Correctional Service Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Response from the Correctional Service of Canada Response to the 36th Annual Report of the Correctional Investigator

Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

INTRODUCTION

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) contributes to public safety by administering court-imposed sentences of two years or more. Federal custody involves managing institutions of various security levels and supervising offenders on different forms of conditional release, while assisting them to become law-abiding citizens. CSC also administers post-sentence supervision of offenders with Long Term Supervision Orders for up to 10 years.

On an average day during the 2008-09 fiscal year, CSC was responsible for approximately 13,000 federally incarcerated offenders and 9,000 offenders in the community. However, over the course of the year, including all admissions and releases, CSC managed 19,959 incarcerated offenders and 16,744 supervised offenders in the community. CSC manages 57 institutions including four (4) Aboriginal Healing Lodges, five (5) regional institutions for women and five (5) regional treatment/psychiatric facilities; 16 community correctional centres and; and 84 parole offices and sub-offices.

CSC continues to face significant challenges in balancing the multiple needs of offenders and delivering effective correctional services which lead to public safety results for Canadians. Offenders arrive at federal institutions with criminal histories involving violent offending, mental health problems, substance abuse problems, cognitive behavioural problems, education and employment skills deficiencies, gang and organized crime affiliations, and higher rates of health issues such as infectious disease.

CSC Transformation Agenda

CSC has been actively pursuing its transformation agenda over the last year in five (5) key areas: increasing offender accountability; eliminating drugs from penitentiaries; developing employability/employment skills of offenders; renewing the physical infrastructure of our penitentiaries; and, strengthening our community corrections capacity.

The 2008 and 2009 Budgets are allowing CSC to address some of its current and longstanding challenges; better support its current priorities; and provide CSC with an opportunity to integrate transformation initiatives in a way that will contribute to improved public safety results for Canadians.

The focus of the first year of the Transformation Agenda was on strengthening CSC’s existing operational and programming base by enhancing key correctional processes related to safety and security; building community capacity; building partnerships with service deliverers (e.g. mental health treatment); and strengthening human resource management and training. Increased funding allowed the Service to strengthen its capacity to eliminate drugs in institutions (e.g. increasing detector dog teams and security intelligence capacity) and developing enhancements to ensure more integrated and responsive correctional interventions. For example, a compressed offender intake assessment process was developed for offenders with shorter sentences, which also includes the introduction of programs at Intake Units and computerized mental health and employment assessment tools.

In the second year of the Transformation Agenda, CSC is continuing to pursue initiatives that will create additional opportunities for offenders to participate in correctional programs and initiatives that enhance public safety results. The following provides some examples of the many areas on which CSC is focusing.

Safety and Security – The focus will be on ensuring the full integration of CSC’s policies and processes supporting its efforts to integrate the drug interdiction, gang management, security intelligence, physical security initiatives and security technology strategies.

Assessment and Correctional Interventions – Development of a new integrated correctional program model that will provide for earlier and more appropriate program referral, and a continuous intake process to increase offender participation in programs.

Education - CSC will continue to enhance offender education levels and the development of work skills. Focus is being placed on literacy, as well as on the relationship between education and employability training in job readiness initiatives.

Employment (CORCAN) – CSC is developing a revitalized employment and employability strategy for offenders, with a specific focus on Aboriginal and women offenders.

Aboriginal Offenders - An Integrated Strategy for Aboriginal Corrections Accountability Framework will be implemented in all CSC regions.

Staffing - Aboriginal Recruitment Teams have been put in place at the national and regional levels to ensure that a greater number of Aboriginal candidates are referred to the CSC recruitment process. As well, CSC is placing significant emphasis on the recruitment, development and retention of visible minority staff to meet the needs of an ethno-culturally diverse offender population across the country.

Mental Health - Initiatives have been undertaken to implement key components of the Institutional and Community Mental Health Strategies, such as continued implementation of the mental health screening at intake sites (COMHISS), primary care in regular institutions, the provision of mental health training for staff, piloting of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for women offenders, and the implementation of the Community Mental Health Initiative.

Ultimately, improving public safety is the overall goal of the Correctional Service of Canada’s plans to fundamentally transform federal corrections. Through these and other initiatives, such improvements can be achieved over the coming months and years.

Strategic Review

In 2008, CSC participated in the Government-mandated “Strategic Review” (a review of its program spending) which provided an opportunity to further align its budget, programs and priorities with the new vision for federal corrections in Canada and the Government’s overall priorities. In particular, CSC is reallocating a portion of its expenditure base to activities that can accelerate the implementation of its Transformation Agenda and enhance its abilities to deliver on its key corporate priorities.

The reallocations will focus on six (6) key areas within CSC: clinical health care; offender case management; accommodation services, including institutional services; CORCAN employment and employability; intelligence and supervision services; and internal services. Some of the specific reallocations include the following:

  • CSC will implement a more cost-effective approach to offender case management by focusing psychological and specialized assessment resources on the highest-needs offenders. These measures will result in greater efficiencies, while ensuring that those offenders requiring full and comprehensive assessments continue to receive them in a timely manner;
  • CSC will be gradually adopting a service-based delivery model for institutional services – facility maintenance and engineering services. The proposed local service delivery model will allow institutional heads to focus more on core operational issues while having a more effective model for addressing physical infrastructure needs.
  • In recognition of the need to provide offenders with marketable employment skills for today’s employment reality, CSC will gradually phase out the six CORCAN farm operations. CORCAN will be looking towards developing alternative training opportunities that will provide more relevant and practical employability skills for offenders for the current job market.

In addition to these measures, CSC is making a number of reinvestments, with the objective of:

  • increasing capacity to address the program requirements of higher-needs offenders who are serving shorter sentences (less than four years);
  • creating capacity to begin program interventions during the intake assessment period;
  • increasing the capacity to deliver violence prevention interventions in both institutions and community settings;
  • delivering more programs in the community to assist offenders to maintain crime prevention skills that they have learned while incarcerated;
  • providing electronic monitoring of higher-needs offenders released under supervision;
  • expanding the number of Aboriginal specific treatment programs to meet the needs of the larger number of incarcerated Aboriginal offenders (violence prevention, substance abuse, family violence prevention); and
  • Expanding Pathways Units to support more effective delivery of the Continuum of Care for First Nations, Métis, and Inuit offenders.

Renewal of the CSC Mission

On May 27th, 2009, the Minister of Public Safety, the Honourable Peter Van Loan, officially signed the CSC Mission Statement: The Correctional Service of Canada, as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the rule of law, contributes to public safety by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to become law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control.

The Mission remains the focal point for CSC and continues to reflect a commitment that is essential as CSC moves forward with its Transformation Agenda.

Legislative Initiatives

On June 16, 2009, legislation was introduced to reform the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) — reforms that further support the strengthening of the federal correctional system. The proposed legislation includes key amendments in four (4) main areas: enhancing the sharing of information with victims; enhancing offender responsibility and accountability; strengthening the management of offenders and their reintegration; and, modernizing disciplinary actions in response to negative offender behaviour.

Relationship Building

A thread that weaves through all of our efforts is the need to build effective relationships internally, with partners, and with communities. Greater horizontal collaboration and coordination is also essential for CSC to address coherence of correctional programs and services with the design and delivery of others across federal departments.

CSC is engaged in all major government-wide initiatives, such as Public Service Renewal. It is also involved in horizontal initiatives such as Canada’s contribution in Afghanistan. CSC also continues to work with other government departments to address the challenges that contribute to the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal peoples in the criminal justice system.

CSC is working to expand or develop partnerships with other jurisdictions, non-governmental organizations and community partners in order to identify and share best practices, provide improved services to victims of crime, support mental health services and community reintegration. CSC is also working to improve the success of releasing offenders to Aboriginal communities as per section 84 of the CCRA.

Enhancing education about corrections will help citizens interact and influence CSC’s management decisions. Improved public consultations with communities will benefit Canadians by assuring them of meaningful opportunities to influence policy and management decisions. In corrections, this process of informing, involving and collaborating with individuals, communities and both governmental and non-governmental partners is essential to our ability to make communities safer.

Human Resource Renewal

CSC is undergoing an exciting period of human resource renewal to ensure that CSC has the workforce and workplace required to meet its future business needs. CSC has renewed its recruitment activities and products and is anticipating hiring some 800 new employees through external processes in 2009/10. CSC is taking measures to ensure that human resource planning is fully integrated with business and financial planning in order to maximize effectiveness. In addition CSC is renewing its Human Resource (HR) processes to better support the business through improved client service, introduction of service standards in key HR disciplines and finding opportunities to leverage technology. A review of the Learning and Development function and governance will enable CSC to invest in its employees through increased opportunities for learning and development, mentoring, and talent management. Also, CSC is looking for increased partnership opportunities with other Public Safety Agencies, bargaining agents, colleges and universities.

Conclusion

The Correctional Investigator’s Annual Report is an opportunity for CSC to reflect on the results of the past year. CSC will continue to strengthen its approaches as part of the Transformation Agenda in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex correctional environment and to further deliver on its public safety mandate.

REVIEW OF AREAS OF KEY CONCERN

MENTAL HEALTH

Recommendation #1:

The Service should bolster its recruitment and hiring of clinical mental health professionals, giving priority to existing vacancies in under-serviced institutions, and should establish permanent recruiting and training budgets for these professionals.

CSC has developed and is implementing its comprehensive Recruitment and Retention Strategy. The Strategy lays the groundwork in order for the CSC to strengthen its capacity to recruit and retain health service professionals including nurses and social workers who may work in mental health, as well as psychologists. Vacancy rates for these professionals are being tracked on a regular basis to assist the CSC in addressing vacancies in under-serviced institutions (for example, vacancy rates for psychologists and nurses are highest in the Pacific and Prairies regions). CSC has a dedicated recruiting budget and resources in National Headquarters and regions, with health professionals as a priority group. There are also dedicated resources for the training of health services professionals, e.g. a national nurse training initiative and five (5) days of training annually for psychologists.

Specific initiatives planned for 2009-2010 include targeted recruitment and partnerships with universities and colleges, and marketing CSC employment opportunities through advertising, participation in job fairs and practicum placements. Analysis of the results of the Public Service Employment Survey as well as an internal survey on values and ethics will be used to inform ongoing efforts to improve employee retention.

As a result of the Strategic Review, CSC will be working collaboratively with key stakeholders on focusing psychological assessment resources on the highest-needs offenders. It is anticipated that a re-focus of psychological risk assessments in an enhanced case management process will enable CSC to redirect psychological resources towards providing mental health interventions.

Recommendation #2:

Consistent with CSC’s approved Mental Health Strategy, the Service should immediately implement intermediate mental health care units in each region.

Intermediate Mental Health Care Units (IMHCU) are a key component of CSC’s integrated Mental Health Strategy approved in 2004. These units were not part of the funding CSC received for the strategy. CSC is now working to better define the size and makeup of the population whose needs could not be met through other elements of the strategy such as primary care and treatment centres. Work is currently underway, to define the proposed location, number, staff requirements and infrastructure needs of such units should funding become available. The target population has now been defined to include offenders with chronic psychiatric problems, personality disorders, high risk of self-injury or low cognitive functioning. Acute psychiatric offenders awaiting transfer to a treatment centre could also be housed in such a facility. However, the services offered by individual IMHC Units may vary depending on regional population needs. Proposals for funding consideration will be finalized for consideration by April 2010. While this long-range planning is underway, the feasibility of pilot proposals are also being developed for consideration in fall 2009.

Recommendation #3:

Clinical management plans to treat offenders with mental disorders should be developed and implemented on a priority basis and should be managed by interdisciplinary teams of mental health, security and case management personnel working together.

The Interdisciplinary Team (IDT) approach has been long mandated in CSC policy to closely manage those cases where risk for self-injury or suicide is deemed high. A process for the clinical management of offenders who self-injure will be issued for immediate implementation in August 2009, to build on the existing operational management process. This integrated process, including guidelines for the development of Clinical Management Plans (CMP), will be incorporated into Commissioner’s Directive 843, Prevention, Management and Response to Incidents of Self-Injury and Suicide. The IDT approach will be enhanced through this process which will provide more clarity, more rigour and better communication around how best to manage these difficult cases.

Recommendation #4:

The Service should conduct an independent review of long-term segregation cases on an expeditious basis, and submit the review process to an external validation and evaluation exercise.

CSC agrees that administrative segregation is a concern in correctional settings and, as a result, will undertake an examination of long-term segregation using a representative sampling methodology and an external review process, by April 2010.

ADDRESSING INCIDENTS OF SELF-HARM

Recommendation #5:

A national strategy for managing chronic self-harming behaviours and incidents should be developed and shared with my Office. The protocol should include clear national, regional, and institutional authorities and accountabilities to ensure ongoing management and monitoring of these cases occurs, as well as staff training requirements regarding the early recognition of self-harming behaviour.

CSC has recently undertaken a review of incidents of self-injury. Results confirm that incidents of self-injury have grown by 73% over a period of 30 months, April 2006 through September 2008. Nevertheless, although only a relatively small percentage of inmates can be categorized as chronic self-harmers, CSC takes this issue very seriously and has a number of initiatives underway to address this. Nine (9) women and 27 men over this time period engaged in 6 or more acts of self-injury.

A national working group has drafted a process for the management of inmates who self-injure. As well a review of best practices in the management of self-injury has been completed and research into common characteristics of self-injurers is well underway. These elements will be included in a comprehensive strategy that will address areas such as policy, improved processes for managing and monitoring of incidents involving self-injury, staff training, and roles and responsibility of staff and managers. The strategy will be issued in October 2009.

Recommendation #6:

Clinical management plans—which would include prevention, intervention and treatment measures—should be put in place to manage offenders who chronically self-harm.

As indicated in the response to Recommendation 3, a process for the clinical management of offenders who self-injure will be issued for immediate implementation in August 2009 to build on the existing operational management process. It will be formalized in policy following consultation on Commissioner’s Directive 843. This will define the criteria which would necessitate a formal, structured and documented review by an Interdisciplinary team led by a clinician. The determination of the need for a Clinical Management Plan (CMP) will be made during this review. It is anticipated that a CMP will be recommended for any inmate who chronically self-injures.

Recommendation #7:

As a matter of priority, an inventory of “best practices” in the treatment and prevention of self-harm should be developed and distributed widely throughout the Service.

A document highlighting good practices to take into consideration when managing an offender who self-injures is currently in the final consultation stage. It will be widely distributed to frontline staff and shared with the Federal Provincial Territorial Working Group on Mental Health (Heads of Corrections sub-committee) in August 2009.

Recommendation #8:

Specialized and dedicated units should be immediately created in each region, as required, to manage chronically self-harming offenders.

As referenced in Recommendation 2, work is currently underway, in conjunction with each region, to define the proposed location, number, staff requirements and infrastructure needs of Intermediate Mental Health Care Units (IMHCU). The target population includes offenders with high risk of self-injury. The requirement for specialized IMHC Units focussing solely on this population is currently under consideration. The number and location of this type of specialized unit must still be determined. Proposals for funding consideration will be finalized by April 2010. While this long-range planning is underway, the feasibility of pilot proposals are also being developed for consideration in fall 2009 and would include capacity to address the needs of self-harming offenders.

HEALTH SERVICES REVIEW

Recommendation #9:

The National Essential Health Services Framework should be submitted to a peer review process conducted by an external, independent and expert panel that is empowered to report annually and publicly over the next three years on the Service’s implementation of the framework.

Defining accessibility to medical services is a common practice within many Health Services jurisdictions, in order to ensure consistency of access, better understanding of care and patient safety.

The current CSC Essential Services Framework was developed with extensive consultation including international, federal, provincial and territorial organizations.

CSC will seek advice from its external Health Care Advisory Committee on the Framework. This Committee is mandated to contribute to the effective and efficient functioning of CSC health services by reviewing and recommending changes to the policies, organization and administration of the health care service within CSC. The Framework will be discussed at their next meeting with CSC in September 2009.

As well, CSC is working with Accreditation Canada (AC), a not-for-profit, independent external organization that provides national and international health care organizations with a voluntary external peer review to assess the quality of their services based on standards of excellence. The AC surveyors are experienced professionals from accredited health care facilities who assess the performance of health organizations against national standards of excellence and provide recommendations. The accreditation process is one of the most effective ways for health services organizations to regularly and consistently examine and improve the quality of their services. Although AC does not accredit specific policies, surveyors are assessing if the organization’s policies are fully implemented and in line with the information available on patient needs.

CORRECTIONAL PROGRAMS AND CASE PREPARATION

Recommendation #10:

With respect to correctional programming, I recommend that in the coming year, the Correctional Service make significant progress in addressing the following areas, consistent with the least restrictive principle and effective corrections:

a) Reduce program wait lists;

CSC is moving forward with fundamental transformations of correctional programs to ensure offenders receive the most effective programs at the appropriate time in their sentence to prepare them for reintegration into the community, as law-abiding citizens.

In the short term:

  • a new Correctional Program policy (Commissioner Directive 726) has been drafted and shared with the OCI;
  • offenders will be held more accountable for program participation as defined in their correctional plans;
  • offenders will start correctional programs earlier (at intake for offenders serving four (4) years or less), and resume program modules if transferred to other institutions thus reducing delays and drop outs;
  • new Correctional Program Referral Guidelines have been issued that will prioritize offenders serving short sentences and shorten the assessment period required for program referrals; and
  • CSC has developed a reinvestment strategy that will increase the capacity to deliver correctional programs (which will reduce priority wait listed offenders) and achieve a better balance of programs in the community.

In the longer term, as part of the Transformation Initiative:

  • CSC will be piloting a new Integrated Correctional Program Model (ICPM) in designated men’s institutions and community sites in January 2010; and
  • the ICPM will be based on the most effective aspects of CSC’s existing correctional programs and will maximize CSC’s contributions to public safety by helping to ensure that offenders get the right programs, at the right intensity level, at the right time.

The CSC looks forward to continued collaboration with the OCI to ensure that concerns regarding correctional program access and content will be addressed in the ICPM.

b) Increase use of temporary absences and work releases as means to promote and improve an offender’s likelihood of being positively prepared and recommended for parole;

CSC will be assessing this fiscal year the potential impact of proposed changes to legislation that strengthen the correctional planning process and provide opportunities for the use of electronic monitoring for temporary absences and work releases. The proposed changes may provide additional opportunities for eligible offenders to access temporary absences and work release while maintaining public safety.

c) Increase access to programs and programming opportunities in maximum security institutions;

The role of programming in maximum security is to promote institutional adjustment and to prepare the offender for transfer to lower security. CSC is moving forward with a renewed framework to the delivery of correctional programs in maximum security institutions. A major objective of this approach is the development and piloting of an Integrated Correctional Program Model (ICPM) which is designed to reduce the requirement for multiple correctional programs at maximum security sites where program delivery is restricted. The ICPM includes motivational components to encourage offenders who consistently refuse or drop-out of programs to reconsider their criminal lifestyle and also includes on-going support for the highest-risk offenders. It is believed that with the introduction of this new framework that offenders will have better opportunities to engage in their correctional plans and transfer to lower security where they can focus of furthering their progress towards their correctional plan and on reintegration efforts.

d) Increase program interventions and improved outcomes for special needs offenders, including older offenders, offenders with learning delays/disabilities and offenders with mental health problems; and

As a result of funding received, CSC has conducted extensive research and recently developed a web-based interactive training tool, called the Responsivity Portal, which will help staff identify, accommodate, and adapt to offenders of different age groups, those with learning delays/disabilities, and offenders with mental health problems. The Responsivity Portal, which is being piloted, is designed to improve our staff competencies to respond to the challenges of the changing offender profile. It allows staff to modify their approach or techniques to engage the offender in a correctional program and to improve their potential for success. In addition, CSC has received funding for mental health programs which will assist CSC in increasing interventions for a growing segment of our offender population. As well, funding was received to enhance CSC’s capacity to address the literacy and learning delays/disabilities needs of offenders.

e) Improve inmate communication and understanding of the parole review process.

CSC and the National Parole Board have formed a joint working group on waivers and postponements and are collaborating on various strategies to improve inmate understanding of the parole review process (e.g. pamphlets, videos, etc.). This material is expected to be available in Fall 2009.

Recommendation #11:

The Service should review the rationale, criteria and average waiting time for psychological assessments required for security reclassifications of offenders serving life and indeterminate sentences.

Psychological assessments prior to consideration of the reclassification of maximum security offenders serving life and indeterminate sentences are not required in policy. It is for the initial placement as per CD 705-7, Security Classification and Penitentiary Placement, paragraph 33, which states:

Psychological risk assessments will be completed during the intake assessment process for offenders serving a life sentence for first or second degree murder or convicted of terrorism offences punishable by life where consideration is being given to placement at a medium security facility. This assessment will focus on risk and institutional adjustment including risk to the public, staff or offender safety and address behavioural needs to facilitate stabilization and adaptation. Where placement is to a maximum security facility, the psychological risk assessment will be completed as soon as possible following placement.

In terms of the rationale, criteria and average waiting time for psychological assessments in general, as a result of the strategic review of CSC, we will be removing the requirement for supplementary psychological assessments at intake for low risk offenders thus allowing more time and resources for higher risk offenders. In addition, CSC has has begun to work collaboratively with key stakeholders towards a more cost-effective approach by focusing psychological and specialized assessment resources on the highest-needs offenders. This includes the need to such assessments for lower risk offenders, prior to conditional release decision making, as well as the shelf of those assessments.

ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS

Recommendation #12:

The Minister of Public Safety should immediately direct that CSC appoint a Deputy Commissioner for Aboriginal Corrections.

In CSC’s current governance structure, the Senior Deputy Commissioner (SDC) is the most senior advisor to the Commissioner on correctional matters. He has direct responsibility for the advancement of Aboriginal corrections within the Service and for providing leadership in integrating Aboriginal initiatives with the overall correctional agenda.

The SDC is supported in his function by the Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate (AID). Recently the AID has been enhanced with a more effective governance structure through the provision of additional resources. This has resulted in a greater capacity to serve and engage the frontline operations on strategic and Aboriginal issues. As such, the needs of First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders maintain a prominent position in CSC’s priority setting, planning, resource allocation, operations and decision-making process.

The Service has also established a solid framework for effective dialogue with, and support from, Aboriginal people and Aboriginal communities through the creation of a number of Aboriginal committees which meet regularly with CSC at the national and regional levels. For example, the Commissioner has established a very active National Aboriginal Advisory Committee to provide him with direct input on all aspects of Aboriginal corrections. Regional Aboriginal Advisory Committees have also been created to provide similar input and advice to CSC’s five Regional Deputy Commissioners. The Commissioner and Senior Deputy Commissioner are also supported by the National Elders’ Working Group. Issues and recommendations submitted by these advisory committees are brought to CSC’s Executive Committee to engage Committee members in discussions on the impacts and effects of CSC policy on First Nations, Metis and Inuit offenders.

The momentum generated by this governance structure for Aboriginal corrections provided the stimulus for a rigorous priority setting and planning exercise that identified significant levels of resources within CSC for reinvestment to enhance the effectiveness of interventions and programming for Aboriginal offenders. Reinvestment will focus on increased Aboriginal correctional programs and expansion of Pathways units which provide a safe and culturally appropriate environment for Aboriginal offenders who choose to follow a traditional healing path toward safe reintegration in the community.

In addition, the Service has also strengthened accountability for Aboriginal corrections with all members of the Executive Committee. In 2009-2010, CSC implemented its Strategy for Aboriginal Corrections Accountability Framework along with a Template for Results Reporting and Monitoring that will identify concrete action to be taken and specific accountabilities within CSC for addressing key issues in Aboriginal corrections over the next five years. Progress will be incremental and tracked through quarterly reports on results achieved by the regions and sector heads. The SDC will bring these reports to the Executive Committee for discussion and remedial action, as required. Detailed attention to monitoring and reporting on results will enable CSC to sustain progress in Aboriginal corrections and reinforce the fact that progress for Aboriginal corrections is the responsibility of the Executive Committee, all regions and sectors of CSC.

While CSC respects the OCI position on this recommendation, the Service continues to believe that the creation of an additional Deputy Commissioner position would add unnecessary bureaucracy and cost to the current governance structure. CSC has decided instead to invest these resources in more direct frontline operational programs and interventions designed to maximize the capacity of the field, regions and sectors to collectively address the various challenges of Aboriginal corrections.

FEDERALLY SENTENCED WOMEN

Recommendation #13:

The Deputy Commissioner for Women should have full and direct line authority—and, therefore, accountability—for all matters concerning federally sentenced women.

CSC recognizes the need for a strong and effective governance structure to ensure that women offender issues receive the required corporate attention. Extensive discussion and review has occurred on this subject and it was determined that a functional authority for the Deputy Commissioner for Women (DCW) was the most effective governance structure. The Regional Deputy Commissioners (RDCs) have full and direct line authority over the women offender institutions and direct the activities of the Assistant Deputy Commissioners, Institutional Operations (ADCIOs) who are responsible for managing operational issues. The DCW works in cooperation with the RDCs and supports the wardens of the women offender institutions through collaboration with the ADCIOs.

CSC continues to believe that a robust functional role and strong leadership by the DCW, rather than a line authority model, is the most appropriate approach. The roles and responsibilities of the DCW have been clarified and communicated to NHQ, the regions and the women’s institutions. Any change in the reporting relationship would result in additional administrative costs to support such a governance model. Such resources are needed to provide frontline service delivery to women offenders.

Recommendation #14:

The Management Protocol for Women Offenders should be immediately rescinded pending further review by an external expert in women’s corrections.

While the Management Protocol is not a Commissioner’s Directive, it has been a formalized approach to manage higher risk women and is included in the Secure Unit Operational Plan. Since its implementation in 2003, a total of seven women have been placed on the Protocol. Currently five (5) women are being managed on the Protocol, which represents about 1% of the total population of federally incarcerated women offenders. The decision to place a woman on the Management Protocol is not one that is taken lightly or without just cause.

CSC is currently reviewing its strategy for managing higher risk women with a view to moving away from the Management Protocol and developing an alternative comprehensive approach that is much more consistent with an integrated correctional plan. Consultation will occur with management, stakeholders, and experts in the area of women’s corrections in the fall of 2009.

Recommendation #15:

Clinical management plans for high-needs and high-risk women should be immediately completed and implemented, and the necessary resources and services, both internal and external, should be made available to the institutions.

Fourteen external assessments have been completed and provided to institutional heads for their review and consideration in developing the best management strategies for the identified high-needs and high-risk women. In addition, contracts are now in place with external experts to conduct in-depth assessments of inmates when deemed necessary by the Chief Psychologist and Interdisciplinary mental health team members. The determination of the need for a Clinical Management Plan (CMP) rests with the Chief Psychologist at each institution and will be developed when deemed appropriate. A CMP may not be deemed necessary for those inmates who are progressing well and functioning in general population.

GAPS IN DYNAMIC SECURITY

Recommendation #16:

I recommend that the Correctional Service refresh and reinforce the principles and practices of dynamic security in the following areas:

CSC continues to be committed to dynamic security as a key method of ensuring safety within our institutions and is an ongoing practice within our operations. Through dynamic security, CSC staff members maintain ongoing knowledge of offenders and their behaviours through daily interaction.

a) Strengthen its dynamic security training module for all new recruits so that the significance and benefits of this correctional approach is clearly understood;

CSC has enhanced the learning module on dynamic security as part of the Correctional Training Program (CTP) 2008 version. CTP 2008 has been implemented in the Ontario and Pacific regions. This training will be implemented in all other regions in 2009-2010 fiscal year. The policy is currently under revision to further re-enforce the need for strong dynamic security practices as being taught in the CTP.

b) Develop and implement a dynamic security refresher training module for all staff to be delivered as soon as practical;

CSC will develop a proposed training strategy as well as cost estimates related to the development and implementation of the proposed training. The training proposal will be submitted for approval and funding in March 2010.

c) Identify specific accountabilities for correctional managers to ensure every inmate is seen and engaged on a regular basis; and

In April 2009, Correctional Managers were given letters of expectations which identify the expectation that they shall ensure all line correctional staff practice dynamic security.

CD 560 - Dynamic Security will be revised by fall 2009 to include specific accountabilities for correctional managers and frontline staff members to ensure every inmate in a living unit or work location is seen and engaged every day. As well, there will be an existing post within each living unit with an assigned Officer in Charge responsible for ensuring dynamic security occurs on a regular basis.

Staff members will be responsible to interact directly with offenders to enhance their knowledge-base of the offenders' activities and behaviours by increasing awareness of the factors that contribute to, or may compromise the safety and security of employees, offenders and the public. They will also need to report and record information and observations of the offenders’ activities and behaviours that are critical to maintaining a safe environment as well as sharing it with security and case management staff and others, as deemed necessary in relation to the nature of the information.

d) Ensure regular rounds and counts are verified and conducted according to policy.

We strive to ensure that all of our activities are carried out as directed by law and policy. We are in the process of strengthening our national policy and training standards in relation to our inmate counts and security patrols as well as increasing our overall use of dynamic security.

In December 2008, a Security Bulletin was issued to remind all correctional officers of their responsibilities with regard to security patrols and counts and the importance of their observations of offender activities in all areas of the institution. As well, all Correctional Managers were reminded of their responsibility to provide constructive feedback to correctional officers when necessary.

In April 2009, letters of expectation were issued to all Correctional Managers to ensure that staff members are supervised consistently and that issues are brought to management’s attention in a timely fashion.

An additional stand-to inmate count was introduced on July 10, 2009 at all maximum, medium, minimum and multi-level institutions between the hours of 18:00 and 24:00. As well as an increase in security patrols at all maximum, medium and multi-level institutions (excluding women’s institutions). CSC has confirmed that all institutional policies (standing orders and post orders) are in compliance with Commissioner’s Directive 566-4 Inmate Counts and Security Patrols. Furthermore, regions are randomly analysing their inmate counts and security patrols on a quarterly basis and reporting their results to NHQ and taking corrective action when necessary.

Recommendation #17:

The Service should conduct an internal audit of maximum security institutions across the country to ensure the prison regime conforms to the “least restrictive” principle and dynamic security practices. This review should incorporate the following areas: access to yard and recreation, visits, programs, daily outdoor exercise, association and movement.

Given our transformation initiatives as well as current legislative amendments before Parliament, CSC will be examining all activities associated with the operations and routines of the maximum security institutions. Any changes will be considered after the deliberations on Bill C-43.

Recommendation #18:

The display of a firearm should continue to be considered a reportable use of force.

Displaying and charging a firearm no longer meets the definition of “use” of a firearm. However, to ensure that these incidents are reported CSC is in the process of updating the affected policies. For example, a paragraph will be added to the CD 567-4 Use of Chemical Agents and Inflammatory Sprays that will require staff to fill out an Observation Report if OC Spray is displayed. Also, a paragraph will be added to CD 567-5 Use of Firearms that will require staff to fill out an Observation Report if they display or charge a firearm.

CSC does not in any way anticipate that the display or charging of weapons will increase simply because it is no longer a reportable use of force. As before, if staff respond inappropriately to a situation, this will not be tolerated and will be handled as a performance issue.

SEGREGATION BY ANY OTHER NAME

Recommendation #19:

The Service should implement procedural safeguards and ensure legal compliance with offender rights, entitlements and access to programs for all forms of “segregation by any other name” consistent with its legal and policy requirements.

Over the past several years, population management has become crucial for maintaining the effective and efficient management of our offender population and to support our intervention efforts. This includes managing several separate institutional populations concurrently in an effort to maintaining institutional stability and ensuring that inmate safety and security is not jeopardized.

In addition enhanced and structured living units are part of a necessary continuum for many offenders who require additional structure and interventions to eventually reintegrate into general population. These units operate within our current policy and legislative framework.

When segregating an offender, the process for admitting and maintaining offenders in segregation already had procedural safeguards and does ensure legal compliance with offender rights, consistent with its legal and policy requirements.