All female sex offenders listed in the Offender Management System (OMS) as of July 1995 were identified according to any sexual offences on any sentence. OMS sources were first used to develop an inmate profile, which, when inadequate, were supplemented by hard-copy files obtained from various jurisdictions. In some cases, even after obtaining hard-copy files, there were gaps in the available information.
Although every attempt was made to retrieve all information available, information was sparse both on OMS and hard-copy files, and little information was provided by provincial corrections for female sex offenders incarcerated under some Exchange of Services Agreements. When these prisoners are transferred to federal jurisdiction, an in-depth intake assessment will be warranted.
Files were the sole source of information collected. It was not possible, due to the scope of this study, to carry out interviews with either the offender or collateral sources.
Case studies of nineteen offenders were established. Given that the most common profiles were male coerced and male accompanied, detailed case studies of each type are presented.
Male Accompanied - Offender 1
ALL OFFENCES (FEDERAL):
Criminal Code Offence: SEXUAL EXPLOITATION- TOUCHING, 1993
Offender 1 was an offender in her 30's, sentenced to a 3 year aggregate sentence. The victim of the assault was her daughter. Although Offender 1 had a prior record for theft, this was her first federal offence. In June of 1994, she was granted full parole with conditions which prohibit contact with the victim, her co-accused and children under 16, as well as acceptance of counselling.
The incidents involved Offender 1 allowing her common-law husband (the co-accused) to have sexual intercourse with her daughter. The co-accused assaulted the victim from her early childhood until her teenage years (6 years). The first five years involved sexual touching and in the last year, included intercourse. The victim's privileges (i.e. phone) were removed if she resisted and on one occasion the victim was physically assaulted. The victim finally called the police and reported a sexual assault by her stepfather which had occurred the previous night.
Offender 1 assisted in the assaults against her daughter by forcing her to have sexual relations with the co-accused. Offender 1 struck her daughter or took things away from her if she refused.
The victim suffered both physical and psychological damage. Her victim impact statement indicates that she was often hit, punched, and covered in bruises. She suffered from nightmares/flashbacks, has indicated problems in meeting new people, and was uncomfortable being alone in a room with strangers or in a doctor's office. She also has had difficulty accepting flattery as she doubted its sincerity and wondered what people wanted in return.
Offender 1 was also a victim of molestation and sexual assault by family and non-family members. Her father sexually abused her and, until recently, her family denied the abuse.
Offender 1's offences seem to have been situationally based. Psychological testing indicated she had severe assertive and relationship deficits and, as a consequence, was a woman who did not possess the necessary skills to defend her rights. Offender 1 attempted suicide before her court appearance.
Offender 1 has undergone a considerable amount of treatment and has been very receptive to it. According to reports, she has dealt with her alcoholism through treatment. With respect to emotional/personal orientation, Offender 1 has benefited greatly from self-esteem enhancement.
Through marital/family counselling, Offender 1 has come to terms with her own past sexual victimization by various family members. In addition to this, she has identified contributing factors which led to her role as an abuser. Offender 1 is also actively trying to develop a relationship with her daughter (the victim) and has taken action to divorce the co-accused. Offender 1's daughter seems to be doing well and is interested in building a relationship with her mother.
Offender 1 was a good student who spent a lot of time studying in pursuit of her career goal as a nurse.
No incidents on file in the Offender Management System (OMS).
Male Coerced - Offender 10
ALL OFFENCES (FEDERAL):
Criminal Code Offence: INVITE SEXUAL TOUCHING, SEXUAL INTERFERENCE, 1994
Offender 10 was a first time federal offender in her early twenties, serving a two year sentence for Sexual Interference and Invite Sexual Touching. The victim of her offences was Offender 10's common-law husband's (the co-accused) ten year old niece.
The file suggests that Offender 10 was involved in an abusive relationship and, allowed herself to be convinced to participate in inappropriate sexual activity with the ten year old victim.
The offence occurred sometime during a fifteen month period. The incident involved having the victim perform sexual acts on her aggressors, and also having sexual acts performed on her.
No details were available on the victim other than the fact that Offender 10 no longer has any contact with her.
Offender 10 comes from a very dysfunctional background. Her father was severely alcoholic during his marriage with Offender 10's mother. Offender 10's father was also very verbally abusive to the family and, according to Offender 10's mother, none of his children felt loved by him.
It is believed that Offender 10 and her sister were both molested by an adolescent male baby-sitter as young children. Although there is the possibility of further sexual abuse in Offender 10's history, details on the abuse are sketchy as Offender 10 was very traumatized and has not disclosed information.
Offender 10 met her co-accused in 1989 and gave birth to her eldest son soon after. Offender 10's mother reveals that later in the relationship, it seemed that Offender 10 and the co-accused frequently fought and Offender 10 appeared to be afraid of him.
Offender 10 was described as shy and caring, although capable of "losing her temper" on occasion. She also related well to her mother and siblings.
Offender 10's criminogenic factors were identified as: personal/emotional problems related to sexual offending behaviour, poor stress management, marital/family problems, being a spousal abuse victim, and employment problems due to low academic achievement and lack of vocational skills. She has not abused either drugs or alcohol.
Offender 10 obtained a grade 7 level of education and her mother indicated that she left school due to the negative influence of her peer group. Her employment history is not very extensive.
While incarcerated, Offender 10 upgraded her academic skills and completed a parenting program. As a program for female sex offenders was not available where Offender 10 was incarcerated, she met with a psychologist to deal with her sexual offending behaviour and emotional and relationship issues. It is suggested that Offender 10 needed continued psychological support in order to deal with these issues.
Offender 10 currently receives financial aid and is considered a dependent of her mother. She resides with her mother, two sisters, her sister's daughter, and her own three children. She is currently involved in what seems to be a healthy relationship with a man.
No incidents on file in OMS.
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