalo Sage's structures, programs, processes and operations.
    • Other CSC research – Several of the faculty and student research awards granted over the past year are in areas that are of relevance to CSC and other correctional agencies.  Thus, although these projects are not conducted by the Centre per se, they represent additional corrections-related research that is jointly sponsored by CSC and the Centre, and that contributes to the shared goal of supporting research that is of potential benefit to the criminal justice system and CSC, its programs and services.
  • The named trainee in the Resident grant has been enrolled in the University's post-graduate medical training program in psychiatry since the agreement was signed in 2011. The trainee will not have completed the residency requirements by the end of the funding cycle (March 31, 2016), nor are they are obligated to have done so.Footnote lxvii
  • The individual performance of the named trainee in the Resident grant is assessed through academic mechanisms specified in the MOA, such as semi-annual summative reports. CSC Health Services/RPC can gain consent and request access to these evaluative reports in accordance with The Local Authority Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, S.S. 1990-91, c. L-27.1. Due to the privacy issues associated with the named trainee's evaluative performance reports, the Evaluation Division did not request access.Footnote lxviii

3.4    Efficiency and Economy

Finding 4: The Centre grant's funding mechanisms are functioning efficiently The funding mechanisms for the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies grant are functioning well, and funding is being distributed as expected.

Evidence:

The Centre grant's funding mechanisms are functioning efficiently.

  • CSC is responsible for $600,000 in total funding to be paid at a rate of $120,000 annually in four equal quarterly installments for the Centre grant (see Appendix C for the Centre's projected budget and allocation of funds for the duration of the MOA). CSC financial records confirm $120,000 is expended to the Centre annually.Footnote lxix Results from the first year of funding of the 2014-2019 MOA showed:
    • There were four graduate student scholarships awarded, three new graduate student research projects supported and four faculty proposals being funded by the Centre in 2014-2015.Footnote lxx
      • Over $89,000 was awarded to faculty and students in 5 different departments and colleges.
    • According to the MOA for the Centre grant, $30,000 is budgeted for faculty research grants on an annual basis from 2014-15 to 2018-19, or $150,000 over the five years for which the MOA is in effect.Footnote lxxi In 2014-15, the Centre awarded $36,800 in faculty research awards.Footnote lxxii The Centre reported $25,937 in expenditures for faculty research support, the amount budgeted $27, 000/year or $135, 000 over five years.Footnote lxxiii
    • The MOA also budgeted $36,000 per year for graduate student scholarships and $112,500 per year for post-doctoral fellowships, for a total of $292,500 across the five years for which the MOA is in effect.Footnote lxxiv The Centre awarded $36,000 in scholarships for the 2014-15 academic year and $18,000 in scholarships for the 2015-16 academic year.Footnote lxxv
  • Grant funding was also found to be consistent and based on the appropriate MOA in the 2011 Evaluation of Grants and Contributions Programs Evaluation Report.
  • The Centre's evaluation report recommended that the MOA should be renewed for an additional five years at the same funding level.Footnote lxxvi

Summary of the Centre's 2014-15 Revenues and Expenditures

  • The Centre receives financial support through the renewed five-year MOA with CSC, a 10-year Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice, and a five-year MOU with the RCMP.Footnote lxxvii Under the MOA, CSC provides 38% of the Centre's revenue.
  • The following table summarizes the Centre's revenues and expenditures associated with these three agreements from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015 (Table 1).

Table 1: The Centre's 2014-2015 Revenues and Expenditures

Balance as of March 31, 2014   $283, 174
Receipts    
CSC $120,000  
Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice $150,000  
RCMP $75,000  
Total Funds Available   $628,174
     
Expenses    
Research Personnel $226,800  
Admin/Management Support $53,370  
Centre Operations – non-salary $8,448  
Graduate Student Research Support $57,661  
Faculty Research Support $25,937  
Conference/Workshop Support $3,276  
University Overhead $29,669  
Total Expenses   $405,161
     
Balance as of March 31, 2015   $223,013
Source: University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Summary of Activities funded by the Centre Grant

  • From 2009-2010 to 2014-2015, the Centre Grant funded eight faculty research grants, four research projects, eight research awards, eight research assistantships, eight scholarships, and eight conferences and training sessions.Footnote 7
  • The activities funded were consistent with the proposed areas of activities eligible for funding in the MOA.
  • Table 2 summarizes the value of funds granted for Centre activities.Footnote 8

Table 2: Summary of Research Activities Funded by the Centre Grant

  2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Total
Grant Activities
Faculty Research Grant N/A $9,893 N/A $6,221 $13,392 $17,024 $46,530
Research Project N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Research Award $13,086 N/A $11,000 $0 $9,380 $2,009 $35,475
Research Assistantship $24,000 N/A $30,000 $54,000 N/A N/A $108,000
Scholarship N/A N/A N/A N/A $42,000 $21,000 $63,000
Total $37,086 $9,893 $41,000 $60,221 $64,772 $40,033 253,005
Source: The Centre's annual reports from 2009-10 to 2014-15.

Finding 5: Not all of the funds available under the Resident Grant were expended. Differences exist between the amounts CSC expects to invest in the Resident Grant and the amounts actually invested; the Resident Grant is regularly under spent.

Financial information for the Resident Grant

  • The current MOA is effective from July 1, 2011 to March 31, 2016. On behalf of the Trainee, CSC is to provide the University with the following:
    • All salary and benefit costs;
    • University overhead (i.e. 1% of all salary and benefit costs);
    • Membership and educational licensure fees; and,
    • An annual training fee of $43,473.Footnote lxxviii
  • The grant has a value of $586,904. Funds are distributed per fiscal year, with the maximum payable amounts as follows: $116,904 in 2012-13; $150,000 in 2013-14; $160,000 in 2014-15; and $160,000 in 2015-16 (note annual amounts are adjusted by 3% for inflation).Footnote lxxvix
  • On average, the Resident Grant invests 72% of the funds projected for investment in the training of the named Resident.

Table 3: Resident Grant Projected and Actual Investment (2009-10 to 2014-15)

  Projected
Investment
Actual
Investment
Variance + / - % of Funds Utilized
Fiscal Year        
2009-10 $96,000 $88,691 -$7,309 92%
2010-11 $100,000 $25,000 -$75,000 25%
2011-12 Footnote 9 $111,565 $111,565 -- 100%
2012-13 $116,904 $85,412 -$31,492 73%
2013-14 $160,001 $122,774 -$37,227 77%
2014-15 $160,000 $101,682 -$58,318 64%
Source: CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions, provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.

Financial information for the Centre Grant and Resident Grant Combined

  • The average funds available for investment from 2009-10 to 2014-15 by the Grants Program was $246,078 per year; the average actual investment was $209,187 per year. The average variance for this time period was $-36,891. Overall, the Grants Program utilized 85% of the funds available for investment during this time. The variance is largely attributed to the underutilization of funds by the Resident Grant; refer to Table 3 and Appendix D.
  • Table 4 details the amounts CSC expected to invest in the Grants Program and the amounts actually invested.

Table 4: Grants Program Projected and Actual Investment (2009-10 to 2014-15)

  Projected
Investment
Actual
Investment
Variance + / - % of Funds Utilized
Fiscal Year        
2009-10 $218,000 $208,691 -$9,309 96%
2010-11 $222,000 $145,000 -$77,000 65%
2011-12 Footnote 10 $233,565 $231,565 -$2,000 99%
2012-13 $238,904 $205,412 -$33,492 86%
2013-14 $282,001 $242,774 -$39,227 86%
2014-15 $282,000 $221,682 -$60,318 79%
Source: CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions, provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.

4.0 Conclusion

Implications and Next Steps for CSC:

  • CSC continues to address the needs of increasing numbers of offenders with mental health needs; this need will amplify without the post graduate Psychiatric Resident Seat Grant providing training in adult psychiatry.
  • CSC could take a more direct role in the training of trainee through requirements set out in future MOAs. For example, the trainee named in the Resident Grant could participate in clinical studies at the RPC, an affiliated institution of the University; this is not a requirement under the existing MOA.
  • The post graduate Resident Grant expires on March 31, 2016. CSC Health Services intends to discontinue funding the Resident Grant and provide opportunities to trainees/students through the University in the health field through other mechanisms (e.g., an MOU). Footnote lxxx
  • One such avenue for future funding could be the newly developed Division of Forensic Psychiatry program at the University.Footnote ll
  • For reasons related to privacy, CSC is limited in its capacity to gauge the performance of the Resident Grant.
  • CSC's ability to adapt to new, innovative approaches and advancements in the areas of offender mental health, interventions for Aboriginal offenders and criminal justice in general is supported by the evidence-based research and training provided by the grant to the Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science and Justice Studies.
  • As of March 31, 2014, a new MOA with CSC was signed that provides for another $600,000 in funding over the next five year period, ending March 31, 2019.
  • CSC is required to evaluate grant agreement expenditures every five years.Footnote lxxxi, Footnote 12 Further, CSC calibrates the scope of the evaluation based on the level of risk and expenditure of the area being evaluated.
  • Given the low materiality of the existing Grants Program, it was beneficial that the Centre publishes an annual report with performance information on CSC grant funded activities. In contrast, the Resident grant had no mechanism to provide performance information to demonstrate relevance, effectiveness or cost-efficiency beyond academic mechanisms. This information may be  subject to privacy legislation. Subsequently, obtaining evaluative data about the Resident grant required efforts beyond the scope of the evaluation's methodology.
  • CSC and the University have been collaborating through the Grants Program for over twenty-five years, while grant recipients are not required to report on results, increased information sharing would benefit both organisations.

Appendices

Appendix A: Evaluation Matrix

Relevance
Key Issues Evaluation Questions Performance Indicators Performance Indicators
Issue 1: Continued need for program Is there a continued need for grants? # of recipients vs. # of applicants U of S annual reports
Issue 2: Alignment with government priorities Is there a link between grant objectives and (a) federal government priorities? (b) CSC strategic outcomes? Government priorities CSC strategic outcomes Throne speeches PMO and federal government website List of government priorities
Issue 3: Alignment with federal roles and responsibilities Are grants aligned with federal roles and responsibilities? Recipient projects and results Education Evaluation U of S annual reports
Performance
Issue 4: Achievement of expected outcomes What results are being achieved? # of recipients of grant funding # of research projects Successful hiring of doctorate candidate U of S annual reports
Issue 5: Demonstration of efficiency and economy Is CSC getting value for money? Objective of grant Implementation process Examination of other grant programs/ options CSC Financial Reports Document review

Appendix B: Summary of Centre activties by area of focus

Summary of the Centre grant – Proportion of grant funded activities by priority area (2009-10 to 2014-15) Footnote 13

  Mental health Aboriginal offenders Women offenders Sex offenders Domestic violence
CSC Grant Funded Activity          
Faculty Research Grant 3 2 0 1 0
Research Project 2 2 2 0 0
Research Award 1 2 2 1 0
Research Assistantships 4 4 0 1 1
Scholarships 3 4 2 1 1
Conferences and Symposiums 4 1 1 0 1
Total 17 15 7 4 3
Source: The Centre's annual reports from 2009-10 to 2014-15.

Appendix C: Projected Budget for the centre grant

Under the renewed MOA, effective from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2019, CSC is to provide the Centre with a total of $600,000, to be paid at a rate of $120,000 per year.Footnote lxxxii The following table summarizes the Centre's projected budget and allocation of funds for the duration of this MOA.

The Centre's Projected Budget and Allocation of Funds for the Duration of the MOA

  2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Five-Year Total
CSC-RPC Contributions
Centre Development Costs $10,000         $10,000
Graduate Student Scholarships $36,000 $36,000 $36,000 $36,000 $36,000 $180,000
Post Doctoral Fellowship $14,500 $24,500 $24,500 $24,500 $24,500 $112,500
Faculty Research Grants $30,000 $30,000 $30,000 $30,000 $30,000 $150,000
Administrative Support/Centre Operations $27,000 $27,000 $27,000 $27,000 $27,000 $135,000
Conference Sponsorship $2,500 $2,500 $2,500 $2,500 $2,500 $12,500
Total CSC-RPC Contributions $120,000 $120,000 $120,000 $120,000 $120,000 $600,000
             
Total University Contributions $24,600 $17,600 $17,600 $17,600 $17,600 $95,000
             
Total Investment $144,600 $137,600 $137,600 $137,600 $137,600 $695,000
Source: University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of agreement. Saskatoon, SK.

Appendix D: Summary of Grant Program Investment

The table below shows the amounts CSC invested in the Centre Grant, the Resident Grant and the Grants Program overall from 2010-11 to 2014-15.

  2010-11 2011-12 Footnote 14 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
  Projected Actual Projected Actual Projected Actual Projected Actual Projected Actual
Resident Grant $100,000 $25,000 $111,565 $111,565 $116,904 $85,412 $160,001 $122,774 $160,000 $101,682
Centre Grant $122,000 $120,000 $122,000 $120,000 $122,000 $120,000 $122,000 $120,000 $122,000 $120,000
Total $222,000 $145,000 $233,565 $231,565 $238,904 $205,412 $282,001 $242,774 $282,000 $221,682

Source: CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions, provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

As per the 2014-15 Departmental Performance Report, CSC expenditures were $2,575,228,312.

Return to footnote 1

Footnote 2

The RPC is a multi-level secure forensic psychiatric inpatient institution with a capacity of 204 beds. It operates as a correctional institution under the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, and as a psychiatric centre, in accordance with the Mental Health Services Act.

Return to footnote 2

Footnote 3

Mental health need is determined by having at least one mental health treatment-oriented service or stay in a treatment centre in the previous six-months.

Return to footnote 3

Footnote 4

Comparisons between the offender population and the general Canadian population on rates of mental health disorders are difficult due to the use of different definitions and samples, but evidence indicates that mental health issues are at least as prevalent, and more so for specific disorders, among the offender population.

Return to footnote 4

Footnote 5

Application information was available for the years 2014 and 2015.

Return to footnote 5

Footnote 6

The Evaluation Division had limited descriptions of the grant funded activities, priority areas were assigned based on the titles of the grant funded activities.

Return to footnote 6

Footnote 7

Financial information was not available for the conferences and training sessions.

Return to footnote 7

Footnote 8

Values of multi-year projects were calculated according to the year they began.

Return to footnote 8

Footnote 9

In 2011-12 CSC received additional funding through Supplementary Estimates for the Resident Grant (Source: CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions, provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.)

Return to footnote 9

Footnote 10

Ibid.

Return to footnote 10

Footnote 11

For more information, please see: http://medicine.usask.ca/department/clinical/psychiatry.php#Research.

Return to footnote 11

Footnote 12

As required by the Financial Administration Act (s. 42.1(1)) and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat's (TBS) Policy on Evaluation (s. 6.1.8).

Return to footnote 12

Footnote 13

The Evaluation Division had limited descriptions of the grant funded activities, these priority areas were assigned based on the titles of the grant funded activities. In addition, some activities addressed multiple areas; overall, a total of 44 activities were conducted (N=44)

Return to footnote 13

Footnote 14

In 2011-12 CSC received additional funding through Supplementary Estimates for the Resident Grant (Source: CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions, provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.)

Return to footnote 14

Footnote i

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. (2012, April 1). Policy on evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=15024&section=text.

Return to footnote i

Footnote ii

Financial Administrations Act, R.S.C., 1985 c. F-11.; Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. (2012, April 1). Policy on evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=15024&section=text ; F. Lacroix, personal communication, April 21, 2015.

Return to footnote ii

Footnote iii

Financial Administrations Act, R.S.C., 1985 c. F-11.; Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. (2012, April 1). Policy on evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=15024&section=text.

Return to footnote iii

Footnote iv

Correctional Service Canada. (2015). Correctional Service of Canada 2015-15: Departmental Performance Report. Ottawa: ON; CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.

Return to footnote iv

Footnote v

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of agreement. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote v

Footnote vi

Ibid.

Return to footnote vi

Footnote vii

Ibid..

Return to footnote vii

Footnote viii

Ibid.

Return to footnote viii

Footnote ix

Ibid.

Return to footnote ix

Footnote x

Ibid.

Return to footnote x

Footnote xi

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xi

Footnote xii

Ibid.

Return to footnote xii

Footnote xiii

Ibid.

Return to footnote xiii

Footnote xiv

Ibid.

Return to footnote xiv

Footnote xv

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Type A – Supernumerary postgraduate medical training agreement: Amended. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xv

Footnote xvi

Ibid.

Return to footnote xvi

Footnote xvii

Ibid.

Return to footnote xvii

Footnote xviii

Correctional Service Canada. (2014). Mental Health Branch performance measurement report: Year-end results 2013-14. Ottawa, ON; Correctional Service Canada. (2015). Health Services Evaluation: Findings in Focus for Evaluation #1. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote xviii

Footnote xix

Power, J., Gordon, A., Sapers, J., & Beaudette, J. (2012). A replication study of self-injury incidents in CSC institutions over a thirty-month period (R-293). Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.

Return to footnote xix

Footnote xx

Statistics Canada. (2013). Aboriginal peoples in Canada: First Nations people, Métis and Inuit. Ottawa, ON.; Public Safety Canada. (2015). 2014 Corrections and conditional release statistical overview. Retrieved from http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2014-ccrs/index-en.aspx#c11.

Return to footnote xx

Footnote xxi

Public Safety Canada. (2015). 2014 Corrections and conditional release statistical overview. Retrieved from http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/2014-ccrs/index-en.aspx#c11.

Return to footnote xxi

Footnote xxii

Ibid..

Return to footnote xxii

Footnote xxiii

Correctional Service Canada. (2014, April 24). National sex offender programs. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/correctional-process/002001-2008-eng.shtml.; University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xxiii

Footnote xxiv

Pilon, A., Jewell, L., Wormith, S., and Labourcane-Benson, P. (n.d.) Buffalo Sage Wellness House (BSWH) Process Review [Sallows Fry 2015 Conference Presentation] Retrieved from http://law.usask.ca/find-people/sallows-fry-conference.php.

Return to footnote xxiv

Footnote xxv

J. Weeks, personal communication, January 5, 2016.

Return to footnote xxv

Footnote xxvi

York University. (n.d.). Guns, crime and social order: An international workshop. Retrieved from http://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/programs/conferences-workshops/2007-2008/guns-crime-social-order-international-workshop-may/.

Return to footnote xxvi

Footnote xxvii

Simon Fraser University. (n.d.). Prescription opioid misuse, harms and interventions. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/carmha/projects/po-misuse-harms-interventions.html.

Return to footnote xxvii

Footnote xxviii

Ryerson University. (2013). Annual research and achievement report 2012-2013. Toronto, ON.

Return to footnote xxviii

Footnote xxvix

York University. (n.d.). York externally funded research grants and contracts – January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011. Toronto, ON.

Return to footnote xxix

Footnote xxx

Simon Fraser University. (n.d.). Trends in male suicide in Canada: Policy implications. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/carmha/projects/trends-in-mail-suicide-canada-policy-implications.html.

Return to footnote xxx

Footnote xxxi

Dalhousie University. (n.d.). Recent funding awards. Retrieved from http://www.dal.ca/research/funding_awards.html.

Return to footnote xxxi

Footnote xxxii

Lakehead University. (2013). Annual report 2012-2013: Lakehead University Centre for Health Care Ethics. Thunder Bay, ON.

Return to footnote xxxii

Footnote xxxiii

Government of Canada. (2015). Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness mandate letter. Retrieved from http://pm.gc.ca/eng/minister-public-safety-and-emergency-preparedness-mandate-letter.

Return to footnote xxxiii

Footnote xxxiv

University of Saskatchewan. (2013). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2012-2013. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xxxiv

Footnote xxxv

Government of Canada. (2015, December 4). Making real change happen: Speech from the Throne to open the first session of the forty-second Parliament of Canada. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote xxxv

Footnote xxxvi

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xxxvi

Footnote xxxvii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.; University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2011-2012. Saskatoon, SK.; University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xxxvii

Footnote xxxviii

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011.; Saskatoon, SK.; University of Saskatchewan. (2013). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2012-2013. Saskatoon, SK.; University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xxxviii

Footnote xxxix

Correctional Service Canada. (2015). 2015-16 Report on plans and priorities. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote xxxix

Footnote xl

University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2011-2012. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xl

Footnote xli

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Center for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xli

Footnote xlii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xlii

Footnote xliii

Ibid.

Return to footnote xliii

Footnote xliv

Correctional Service Canada. (2015). 2015-16 Report on plans and priorities. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote xliv

Footnote xlv

University of Saskatchewan. (2013). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2012-2013. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xlv

Footnote xlvi

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xlvi

Footnote xlvii

University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2011-2012. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xlvii

Footnote xlviii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote xlviii

Footnote xlix

Correctional Service Canada. (n.d.). Strategic plan for Aboriginal corrections. Ottawa, ON..

Return to footnote xlix

Footnote l

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.; Correctional Service Canada. (n.d.). Strategic plan for Aboriginal corrections. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote l

Footnote li

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote li

Footnote lii

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lii

Footnote liii

University of Saskatchewan. (2013). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2012-2013. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote liii

Footnote liv

Correctional Service Canada. (n.d.). Strategic plan for Aboriginal corrections. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote liv

Footnote lv

University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2011-2012. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lv

Footnote lvi

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2013-2014. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lvi

Footnote lvii

University of Saskatchewan. (2013). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2012-2013. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lvii

Footnote lviii

Correctional Service Canada. (2014). CSC Health Services sector priorities for 2013-2015. Ottawa, ON.

Return to footnote lviii

Footnote lix

University of Saskatchewan. (2012). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2011-2012. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lix

Footnote lx

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2013-2014. Saskatoon, SK.University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2010-2011. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lx

Footnote lxi

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2013-2014. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxi

Footnote lxii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.:

Return to footnote lxii

Footnote lxiii

Ibid.

Return to footnote lxiii

Footnote lxiv

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the establishment of a Prairie Centre for enhanced research and training in forensic behavioural science and justice studies 2009-2014: Evaluation report. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxiv

Footnote lxv

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the establishment of a Prairie Centre for enhanced research and training in forensic behavioural science and justice studies 2009-2014: Evaluation report. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxv

Footnote lxvi

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxvi

Footnote lxvii

CSC. (2015). Briefing Note to Assistant Commissioner Corporate Services: Changes to the 2016/17 ARLU – Health Services Grants and Contributions. Ottawa: ON.

Return to footnote lxvii

Footnote lxviii

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Type A – Supernumerary postgraduate medical training agreement: Amended. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxviii

Footnote lxix

CSC, Public Accounts Form C Transfer Payments (2C) Final Submissions provided by E. Arsenault, personal communication, March 10, 2016.

Return to footnote lxix

Footnote lxx

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxx

Footnote lxxi

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of agreement. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxi

Footnote lxxii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxii

Footnote lxxiii

Ibid.

Return to footnote lxxiii

Footnote lxxiv

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of agreement. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxiv

Footnote lxxv

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxv

Footnote lxxvi

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the establishment of a Prairie Centre for enhanced research and training in forensic behavioural science and justice studies 2009-2014: Evaluation report. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxvi

Footnote lxxvii

University of Saskatchewan. (2015). Centre for forensic behavioural science and justice studies: Annual report 2014-2015. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxvii

Footnote lxxviii

University of Saskatchewan. (2011). Type A – Supernumerary postgraduate medical training agreement: Amended. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxviii

Footnote lxxix

Ibid.

Return to footnote lxxix

Footnote lxxx

CSC. (2015). Briefing Note to Assistant Commissioner Corporate Services: Changes to the 2016/17 ARLU – Health Services Grants and Contributions. Ottawa: ON.

Return to footnote lxxx

Footnote lxxxi

Financial Administrations Act, R.S.C., 1985 c. F-11.; Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. (2012, April 1). Policy on evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=15024&section=text.

Return to footnote lxxxi

Footnote lxxxii

University of Saskatchewan. (2014). Memorandum of agreement. Saskatoon, SK.

Return to footnote lxxxii