Resource List on Research and Evaluation about Restorative Justice

Research and Evaluation Subcommittee,
Federal-Provincial-Territorial (FPT) Working Group on Restorative Justice
December 22, 2009

There is a growing body of national and international research and evaluation about restorative justice (RJ). This document lists some resources that may be of interest to community-based RJ agencies, academics, government officials, and others who are interested in the effectiveness of RJ. It focuses on studies on a wide range of topics, such as victims, offenders, communities, the effectiveness of different restorative processes, and the impact of RJ on recidivism. It also provides information about related resources on best practices and research methods.

As the amount of literature in this field is growing quickly, this document does not aim to be comprehensive. Instead, it focuses on some key documents from Canada and other countries regarding research studies and evaluations.

While this resource list focuses on research and evaluation about RJ, there is a large body of literature about RJ in general, such as Lode Walgrave's 2008 book Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship (Portland: Willan Publishing). There are also numerous books and articles on topics such as the use of RJ in crimes such as sexual assault and domestic violence, the relationship between RJ and Aboriginal justice, and other subjects. The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a list of materials available from their library on these and other matters. Their "Restorative Justice" list can be found at

http://www.jibc.ca/library/Bibliographies/Restorative Justice _-_ JIBC_ Library.pdf.

Additionally, it must be noted that there is a growing body of literature in French, such as Bonafé- Schmitt and Jaccoud.

In regards to the articles in this resource list, many of the books and papers are cross-indexed because they fall under multiple categories. The categories include:

I. Promising Practices

  • Cameron, A. (2005). Restorative Justice: A Literature Review. Vancouver, BC: The British Columbia Institute Against Family Violence.
  • Justice Canada. Values and Principles of Restorative Justice in Criminal Matters. Available online at: http://www.iirp.org/pdf/RJValues-DOJCan.pdf.
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council. (2002). United Nations Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters. Available online at: http://www.pficjr.org/programs/un/ecosocresolution
  • Training and Accreditation Policy Group. (2004). Best Practice Guidelines for Restorative Practitioners and their Case Supervisors and Line Managers, and Conclusions and Recommendations of the Training and Accreditation Policy Group. London, UK: Home Office. Available online at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/rj_bestpractice.pdf?view=Binary

II. Community and RJ

  • Bazemore, G. (1999). Engaging the Community in the Response to Youth Crime: A Restorative Justice Approach (Draft Monograph). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, United States Department of Justice. Available online at: http://www.cji.fau.edu/pdf/engaging_community_response.pdf
  • Bazemore, G., & Stinchcomb, J. (2004). A Civic Engagement Model of Reentry: Involving Community Through Service and Restorative Justice. Federal Probation 68 (2). Available online at: http://www.uscourts.gov/fedprob/September_2004/model.html
  • Clairmont, D. (2005). The Nova Scotia Restorative Justice Initiative: Final Evaluation Report. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre. Government Report.
  • Herron, B. (2004). Citizen Circles: A Road Map to Successful Community Involvement Promoting Responsible Citizenship. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction. Available online at: http://www.drc.state.oh.us/web/citizen/CitizenCircleManual.pdf

III. Criminal Justice System and RJ (includes RJ in the courts, corrections, probation, etc.)

  • Allen, B. (July 2003). Alexis Restorative Justice Model: An Evaluation. Edmonton: Barbara Allen & BIM Larsson & Associates.
  • Cario, J. (2005). Justice restorative. Principes et promesses. Paris : L'Harmattan.
  • Coates, R., Umbreit, M., & Vos, B. (2002). Systemic Change Toward Restorative Justice. Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking, University of Minnesota. Available online at: http://cehd.umn.edu/ssw/rjp/Resources/Research/Ex_Sum_Systemic_Change_Wash_Cty.pdf
  • Commission on English Prisons Today. (2008). Restorative Justice Working Group Discussion Paper. Available online at: http://www.prisoncommission.org.uk/fileadmin/howard_league/user/pdf/Commission/Howard_League_RJ_Working_Group_Discussion_Paper.pdf
  • Griffin, P. (2006). Ten Years of Balanced and Restorative Justice in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency.
  • Hornick, J., Boyes, M., Tutty, L., & White, L. (October 2005). The Domestic Violence Treatment Option Court: Whitehorse, Yukon: Final Evaluation Report. Submitted by the Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family to the National Crime Prevention Centre. Available online at: http://www.ucalgary.ca/~crilf/publications/Final_Outcome_Analysis_Report.pdf.
  • Jaccoud, M. (2003). La justice réparatrice et la médiation pénale: convergences ou divergence. Paris : Édition L'Harmattan.
  • Jaccoud, M. Innovations pénales et justice réparatrice. http://champpenal.revues.org/1269
  • Jaccoud, M. & Walgrave, L. (1999). La justice réparatrice. Criminologie, 32 (1).
  • Petrellis, T. (2007). The Restorative Justice Living Unit at Grande Cache Institution. Exploring the Application of Restorative Justice in a Correctional Environment. Report 2008 No. R-189. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada. Available online at: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r189/r189-eng.pdf
  • Public Safety Canada. (2009). Improving Restorative Justice Practices. Research Summary Vol. 14 No. 1. Available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/sum/cprs200901-eng.aspx
  • Rugge, T., Bonta, J., & Wallace-Capretta, S. (2005). Evaluation of the Collaborative Justice Project: A Restorative Justice Program for Serious Crime. (User Report 2005-02). Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.
  • Rugge, T., J. Bonta et S. Wallace-Capretta. Évaluation du Projet de justice coopérative : un programme de justice réparatrice pour les cas de crimes graves, Rapport pour spécialistes 2005-02, Ottawa, ministère de la Sécurité publique et de la Protection civile du Canada, 2005.
  • Rugge, T., & McWhinnie, A. (2005). An Assessment of the Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension (RJOPS) Project. Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. Unpublished report.
  • Sécurité publique Canada. (2009). Améliorer les pratiques de justice réparatrice. Recherche en bref Vol. 14 No. 1. Disponible sur le site web : http://www.securitepublique.gc.ca/res/cor/sum/cprs200611-fr.asp
  • Von Hirsch, A. (2003). Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing.

IV. Impacts of RJ (See also Communities and RJ; Offenders and RJ; Victims and RJ; Recidivism)

  • Bonta, J., Jesseman, R., Rugge, T., & Cormier, R. (2006). "Restorative Justice and Recidivism: Promises Made, Promises Kept?" In Sullivan. D. & Tifft. L., Eds., Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective, pp. 108-120. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Daly, K. (2004). "A Tale of Two Studies: Restorative Justice from a Victim's Perspective." In Elliot, E., & Gordon, R., Eds, Restorative Justice: Emerging Issues in Practice and Evaluation. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/50310/kdaly_part2_paper7.pdf
  • Daly, K., & Curtis-Fawley, S. (2006). "Justice for Victims of Sexual Assault: Court or Conference?" In Heimer, K., & Kruttschnitt, C., Eds, Gender and Crime: Patterns of Victimization and Offending, pp. 230-265. New York: New York State University Press.
  • Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2001). The effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research Report RR2001-6E. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rp01_1-dr01_1/p1.html
  • Latimer, J., C. Dowden et D. Muise. L'efficacité des pratiques de la justice réparatrice : méta-analyse, Ottawa, ministère de la Justice Canada, 2001.
  • Maxwell, G., Morris, A., & Hayes, H. (2006). "Conferencing and Restorative Justice." In Sullivan, D., Eds, The Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective, pp. 91-104. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Native Counselling Services of Alberta. (2001). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hollow Water's Community Holistic Circle Healing Process. Aboriginal People's Collection, Public Safety Canada.
  • Rugge, T. & Scott, T-L. (2009). Restorative Justice's Impact on Participants' Psychological and Physical Health. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada, User Report 2009-03. Available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/rep/2009-03-rjp-eng.aspx
  • Rugge, T. et T-L. Scott, Incidence de la justice réparatrice sur la santé psychologique et physique des participants. Rapport pour spécialistes 2009-03, Ottawa, ministère de la Sécurité publique du Canada, 2009.
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Views of Victims and Offenders. Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/Restorative-Justice.pdf
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2008). Does Restorative Justice Affect Reconviction? Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf
  • Sherman, L., & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute. Available online at: http://www.esmeefairbairn.org.uk/docs/RJ_full_report.pdf

V. Offenders and RJ

  • Bergseth, K., & Bouffard, J. (2007). "The Long-Term Impact of Restorative Justice Programming for Juvenile Offenders." Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 433-451.
  • Bonta, J., Jesseman, R., Rugge, T., & Cormier, R. (2006). "Restorative Justice and Recidivism: Promises Made, Promises Kept?" In Sullivan, D. & Tifft, L., Eds., Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 108-120.
  • Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., Rooney, W., & McAnoy, K. (2002). An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration. Contemporary Justice Review, 5 (4), 319-338.
  • Jacobson, J., & Gibbs, P. (2009). Making Amends: Restorative Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Prison Reform Trust. Available online at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/making_amends.pdf
  • Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research Report RR2001-6E. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rp01_1-dr01_1/p1.html
  • Latimer, J., C. Dowden et D. Muise. L'efficacité des pratiques de la justice réparatrice : méta-analyse, Ottawa, ministère de la Justice Canada, 2001.
  • Rugge, T., & Cormier, R. B. (2005). Restorative justice in cases of serious crime: An evaluation. In E. Elliott & R. M. Gordon (Eds.), New Directions in Restorative Justice: Issues, Practice, Evaluation (pp. 266-277). UK: Willan Publishing.
  • Rugge, T. & Scott, T-L. (2009). Restorative Justice's Impact on Participants' Psychological and Physical Health. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada, User Report 2009-03. Available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/rep/2009-03-rjp-eng.aspx
  • Rugge, T. et T-L. Scott, Incidence de la justice réparatrice sur la santé psychologique et physique des participants. Rapport pour spécialistes 2009-03, Ottawa, ministère de la Sécurité publique du Canada, 2009.
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2008). Does Restorative Justice Affect Reconviction? Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Views of Victims and Offenders. Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/Restorative-Justice.pdf

VI. Program Evaluations – Canada

  • Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., Rooney, W., & McAnoy, K. (2002). An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration. Contemporary Justice Review, 5 (4), 319-338.
  • Burford, G. & Pennell, J. (1995). Family Group Decision Making Project Implementation Report Summary. Memorial University of Newfoundland, School of Social Work.
  • Chatterjee, J. (1999). A Report on the Evaluation of RCMP Restorative Justice Initiative: Community Justice Forum as Seen by Participants. Research and Evaluation Branch, Community Contract and Aboriginal Policing Services Directorate, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Available online at: http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ccaps-spcca/restor-repara-chaterjee-eng.htm
  • Clairmont, D. (2005). The Nova Scotia Restorative Justice Initiative: Final Evaluation Report. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre. Government Report.
  • Native Counselling Services of Alberta. (2001). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hollow Water's Community Holistic Circle Healing Process. Aboriginal People's Collection, Public Safety Canada.
  • Petrellis, T. (2007). The Restorative Justice Living Unit at Grande Cache Institution. Exploring the Application of Restorative Justice in a Correctional Environment. Report 2008 No. R-189. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada. Available online at: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r189/r189-eng.pdf
  • Roberts, T. (1995). Evaluation of the Victim Offender Mediation Pilot Project: Final Report for the Fraser Region Community Justice Initiatives Association and Correctional Services Canada. Prepared by Tim Roberts and Focus Group Consultants for the University of Victoria Institute for Dispute Resolution.
  • Rugge, T., Bonta, J., & Wallace-Capretta, S. (2005). Evaluation of the Collaborative Justice Project: A Restorative Justice Program for Serious Crime. (User Report 2005-02). Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.
  • Rugge, T., J. Bonta et S. Wallace-Capretta. Évaluation du Projet de justice coopérative : un programme de justice réparatrice pour les cas de crimes graves, Rapport pour spécialistes 2005-02, Ottawa, ministère de la Sécurité publique et de la Protection civile du Canada, 2005.
  • Rugge, T., & McWhinnie, A. (2005). An Assessment of the Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension (RJOPS) Project. Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. Unpublished report.
  • Wilson, R., Picheca, J. & Prinzo, M. (2005). Circles of Support and Accountability: An Evaluation of the Pilot Project in South-Central Ontario. Research Report R-168. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada.
  • Wilson, R., Cortoni, F. & McWhinnie, A. (2009). Circles of Support and Accountability: A Canadian National Replication of Outcome Findings. Sex Abuse, 21, 412-430.

VII. Program Evaluations – International

  • Dissel, A. (2004). Restorative Justice Initiative Research Report on the Victim-Offender Conferencing Project: November 2002 to October 2003. Report prepared for the Victim Offender Conferencing Project, August, South Africa: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. Available online at: http://www.csvr.org.za/docs/crime/restorativejustice.pdf
  • People, J., & Trimboli, L. (2007). Evaluation of the New South Wales Community Conferencing for Young Adults Pilot Program. Sydney, NSW: New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Available online at: http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/L16.pdf/$file/L16.pdf
  • Sherman, L., & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute. Available online at: http://www.esmeefairbairn.org.uk/docs/RJ_full_report.pdf

VIII. Recidivism

  • Bergseth, K., & Bouffard, J. (2007). "The Long-Term Impact of Restorative Justice Programming for Juvenile Offenders." Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 433-451.
  • Bonta, J., Jesseman, R., Rugge, T., & Cormier, R. (2006). "Restorative Justice and Recidivism: Promises Made, Promises Kept?" In Sullivan. D., & Tifft. L.. Eds, The Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective, pp. 108-120. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Bonta, J., Wallace-Capretta, S., Rooney, W., & McAnoy, K. (2002). An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration. Contemporary Justice Review, 5 (4), 319-338.
  • Fitzgerald, J. (May 2008). Does Circle Sentencing Reduce Aboriginal Offending? Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Crime and Justice, 115. New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Available online at: http://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/CJB115.pdf/$file/CJB115.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2004). Conferencing and Re-offending in Queensland. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 37 (2), 167-191. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/50325/kdpaper20.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2003). Youth Justice Conferencing and Reoffending. Justice Quarterly 20 (4), 725-764. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/50254/kdpaper17.pdf
  • Jacobson, J., & Gibbs, P. (2009). Making Amends: Restorative Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Prison Reform Trust. Available online at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/making_amends.pdf
  • Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2001). Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research Report RR2001-6E. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rp01_1-dr01_1/p1.html
  • Latimer, J., C. Dowden et D. Muise. L'efficacité des pratiques de la justice réparatrice : méta-analyse, Ottawa, ministère de la Justice Canada, 2001.
  • Maxwell, G., & Morris, A. (2006). "Family Group Conference and Reoffending." In Morris, A., & Maxwell, G., Eds, Restorative Justice for Juveniles: Conferencing, Mediation and Circles, pp. 243-263. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • Public Safety Canada. (2006). Restorative Justice and Offender Treatment. Research Summary Vol. 11 No. 6. Available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/sum/cprs200611-eng.aspx
  • Sécurité publique Canada. (2006). Justice réparatrice et traitement des délinquants. Recherche en bref Vol. 11 No. 6. Disponible sur le site web : http://www.securitepublique.gc.ca/res/cor/sum/cprs200611-fra.aspx
  • Restorative Justice Consortium. (March 2008). The Positive Effect of Restorative Justice on Re-offending. Available online at: http://www.restorativejustice.org.uk/Resources/pdf/RJ%20and%20the%20Reduction%20of%20Reoffending_update140308.pdf
  • Rodriguez, N. (2007). Restorative Justice at Work: Examining the Impact of Restorative Justice Resolutions on Juvenile Recidivism. Crime & Delinquency 53 (3), 355-379.
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2008). Does Restorative Justice Affect Reconviction? Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf
  • Sherman, L., Strang, H., & Woods, D. (2000). "Recidivism patterns in the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE)". Centre for Restorative Justice, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University. Available online at: http://www.aic.gov.au/rjustice/rise/recidivism/
  • Triggs, S. (2005). New Zealand Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Two Year Follow-Up on Reoffending. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice. Available online at: http://www.justice.govt.nz/pubs/reports/2005/nz-court-referred-restorative-justice-pilot-2-year-follow-up/nz-court-referred-restorative-justice.pdf?search=true
  • Wilson, R., Cortoni, F., & Vermani, M. (2007). Circles of Support and Accountability: A National Replication of Outcome Findings. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada. Available online at: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r185/r185-eng.pdf

IX. Reintegration

  • Bazemore, G., & Stinchcomb, J. (2004). A Civic Engagement Model of Reentry: Involving Community Through Service and Restorative Justice. Federal Probation, 68 (2). Available online at: http://www.uscourts.gov/fedprob/September_2004/model.html
  • Herron, B. (2004). Citizen Circles: A Road Map to Successful Community Involvement Promoting Responsible Citizenship. Columbus, OH: Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction. Available online at: http://www.drc.state.oh.us/web/citizen/CitizenCircleManual.pdf
  • Rugge, T., & McWhinnie, A. (2005). An Assessment of the Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension (RJOPS) Project. Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. Unpublished report.
  • Walker, L., Sakai, T., & Brady, K. (2006). Restorative Circles: A Solution-focused Reentry Planning Process for Inmates. Federal Probation, 70 (1). Available online at: http://www.lorennwalker.com/articles/HI_restorative_circles.pdf
  • Wilson, R., Cortoni, F., & Vermani, M. (2007). Circles of Support and Accountability: A National Replication of Outcome Findings. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada. Available online at: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/reports/r185/r185-eng.pdf
  • Wilson, R., Picheca, J. & Prinzo, M. (2005). Circles of Support and Accountability: An Evaluation of the Pilot Project in South-Central Ontario. Research Report R-168. Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada.

X. Research Methods

  • Galaway, B. (2000). Evaluating Restorative Community Justice Programs. Denver, CO: Colorado Forum on Community & Restorative Justice.
  • Umbreit, M. (1991). Program Evaluation Kit: Victim Offender Mediation Programs. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Citizens Council on Crime and Justice.

XI. Research Projects – Canada (See also Program Evaluations – Canada)

  • Bonta, J., Jesseman, R., Rugge, T., & Cormier, R. (2006). "Restorative Justice and Recidivism: Promises Made, Promises Kept?" In Sullivan. D., & Tifft. L.. Eds, The Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective, pp. 108-120. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2001). Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research Report RR2001-6E. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rp01_1-dr01_1/p1.html
  • Latimer, J., C. Dowden et D. Muise. L'efficacité des pratiques de la justice réparatrice : méta-analyse, Ottawa, ministère de la Justice Canada, 2001.
  • Umbreit, M. (1995). Mediation of Criminal Conflict: An Assessment of Programs in Four Canadian Provinces. A research project for the Centre for Restorative Justice and Mediation, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota in cooperation with the John Howard Society of Manitoba.

XII. Research Projects – International

  • Bazemore, G., & Schiff, M. (2005). "Prevalence and Scope of Restorative Decision-making: Findings from a National Inventory and Survey on Restorative Conferencing for Youth". In Juvenile Justice Reform and Restorative Justice: Building Theory and Policy from Practice. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing, pp. 96-135.
  • Daly, K. (2004). "A Tale of Two Studies: Restorative Justice from a Victim's Perspective." In Elliot, E., & Gordon, R., Eds, Restorative Justice: Emerging Issues in Practice and Evaluation. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/50310/kdaly_part2_paper7.pdf
  • Fitzgerald, J. (May 2008). Does Circle Sentencing Reduce Aboriginal Offending? Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Crime and Justice, 115. New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Available online at: http://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/CJB115.pdf/$file/CJB115.pdf
  • Jacobson, J., & Gibbs, P. (2009). Making Amends: Restorative Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Prison Reform Trust. Available online at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/making_amends.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2004). Conferencing and Re-offending in Queensland. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 37(2), 167-191. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/50325/kdpaper20.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2003). Youth Justice Conferencing and Reoffending. Justice Quarterly 20 (4), 725-764. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/50254/kdpaper17.pdf
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2008). Does Restorative Justice Affect Reconviction? Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/restorative-justice-report_06-08.pdf
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Views of Victims and Offenders. Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom. Available online at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/docs/Restorative-Justice.pdf
  • Sherman, L., & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute. Available online at: http://www.esmeefairbairn.org.uk/docs/RJ_full_report.pdf
  • Sherman, L., Strang, H., & Woods, D. (2000). Recidivism Patterns in the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Centre for Restorative Justice, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University. Available online at: http://www.aic.gov.au/rjustice/rise/recidivism/
  • Triggs, S. (2005). New Zealand Court-Referred Restorative Justice Pilot: Two Year Follow-Up on Reoffending. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Justice. Available online at: http://www.justice.govt.nz/pubs/reports/2005/nz-court-referred-restorative-justice-pilot-2-year-follow-up/nz-court-referred-restorative-justice.pdf?search=true
  • Umbreit, M., Greenwood, J., Fercello, C., & Umbreit, J. (2000). National Survey of Victim-Offender Mediation Programs in the United States. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime. Available online at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/infores/restorative_justice/96520-national_survey/welcome.html

XIII. Restorative Justice in Child Welfare Cases

  • Burford, G., & Pennell, J. (1995). Family Group Decision Making Project Implementation Report Summary. Memorial University of Newfoundland, School of Social Work.

XIV. Restorative Justice in Schools

  • Bitel, M. (2004). Preliminary Findings from the Evaluation of Restorative Justice in Schools. London: Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. Available online at: http://www.yjb.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/C94081EC-0DE8-4AE8-860F-8ED6F7973214/206/rjpreliminaryfindings1.doc
  • Buckley, S. (2007). "Restorative Practices in Education: The Experiences of a Group of New Zealand Schools." In Maxwell, G., & Liu, J., Eds. Restorative Justice and Practices in New Zealand: Towards a Restorative Society, pp. 215-220. Wellington, NZ: Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington.
  • Karp, D. (2003). "Introducing Restorative Justice in the Campus Community." In Karp, D., & Allena, T. Eds, Restorative Justice on the College Campus: Promoting Student Growth and Responsibility, and Reawakening the Spirit of Campus Community: 5-15. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.
  • Kane, J., Lloyd, G., McCluskey, G., et al. (2007). Full Report of Evaluation of Restorative Practices in 3 Scottish Councils. The Scottish Government Publications. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/08/24093135/0
  • Morrison, B. (2007). "Schools and Restorative Justice." In Johnstone, G., & Van Ness, D., Eds, Handbook of Restorative Justice, 325-350. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.

XV. Restorative Models

Circles (includes sentencing circles, peacemaking circles, Circles of Support and Accountability and other models)

Community Conferences (includes family group conferences, community justice conferences, community justice forums and similar models)

  • Burford, G., & Pennell, J. (1995). Family Group Decision Making Project Implementation Report Summary. Memorial University of Newfoundland, School of Social Work.
  • Daly, K. (2004). "A Tale of Two Studies: Restorative Justice from a Victim's Perspective." In Elliot, E., & Gordon, R., Eds, Restorative Justice: Emerging Issues in Practice and Evaluation. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/50310/kdaly_part2_paper7.pdf
  • Daly, K., & Curtis-Fawley, S. (2006). "Justice for Victims of Sexual Assault: Court or Conference?" In Heimer, K., & Kruttschnitt, C., Eds. Gender and Crime: Patterns of Victimization and Offending, pp. 230-265. New York, NY: New York State University Press.
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2004). "Conferencing and Re-offending in Queensland." The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 37 (2), 167-191. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/50325/kdpaper20.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2003). "Youth Justice Conferencing and Reoffending." Justice Quarterly 20 (4), 725-764. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/50254/kdpaper17.pdf

Victim-Offender Mediation (includes victim-offender dialogues and similar models)

  • Roberts, T. (1995). Evaluation of the Victim Offender Mediation Pilot Project: Final Report for the Fraser Region Community Justice Initiatives Association and Correctional Services Canada. Prepared by Tim Roberts and Focus Group Consultants for the University of Victoria Institute for Dispute Resolution.
  • Umbreit, M. (1995). Mediation of Criminal Conflict: An Assessment of Programs in Four Canadian Provinces. A research project for the Centre for Restorative Justice and Mediation, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota in cooperation with the John Howard Society of Manitoba.
  • Umbreit, M., Greenwood, J., Fercello, C., & Umbreit, J. (2000). National Survey of Victim-Offender Mediation Programs in the United States. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime. Available online at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/infores/restorative_justice/96520-national_survey/welcome.html
  • Umbreit, M., Vos, B., Coates, R., & Armour, M. (2006). "Victims of Severe Violence in Mediated Dialogue with Offender: The Impact of the First Multi-site Study in the U.S." International Review of Victimology, 13 (1), 27-48.
  • Umbreit, M., Coates, R., Vos, B., & Brown, K. (2002). Executive Summary: Victim Offender Dialogue in Crimes of Severe Violence: A Multi-Site Study of Programs in Texas and Ohio. Centre for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, University of Minnesota. Paper prepared in collaboration with the National Organization for Victim Assistance. Available online at: http://cehd.umn.edu/ssw/rjp/Resources/Research/Exec_Sum_TX_OH_VOD_CSV.pdf
  • Vos, B., Coates, R., & Umbreit, M. (2008). "The Practice of Victim-Offender Mediation: A Look at the Evidence." In Shoham, S., Beck, O., and Kett, M., Eds, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice, pp. 691-708. Florida, USA: Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Wemmers, J., & Cyr, K. (2005). Can Mediation be Therapeutic for Crime Victims? An Evaluation of Victims' Experiences in Mediation with Young Offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 47 (3), 527-544.

XVI. Victims and RJ

For more information on this topic, please see the Annotated Bibliography: Victims and Restorative Justice, which was prepared by the Joint Subcommittee on Victim Issues of the Federal-provincial-Territorial (FPT) Working Group on Restorative Justice and the FPT Working Group on Victims of Crime.

  • Cameron, A. (2005). Restorative Justice: A Literature Review. Vancouver, BC: The British Columbia Institute Against Family Violence.
  • Daly, K. (2004). "A Tale of Two Studies: Restorative Justice from a Victim's Perspective." In Elliot, E., & Gordon, R., Eds, Restorative Justice: Emerging Issues in Practice and Evaluation. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/50310/kdaly_part2_paper7.pdf
  • Daly, K., & Curtis-Fawley, S. (2006). "Justice for Victims of Sexual Assault: Court or Conference?" In Heimer, K., & Kruttschnitt, C., Eds, Gender and Crime: Patterns of Victimization and Offending, pp. 230-265. New York: New York State University Press.
  • Jacobson, J. & Gibbs, P. (2009). Making Amends: Restorative Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Prison Reform Trust. Available online at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/making_amends.pdf
  • Latimer, J., Dowden, C., & Muise, D. (2001). Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research Report RR2001-6E. Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rp01_1-dr01_1/p1.html
  • Latimer, J., C. Dowden et D. Muise. L'efficacité des pratiques de la justice réparatrice : méta-analyse, Ottawa, ministère de la Justice Canada, 2001.
  • Rugge, T. & Scott, T-L. (2009). Restorative Justice's Impact on Participants' Psychological and Physical Health. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada, User Report 2009-03. Available online at: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/rep/2009-03-rjp-eng.aspx
  • Rugge, T. et T-L. Scott, Incidence de la justice réparatrice sur la santé psychologique et physique des participants. Rapport pour spécialistes 2009-03, Ottawa, ministère de la Sécurité publique du Canada, 2009.
  • Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., et al. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Views of Victims and Offenders. Prepared by the Centre for Criminological Research, University of Sheffield, for the Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom.
  • Sherman, L., & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute. Available online at: http://www.esmeefairbairn.org.uk/docs/RJ_full_report.pdf
  • Strang, H. (2002). Repair or Revenge: Victims and Restorative Justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Wemmers, J. (2002). Victims' Experiences With, Expectations and Perceptions of Restorative Justice: A Critical Review of the Literature. Ottawa, ON: Policy Centre for Victim Issues, Justice Canada. Available online at: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2001/rr01_9/toc-tdm.html
  • Wemmers, J., & Cyr, K. (2005). Can Mediation be Therapeutic for Crime Victims? An Evaluation of Victims' Experiences in Mediation with Young Offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 47 (3),: 527-544.

XVII. Youth

  • Abrams, L., Umbreit, M., & Gordon, A. Youthful Offenders Response to Victim Offender Conferencing in Washington County, Minnesota. Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota. Available online at: http://cehd.umn.edu/ssw/rjp/Resources/Research/Youthful_Offenders_Response_to_VOC.pdf
  • Bergseth, K., & Bouffard, J. (2007). The Long-Term Impact of Restorative Justice Programming for Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 433-451.
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2003). Youth Justice Conferencing and Reoffending. Justice Quarterly, 20 (4), 725-764. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/50254/kdpaper17.pdf
  • Hayes, H., & Daly, K. (2004). Conferencing and Re-offending in Queensland. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 37(2), 167-191. Available online at: http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/50325/kdpaper20.pdf
  • Jacobson, J., & Gibbs, P. (2009). Making Amends: Restorative Youth Justice in Northern Ireland. Prison Reform Trust. Available online at: http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/making_amends.pdf
  • People, J., & Trimboli, L. (2007). Evaluation of the New South Wales Community Conferencing for Young Adults Pilot Program. Sydney, NSW: New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Available online at: http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/L16.pdf/$file/L16.pdf
  • Wemmers, J., & Cyr, K. (2005). Can Mediation be Therapeutic for Crime Victims? An Evaluation of Victims' Experiences in Mediation with Young Offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice,47 (3), 527-544.