Correctional Service Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

The Impact of Experiencing and Witnessing Family Violence during Childhood: Child and Adult Behavioural Outcomes

Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.


Achenbach, T. & Edelbrock, C. S. (1981). Behaviour problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged 4 through 16. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46 (Serial No. 188).

Appleford, B. (1989). Family Violence Review: Prevention and Treatment of Abusive Behaviour. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada.

Berger, A.M., Knutson, J.F., Mehm, J.G. & Perkins, K.A. (1988). The self-report of punitive childhood experiences of young adults and adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12, 251-262.

Bergman, L. (1992). Dating violence among high school students. Social Work, 37, 21-27.

Bowker, L.H., Arbitell, M. & McFerron, J.R. (1988). On the relationship between wife beating and child abuse. In K. Yllo & M. Bograd (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse (pp. 158-174). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Buss, A.H. & Durkee, A. (1957). An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 343-349.

Caesar, P.L. (1988). Exposure to violence in the families-of- origin among wife-abusers and maritally nonviolent men. Violence and Victims, 3, 49-63.

Caliso, J.A. & Milner, J. S. (1994). Childhood physical abuse, childhood social support, and adult child abuse potential. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 27-44.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (1994). Family Violence in Canada. Product No. 89-5410XPE.

Cappell, C. & Heiner, R.B. (1990). The intergenerational transmission of family aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 135-152.

Carlson, B.E. (1990). Adolescent observers of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 5 285-299.

Carlson, B.E. (1991). Outcomes of physical abuse and observation of marital violence among adolescents in placement. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 526-534.

Christopoulos, C., Cohn, D.A., Shaw, D.S., Joyce, S., Sullivan-Hanson, J., Kraft, S. & Emery, R.E. (1987). Children of abused women: I. Adjustment at time of shelter residence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 611-619.

Cooper, M. (1992). Current and Future Effects on Children Witnessing Parental Violence: An Overview and Annotated Bibliography Series on Interpersonal Violence Report No. 1. Vancouver:B.C. Institute on Family Violence.

Davis, L.V. & Carlson, B.E. (1987). Observation of spouse abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2(3) , 278- 291.

DeKeseredy, W. & Kelly, K. (1993). The incidence and prevalence of woman abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 18, 137-159.

Della Femina, D., Yeager, C.A. & Lewis, D.O. (1990). Child abuse: Adolescent records vs. adult recall. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14., 227-231.

Dibble, U. & Straus, M.A. (1980). Some social structure determinants of inconsistency between attitudes and behaviour: The case of family violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 71-80.

Dodge, K.A., Bates, J.E. & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678-1683.

Doumas, D., Margolin, G. & John, R. S. (1994). The intergenerational transmission of aggression across three generations. Journal of Family Violence, 9 , 157-175.

Dutton, D. G. (1987). The criminal justice response to wife assault. Law and Human Behaviour, 11, 189-206.

Dutton, D. G. & Hart, S.D. (1992a). Evidence for long-term, specific effects of childhood abuse and neglect on criminal behavior in men. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 36, 129-137.

Dutton, D. G. & Hart, S.D. (1992b). Risk markers for family violence in a federally incarcerated population. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry,15, 101-112.

Egeland, B. (1993). A history of abuse is a major risk factor for abusing the next generation. In R.J. Gelles & D.R. Loseke (Eds.) Current Controversies on Family Violence (pp. 209- 221). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Eron, L.D., Huesmann, L.R. & Zelli, A. (1991). The role of parental variables in the learning of aggression. In D.J. Pepler & K.H. Rubin (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, (pp. 169-188). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Eyberg, S.M. & Ross, A.W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 7, 113-116.

Fantuzzo, J.W. & Lindquist, C.U. (1989). The effects of observing conjugal violence on children: A review and analysis of research methodology. Journal of Family Violence, 4, 77-94.

Farrington, D.P. (1991). Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and later-life outcomes. In D.J. Pepler & K.H. Rubin (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression (pp. 5-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Forsstrom-Cohen, B. & Rosenbaum, A. (1985). The effects of parental marital violence on young adults: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Marriage and the Family 467-472.

Garmezy, N. (1981). Children under stress: Perspectives on antecedents and correlates of vulnerability and resistance to psychopathology. In A.I. Rabin, J. Aronoff, A.M. Barclay & R.A. Zucker (Eds.) Further Explorations in Personality (pp. 196- 269). New York: Wiley.

Goodman, G. S. & Rosenberg, M.S. (1987). The child witness to family violence: Clinical and legal considerations. In Daniel J. Sonkin (Ed.), Domestic Violence on Trial (pp. 97-126). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Hofford, M. (1991). Family violence: Challenging cases for probation officers. Federal Probation, 55(3), 12-17.

Hotaling, G.T. & Sugarman, D.B. (1986). An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge. Violence and Victims, 1, 101-124.

Hughes, H.M. (1986). Research with children in shelters: Implications for clinical services. Children Today, 15(2) 21-25.

Hughes, H.M. (1988). Psychological and behavioral correlates of family violence in child witnesses and victims. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58 77-90.

Hughes, H.M. & Barad, S. J. (1982). Changes in the psychological functioning of children in a battered women's shelter: A pilot study. Victimology, 7, 60-68.

Hughes, H.M. & Barad, S.J. (1983). Psychological functioning of children in a battered women's clinic. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 53, 525-531.

Hughes, H.M., Parkinson, D. & Vargo, M. (1989). Witnessing spouse abuse and experiencing physical abuse: A "Double Whammy"? Journal of Family Violence, 4, 197-209.

Hurley, D.J. & Jaffe, P. (1990). Children's observations of violence: II. Clinical implications for children's mental health professionals. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 471-476.

Jaffe, P. G., Hurley, D.J. & Wolfe, D. (1990). Children's observations of violence: I. Critical issues in child development and intervention planning. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 466-470.

Jaffe, P., Wilson, S.K. & Wolfe, D. (1988). Specific assessment and intervention strategies for children exposed to wife battering: Preliminary empirical investigations. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 7, 157-163.

Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D., Wilson, S. & Zak, L. (1985). Critical issues in the assessment of children's adjustment to witnessing family violence. Canada's Mental Health, 33, 15-19.

Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D., Wilson, S. & Zak, L. (1986). Family violence and child adjustment: A comparative analysis of girls' and boys' behavioral symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 74-77.

Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D. & Wilson, S. (1990). Children of Battered Women. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kalmuss, D. (1984). The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 11- 19.

Kandel-Englander, E. (1992). Wife battering and violence outside the family. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 462-470.

Kashani, J.H., Daniel, A.E., Dandoy, A. C. & Holcomb, W.R. (1992). Family violence: Impact on Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 181-189.

Kaufman, J. & Zigler, E. (1987). Do abused children become abusive parents? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 186-192.

Kaufman, J. & Zigler, E. (1993). The intergenerational transmission of abuse is overstated. In R.J. Gelles & D.R. Loseke (Eds.) Current Controversies on Family Violence (pp. 209-221). Newbury ParK CA: Sage.

Kazdin, A.E., Rodgers, A., Colbus, D. & Siegel, T. (1987). Children's Hostility Inventory: Measurement of aggression and hostility in psychiatric inpatient children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 320-328.

Larrance, D.T. & Twentyman, C.T. (1983). Maternal attributions and child abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 449-457.

Leighton, B. (1989). Spousal Abuse in Metropolitan Toronto: Research Report on the Response of the Criminal Justice System (Report No. 1989-02). Ottawa: Solicitor General of Canada.

Lewis, D. O., Shanok, S. S., Pincus, J.H. & Glaser, G.H. (1979). Violent juvenile delinquents. American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 18, 307-319.

Makepeace, J.M. (1981). Courtship violence among college students. Family Relations, 3O, 97-102.

Malinosky-Rummell, R. & Hansen, D.J. (1993). Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 68-79.

Marshall, L.L. & Rose, P. (1988). Family of origin violence and courtship abuse. Journal of Counselling and Development, 66, 414-418.

McCord, J. (1983). A forty year perspective on effects of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7, 265- 270.

Miller, A. (1990). Banished knowledge: Facing childhood injuries. New York: Anchor Books.

Milner, J.S., Gold, R.G., Ayoub, C.Y & Jacewitz, M.M. (1984). Predictive validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 879-884.

Milner, J.S., Robertson, K.R. & Rogers, D.L. (1990). Childhood history of abuse and adult child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence 5, 15-34.

Myers Avis, J. (1992). Where are all the family therapists: Abuse and violence within families and family therapy's response. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 18, 225-232.

O'Keeffe, N.K., Brockopp, K. & Chew, E. (1986). Teen dating violence. Social Work, 31, 465-468.

Oliver, J.E. (1993). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse: Rates, research, and clinical implications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1315-1324.

Parke, R. & Collmer, C. (1975). Child abuse: An interdisciplinary review. In E.M. Hetherington (Ed.), Review of Child Development Research, Vol. 5. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Reuterman, N.A. & Burcky, W.D. (1989). Dating violence in high school: A profile of the victims. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 26, 1-9.

Robinson, D. & Taylor, J. (1994). The Incidence of Family Violence Perpetrated by Federal Offenders: A File Review Study. Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa.

Roscoe, B. & Callahan, J.E. (1985). Adolescent's self-report of violence in families and dating relationships. Adolescence, 20, 545-553.

Rosenberg, M.S. & Rossman, B.B. (1990). The child witness to marital violence. In Robert T. Ammerman & Michel Hersen (Eds.), Treatment of Family Violence (pp. 183-210). Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rouse, L.P. (1984). Models, self-esteem, and locus of control as factors contributing to spouse abuse. Victimology, 9, 130-141.

Saunders, D.G., Lynch, A.B., Grayson, M. & Linz, D. (1987). The inventory of beliefs about wife beating: The construction and initial validation of a measure of beliefs and attitudes. Violence and Victims, 2, 39-58.

Saunders, D.G. (1994). Child custody decisions in families experiencing woman abuse. Social Work, 39, 51-59.

Sinclair, D. (1985). Understanding Wife Assault: A Training Manual for Counsellors and Advocates. Toronto: Ontario Government Bookstore.

Sroufe, L.A. & Fleeson, J. (1986). Attachment and the construction of relationships. In W.Hartup & Z. Rubin (Eds.) Relationships and Development (pp. 51-72). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Statistics Canada (1993). The Violence Against Women Survey. The Daily, November 18, 1993, Catalogue No. 11-001E. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Stein, A. & Lewis, D.O. (1992). Discovering physical abuse: Insights from a follow-up study of delinquents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 523-531.

Stith, S.M. & Farley, S.C. (1993). A predictive model of male spousal violence. Journal of Family Violence, 8, 183-201.

Straus, M.A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75-78.

Straus, M.A., Gelles, R.J. & Steinmetz, S. (1980). Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. Garden City, NY: Doubleday/Anchor.

Tolman, R.M. & Bennett, L.W. (1990). A review of quantitative research on men who batter. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 87-118.

Truscott, D. (1992). Intergenerational transmission of violent behavior in adolescent males. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 327-335.

Virginia Department of Corrections Research and Reporting Unit (1993). Report on the Incidence of Child Abuse and Child Abusers among Inmates.

Widom, C. S. (1989a). Child abuse, neglect, and violent criminal behavior. Criminology, 27, 251-271.

Widom, C. S. (1989b). Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 3-28.

Widom, C. S. (1989c). Child abuse, neglect, and adult behavior: Research design and findings on criminality, violence, and child abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 355- 367.

Widom, C. S. (1991). Childhood victimization: Risk factor for delinquency. In M.E. Colten & S. Gore (Eds.) Adolescent Stress: Causes and Consequences (pp. 201-221). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Wolfe, D.A. (1987). Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Wolfe, D.A., Zak, L. Wilson, S. & Jaffe, P., (1985). Child witnesses to violence between parents: Critical issues in behavioral and social adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 95-104.

Zaidi, L.Y., Knutson, J.F. & Mehm, J.F. (1989). Transgenerational patterns of abusive parenting: Analog and clinical tests. Aggressive Behavior, 15, 137-152.