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Women Offender Programs and Issues

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The goal to implement concrete changes which create real choices for federally sentenced women is a challenging one.

Task Force members struggled with the difficult question of how to translate the long-term goal of social change, described briefly in the previous chapter, into immediate action recommendations. The Task Force members were convinced throughout the process that significant change is needed now. But how can immediate action possibly remain true to the fundamental changes which are so obviously needed?

The principles for change which we asserted in the previous chapter, can best be expressed through a plan which provides meaningful choices for women in the more immediate term, but which is set within a context that looks forward to long term fundamental change in the criminal justice system's response to women in conflict with the law.

It is our view that the recommended plan provides a blueprint for change in the near future, which is not inconsistent with the long term vision, but that takes a significant step along the path to fundamental change.

The Touchstone for the Recommended Plan

In our creation of the recommended plan, Task Force members used a constant touchstone, a kind of test or evaluation tool to ensure that the plan in fact helped move the long-term goal forward. Our test was expressed through the following questions.

a. Does this initiative, policy or program create choices for federally sentenced women as articulated in our driving principles for change?

b. How closely does this initiative, program or policy mirror caring responses for women in the community, including Aboriginal and other ethnic communities?

c. Does this initiative ensure that women are treated with respect and dignity? Does it empower women to take responsibility for their lives?

d. Does it "speak the truth and let the truth be heard"?130

By constantly referring to these questions, the Task Force members realized that no individual programs, or changes in the environment, could create choices built on the principles of the Task Force. It became obvious that a holistic plan was essential. A seemingly sensitive program within an environment which reduces the dignity and empowerment of women cannot be sensitive. An aesthetically beautiful environment staffed by people who do not respect the sentenced women loses its beauty.

The recommended plan proposed is designed to strengthen co-operative relationships among government and various communities. It is a plan that attempts to translate into action some of the principles embodied in the Mission of the Correctional Service of Canada. It is a plan that builds on the commitment to equality and justice and the caring that exists in the community, in service organizations, at the political level and in the correctional system.

In response to this shared commitment to equality, justice and caring, Task Force members created a holistic plan which embodies the principles of empowerment, meaningful choices, respect and dignity, supportive environment and shared responsibility. However, to ensure that it remains true to our touchstone, it is a plan which must be seen, assessed and implemented in its entirety. Isolating parts of the plan, and adopting or rejecting these parts without seeing their vital interrelationship to the whole, would destroy the integrity of the plan.

For this reason, the Task Force members ask you to consider the plan that follows as a single recommendation.



Regional Women's Facilities

There will be five Regional Women's Facilities across Canada operated by the Correctional Service of Canada.131 These facilities will be located in or near Halifax, Nova Scotia, Montreal, Quebec, central/south western Ontario, Edmonton, and the lower mainland of British Columbia. These facilities will house federally sentenced women for the portion of their sentence which must, under current law, be served in a penitentiary.

Aboriginal Healing Lodge

A Healing Lodge where Aboriginal federally sentenced women may serve all or part of their sentences, will be established in a prairie location. Potential locations must be sought out by Aboriginal communities. The location finally chosen must be acceptable to both Aboriginal communities and the Correctional Service of Canada. The connection of the Lodge to an Aboriginal community will be essential to its survival.

The development of the Lodge will draw on the expertise of Aboriginal women.

Community Release Strategy

There will be additional community release centres for women in more communities across Canada. These centres will include traditional halfway houses, Aboriginal centres, satellite units, home placements, addiction treatment centres, and multi-use women's centres.

The community release centres will offer a wide variety of programs and services to women who no longer need, or are legally required to be held in, closed custody.

Detailed Description

Regional Women's Facilities


The new style facilities will utilize all environmental factors known to promote wellness. These will include natural light, fresh air, colour, space, privacy, and access to land. The design will also incorporate small cottages, independent living areas and non-intrusive security measures.

The five Regional Women's Facilities will be built on several acres of property, each in harmony with the land on which it is placed.

Federally sentenced women will initially go to the Regional Women's Facility in the region where they were convicted and sentenced, but there will be provision for transfers to another regional facility for personal or program reasons. There will be provision however for Aboriginal federally sentenced women to choose to go directly to the Healing Lodge.

The Central Core

There will be a central core building where offices for administration, staff and prisoners' groups are located. There will be flexible program space which will be utilized for group activities of varying sizes, for recreational and social activities. Dedicated space will be available for spiritual gathering.

The Living Area

Women will live in one of several cottages on the property. The regional facilities will not all be the same size and the number of cottages will vary between facilities and over time; firstly, because the size will reflect the size of the regional population and secondly, because the effective implementation of community strategies should, over time, reduce the need and length of stay in these facilities.

The number of staff in each cottage will be determined by the needs of the women living in the cottage. For example, a cottage designated for long term prisoners who have settled into the routine of their sentence will likely need a very low level of staffing or security, whereas a cottage designated for prisoners who are unsettled or display signs of disturbance will require a much higher level of staffing and support.

Some of the cottages will be designated for special use. For example, a cottage might be reserved for a group of women actively working on the problems associated with addiction; another might be designated for women who are nearing the end of their sentence and require a very high level of independent functioning before being transferred to a community release centre; one might be for Aboriginal women who choose not to be at the Healing Lodge but who wish to live according to their Aboriginal spirituality and traditions; yet another might be for those who are especially high risk or high need and require high levels of staffing, support, counselling and other aspects of dynamic security. Each facility will designate the specific or general use of each cottage depending on the women who are there at any given time. Self-sufficiency and choice in the management by the women's daily living activities will be fostered in the cottage setting.


All staff working in a Regional Women's Facility must be sensitive to the issues that face federally sentenced women and responsive to their needs.

Comprehensive recruitment criteria will allow staff to be selected from a wide variety of backgrounds and educational traditions. Mandatory training for staff in all positions will emphasize counselling, communications and negotiation skills and will also include training focused on sexism, sexual orientation, racism, Aboriginal traditions, spirituality, as well as issues relating to power and class. Opportunities will be provided to staff to maintain contact with other regional facilities and to benefit from relevant developmental training in the larger community.

There will be staff working in the programming, administration and living areas of each facility. Their primary responsibilities will be to provide positive interaction, to be role models and to support women's efforts to develop self-esteem and self-reliance.

Staff will have a high level of responsibility for identifying problems, providing support, and developing and utilizing effective intervention techniques for women who are in crisis.

Assessment Cottage

Each woman will be encouraged at the earliest possible point in her sentence to take responsibility for her life and her criminal activity. When she is able to confront her situation objectively, she will then participate in the development of a personal plan that will provide her with the skills, strengths and insights she needs to be released to a community residence at the earliest possible date.

A staff member will be assigned to each woman as her primary Support Worker. At the same time, an individual resource person from the community will be assigned, in consultation with the woman, as her Community Worker.132 This latter individual will be recruited from the community sector. The woman will work closely with her Community Worker and her Support Worker133 to develop her personal plan which will identify her needs, and the resources available in the facility and in the community.

All assessment will be done on woman-based criteria and in a personalized way. The assessment phase will provide an opportunity for a woman to come to terms with her sentence, address urgent health and psychological needs and recover from any traumas in her life.

During the assessment phase, and throughout the woman's stay at the Regional Women's facility, the Community Worker will also work to ensure that positive ties with family and community are maintained and strengthened in preparation for release.

The woman, the Primary Support Worker and the Community Worker will work as a team to ensure that the woman is able to carry out her personal plan and adjust it as necessary. Both Workers will be responsible for seeking out and including in the process, persons with specialized expertise which may be required or requested by the woman.

The assessment period will vary in length and may take several months. When the woman has identified her needs, developed and approved a personal plan and is ready to implement her plan, she will move to another cottage or to the Healing Lodge, unless she went directly to the Healing Lodge upon sentencing.134


Each facility will be program driven. A holistic approach will be taken both in developing programs and in encouraging program participation. The Regional Advisory Council135 will ensure that programs reflect the needs and wishes of groups of women or of an individual woman. Programs will be provided largely by community groups or agencies or by the appropriate provincial authority. If a high quality program or service is available and accessible in or from the community, and, consistency and continuity of service can be assured, the facility should not be providing a duplicate service. For example, education will, wherever possible, be provided by the local Board of Education, Community College or University; health care will be provided by local doctors, dentists, healers or other health care professionals. However, certain programs, such as the provision of twenty-four hour crisis counselling, may be best delivered through the in-house Support Workers who will know each woman well and who will be available around the clock.

Although each facility will provide programs based on identified needs, it is expected that the following programs will be required on an on-going basis in all facilities:

Individual Counselling and Groups

For those women who, in their personal plans or later in their sentences, identify personal life experiences which they need to address, one to one counselling and specialty groups will be available. It is expected that incest survivor groups, family violence groups, living skills, and stress reduction and relaxation groups will be identified as necessary. One to one, confidential, personal counselling will be available both on a planned and an emergency basis.

Individual and group counselling will be provided, largely by community groups or individuals who have expertise in the identified area. The Community Worker will ensure that programs continue to be available during the community release portion of the sentence so that continuity of programming is achieved.

Health Care

A group of local health care professionals, or a women's health clinic, will be made available for the women to consult, based on their personal choice. These groups or clinics will be under contract to Correctional Service of Canada for payment but will be bound by community standards in matters of privacy, professionalism and confidentiality.

Consultation with a doctor will primarily be through the use of escorted or unescorted temporary absence passes. Only where this is not possible, would the doctor selected attend at the facility.

If a woman is unable to work or participate in her usual daily routine due to illness, she will be allowed to take a sick day and remain in her cottage to recover with no punitive consequences. If a woman requires hospitalization, this should take place in the community save in exceptional circumstances. These standards also apply to women who have sustained self-inflicted injuries or who are self-abusive. At no time will a medical condition give rise to punitive sanctions.

Mental Health Services

Both long term and crisis intervention mental health services will be provided by a multi-disciplinary team made up of psychologists, psychiatrists, alternatively trained counsellors, and healers. Members of this team will be available, under contract to Correctional Service of Canada, to provide long term therapy, individual and group counselling and treatment crisis intervention, training, and a full range of services. All mental health services provided to the women will meet community standards for confidentiality and quality of service.

The need of disturbed individuals for a stable environment and familiar surroundings will be recognized by allowing women to remain in their own cottages while receiving the necessary psychiatric care and support.

Women who are severely psychotic or certifiable will be referred to a local provincial mental health centre so that they may receive comparable service to that generally available in the community. The multi-disciplinary team referred to above, will work closely with the local mental health centre or psychiatric hospital to ensure that high standards of care are provided and that the special needs and issues pertaining to the mentally ill federally sentenced woman are understood and met by hospital staff.

Addiction Programs

There will be a variety of addiction programs offered in each facility. These programs will be varied enough to meet the needs of the varying addictions and to provide a range of approaches to therapy. In particular, there will be recognition that substance abuse is often a response to underlying and unresolved personal experiences. For Aboriginal women, a recognition that any approach must be holistic, including the teaching of Aboriginal spirituality and traditions, will be essential.

One cottage may be set aside for those women who have decided to make dealing with their addiction a priority in their personal plan. This will enable the creation of an environment conducive to working through the problems underlying addiction as well as the substance dependency itself.

Family Visiting

Every Regional Women's Facility will have a Visiting Cottage. This will be a cottage comprised of one or more self contained living areas of varying sizes. Any woman will be allowed to spend time here with visitors who are identified as valuable and positive personal friends and family. If, for example, a woman is fully employed in the vocational training, she may choose to take a week or two of her annual holiday to spend time with family and friends in the Visiting Cottage. Or, if there is some special celebration in her life, she may choose to arrange her family visiting time around an important event.

Mothers and Children

The most important aspect of this program is the opportunity for mothers and children to live together based on the rights and needs of the children, mothers and significant others in each individual case, Each Regional Facility must provide an appropriate environment to enable a child or children to live with the mother. There should be sufficient flexibility so that this live-in program could take place in either one of the residential cottages or the Visiting Cottage.

Any woman who identifies continuing responsibility for her children as an element of her personal plan will be offered a variety of child oriented programs. These will include parenting skills; parenting at a distance; communications skills; and child development.

If children must be placed in foster care as a consequence of their mother's incarceration, the Community Worker will negotiate with the appropriate child welfare agency to develop specialized foster homes close to the facility so that visits between mothers and their children can be frequent.

If family members or significant others take responsibility for primary child care during the time of incarceration, the Correctional Service of Canada will provide the necessary funding to enable them to bring the child or children to visit their mother at regular intervals and for varying lengths of time. Where there are older children who are able to travel alone, funds provided by Correctional Service of Canada will be available to allow these children to travel and spend time with their mothers on a regular basis.

Spirituality and Religion

Each regional facility will ensure that all women have the choice of spiritual expression and access to the spiritual and religious resources they require through the guaranteed presence of a spiritual motivator. The spiritual motivator will be a committed, empathetic individual who may or may not be ordained. The motivator will provide women with the choice to fulfill their spiritual needs, and will attempt to respond to the "total person" by recognizing and addressing the fact that there may be ancillary needs and issues such ad employment concerns, life skills, and general coping skills which can potentially affect an individual's spiritual health and development. The spiritual motivator will be chosen with sensitivity to the fact that the federally sentenced women traumatized through sexual abuse and physical violence by men often have trouble trusting or relating to men, and need a resource person with whom they can feel comfortable to explore their spirituality.

The spiritual motivator will focus on developing one-to-one relationships of trust with the women, and will seek out, at a woman's request, community-based spiritual or religious advisors to help that woman explore her spirituality, or practice her chosen religion.

The facilities will also include physical resources to promote spiritual expression. "Quiet Rooms" will be provided for spiritual retreat and meditation. Inter-faith and spiritually-based music and videos will be available. Materials on sexual assault, incest, wife abuse and other relevant issues can be provided, and may be addressed through support and counselling by the spiritual motivator or through referral through a community resource. In addition, chapel services and rap sessions to promote discussions involving spirituality will be provided.

All staff at the facility will be given education and awareness training both to ensure that the importance of the spiritual dimension in the development of empowerment and responsibility is fully recognized, and to maximize the potential for referrals and access to programs and services which will respond to the women's spirituality needs. Through choices which give life to spiritual growth, women will be encouraged to develop respect for each other and sensitivity to the needs and rights of others.

Aboriginal Programs

Each regional facility will provide and allow for the provision of Aboriginal programs and services. These would include unrestricted access by Elders, indoor and outdoor space for ceremonies and gatherings and dedicated space for a sweat lodge.

Native studies courses will be facilitated by contracts with Aboriginal communities and organizations. Some staff will be Aboriginal and all staff must be sensitive to the spirituality and cultural priorities of Aboriginal prisoners.


All levels of education will be accessible to all women in each facility. Basic literacy training will be available through a variety of teaching strategies.

Adult basic education up to Grade 12 will be provided by an appropriate educational authority, in order to support each woman in her educational ambitions.

Community College, University and other post-secondary education will be provided to those women who request it and participation to the fullest possible extent will be facilitated.

Vocational Training

Each Regional Women's Facility will have a vocational work program. This program will be developed by the Regional Advisory Council in co-operation with local business interests, wherever possible, and will provide vocational training to women both within the institution and in the community.

A business will be developed to provide employment training in several areas such as trades, marketing, business management, clerical work and administration. Women would apply for employment in the program. they would, if successful in their application, commence work training, or, ;if unsuccessful in their application, they would focus on acquiring the skills (e.g. education level) necessary for the job they were seeking and then re-apply.

The vocational programs must be as close as possible to a normal working environment and will include all the usual employment standards and benefits.

Women who are serving long sentences will have the opportunity to work their way up to supervisory or training levels and, in so doing, be provided with meaningful, long-term employment.

Other positions which provide realistic work placements will be available to qualified prisoners within the facility. These will include administrative and other skilled jobs.


Each facility will emphasize the importance of exercise and will provide staff who will actively encourage and facilitate participation by all women. Recreational facilities will include both open air and indoor exercise areas where team, group and individual activities can take place. For any facility where recreational space cannot be built on site due to expense, community recreational facilities must be made available through the use of temporary absences.

Indoor recreational areas (such as workshops, computer rooms, craft rooms and libraries) will also be provided.

Volunteer Involvement

Local community groups will be encouraged and funded to facilitate active participation of volunteers in the Regional Women's Facilities in as many programs as possible. Local women's groups should be actively pursued to recruit appropriate volunteers. Funding will be particularly crucial to the success of volunteer involvement, especially in the areas of enabling broad community involvement in the facility, fostering community responsibility for the facility and providing important community connections for women being released from the facility.

Adding to its numerous advantages, volunteer involvement will also provide important social and intellectual variety for women serving long sentences.

The Aboriginal Healing Lodge

This section of the recommended plan was developed in consultation with Aboriginal members of the Task Force. Further changes may evolve from continuing consultation with Aboriginal communities during the implementation stage of the Report.

A Healing Lodge will be established in a prairie location. Potential locations must be sought by Aboriginal communities, not the Correctional Service of Canada. The location eventually chosen must be acceptable to both Aboriginal communities and the Correctional Service of Canada. The connection of the Lodge to an Aboriginal community will be essential to its survival . The development of the Lodge will also require the expertise of Aboriginal women whose input will be facilitated through the establishment of an Advisory Council to the Correctional Service of Canada for this initiative. Overall responsibility for programs for Aboriginal women will be given to the Elders Council in each region.

The Lodge will be premissed on principles which promote:

  • A safe place for Aboriginal women prisoners;
  • a caring attitude towards self, family and community
  • a belief in individualized client-specific planning;
  • an understanding of the transitory aspects of Aboriginal life;
  • an appreciation of the healing role of children who are closer to the spirit world;
  • pride in surviving difficult backgrounds and personal experiences.


A circular design will define the Lodge's structure, and will compliment the surrounding natural environment. The Lodge will contain a central round meeting room to act as a focal point for ceremonies, teachings, workshops with Elders, etc. The Lodge will also contain an apartment, available on a rotational basis to the Elders, teachers and healers involved in key aspects of the Lodge's activities. A daycare centre will provide on-site opportunities for women to be with their children.

Accommodation options for women at the Lodge will include communal living areas, family living units, and opportunities to live close to the land.

Assessment and Case Planning

All Aboriginal federally sentenced women will have the opportunity to serve their sentences at the Healing Lodge and they will be made aware of this option through the outreach initiatives of a Community Worker. this individual will make contact with women during the sentencing period prior to their transfer to the federal system, or later at a Regional Women's Facility. It is recognized that some Aboriginal women may choose not to serve their sentences at the Healing Lodge, and that others may go there for all or part of their sentences. Accordingly, transfers between the Lodge and the Regional Women's Facilities will be arranged.


Elders and other teachers and healers will be critical to the successful operation of the Healing Lodge. A minimum of one Elder will be available at the Lodge on a full-time basis; however, the position will not always be occupied by the same individual. A rotational position would accommodate the needs of women from different nations, and the four directions, and would provide a variety of necessary spiritual expertise to the women (i.e. Shaman, Medicine Person). Spiritual helpers will also be acknowledged in the healing process, with the understanding that sometimes these helpers will be women serving sentences themselves.


Programs will be based on a holistic approach to the needs of federally sentenced Aboriginal women, including, most importantly, the need to address issues associated with health, with sexual, physical and emotional abuse, with relationships and with substance abuse. An outreach program will facilitate the transition to "walking in the now forest"136 by providing community-release preparation in the areas of education, vocational training, employment and life skills. The outreach component of the Lodge will also provide a link to the larger Aboriginal community, as well as a city-based satellite of the Lodge, which will accommodate women under community release supervision. Women will be given opportunities to maintain contact with their children, and will be given positive role models as well as opportunities to share life experiences by staff and other women who will assist in developing parenting skills.

The outreach aspect of the Lodge will also support a minimum of one Community Worker who will establish linkages to Aboriginal women both entering and leaving the correctional system.

Administration and Staff

The Healing Lodge will be administ4ered to the largest extent possible through a non-hierarchical model. There will be a co-ordinator who will have certain responsibilities to other Correctional Service of Canada officials. However, this individual will also have responsibility to liaise and work co-operatively with the Elders' Council, The Aboriginal community and the women. The focus of all these relationships will be based on a sharing of expertise, and an exchange of learning instead of on a fixed structure of reporting relationships.

Staff selected to work at the Healing Lodge will be Aboriginal and will be recruited with high emphasis on their life experience and their ability to act as positive role models for the women serving sentences. There will be a place for professionals in the Healing Lodge, but this role will be supportive rather than central to the leadership of the Lodge. Non-Aboriginal staff may be recruited from time to time in a support role for specific skills and expertise. Staff at all levels must have the ability to live the example of what they are teaching.

Community Strategy

Development of a Personal Plan

As noted under "Assessment Cottage", on admission, each woman, with the assistance of her Support and Community Workers, will develop a personal plan focused on release at the earliest possible point in her sentence. The presumption will be that she will be released on her day parole eligibility date. As she moves closer to her release eligibility date(s), the plan will be reviewed, adjusted as necessary, and community resources lined up in a detailed plan for release, This personal release plan should be provided to the National Parole Board for review and, if possible, endorsed in principle, prior to the eligibility date.

Community Worker

This Worker will be a key link between the individual woman and her community. the duties of the Community Worker include facilitating communication and contact between each woman and her family, friends and partner as well as the community resources required by each woman. The Community Worker acts as a facilitator for the woman, with community resource agencies and individuals, and the Correctional Service of Canada. The Community Worker, the woman and her primary Support Worker form a team at the Regional Women's Facilities. Following release to the community, the Community worker becomes a member of the Community Support Team.

Community Support

The Community Support Team will be made up of the woman, an advocate from a community group, the Community Worker, the Release Worker as well as any ancillary support individuals she requires, such as Elders, psychiatrists and child care workers. while the Release Worker will be responsible for the supervisory functions as legally mandated, the Support Team as a whole is responsible for ensuring that the woman is provided with the services she requires as specified in her personal release plan, and will pro-actively support her in her dealings with resource agencies. The membership of the team should be flexible enough to take into account each woman's needs, her personal preferences and the length of her sentence. For example, where the woman is aboriginal, the community support Team should also be made up of as many Aboriginal people as possible.

Regional Advisory Councils

Regional Advisory Councils will be established in association with each Regional women's Facility to advise the correctional Service of Canada on programming and services both in the facility and the community.

Councils will evaluate existing programs, identify gaps in services and recommend additional programs and services. They will also monitor the continuity of programs between the facility and community and make recommendations on how continuity can be improved.

The Regional Advisory Councils will sponsor regular needs analyses for women in their home communities for both federally sentenced women and women in general. The objective of such analysis is to ensure existing services continue to meet needs identify new services required. For the latter, the Councils will be responsible for developing a plan to establish such services in cooperation with all levels of government and the community itself.

Finally, Councils will play an educative role in their local communities so that the Regional Women's Facility and the women released from it are seen as an integral part and a responsibility of their community.

Community release Centres

A wide variety of Community Release Centres will be developed by community groups, and other interested agencies. The location, structure and services offered in the Community Release Centres will reflect the needs of the federally sentenced women they serve. The environment in each community Release Centre will be conducive to growth, healthy living and the development of self-esteem and self-empowerment. Cultural differences will be respected. Emphasis will be placed on personal choice, with the overall goal of living with dignity and self respect in the community at large.

While living in a Community Release Centre, each woman will continue working on her personal plan by using the programs, services and opportunities in the community. Community Release Centres will provide varying levels of structure, staffing and internal programming based on the needs of their residents.

Given the lack of information on federally sentenced women in the community, the following is not intended to be an exhaustive list of Community Release Centres but merely provides some suggestions to be explored further.

Halfway Houses

There will be halfway houses for women across Canada located according to regional needs. At a minimum, they will be located in Halifax, Newfoundland, Montreal and at least one other Quebec location, northern Ontario, central/southern Ontario, Winnipeg, Saskatchewan, Edmonton, Calgary, Vancouver and northern British Columbia. these halfway houses will vary in size depending on the size of the community and the size of the local Regional Women's Facility. they will be run by community based agencies through contracts with Correctional Service of Canada.

Halfway houses will be available for women on any form of community release. Some will allow women to live with their children.

Aboriginal Centres

These will be located in areas where Aboriginal communities and groups identify need and support. It is anticipated that some of these centres will be located in the prairies and in the territories. They will be organized and run by Aboriginal groups or communities through contracts with the Correctional Service of Canada and will be available to women on any form of community release, including specialized programming.

It is anticipated that the Aboriginal Healing Lodge will sponsor second stage and satellite centres for Aboriginal women who are ready to leave the Lodge.

Satellite Units

There will be a variety of Satellite Units, such as independently maintained apartments, for women who are still on community release but who are able to live with a great degree of autonomy. Each Satellite Unit will be associated with a staffed Community Release Centre so that staff and increased structure are available should the need arise. Satellite Units will be located according to need, both in urban and rural settings.

Home Placements

Specialized and approved home placements will be developed for those federally sentenced women who are on community release but whose needs cannot be men in group living situations. It is anticipated that home placements will provide structure and care for women with special needs, for example, those who are disabled or from isolated communities.

Addiction Treatment Centres

Specialized residential Addiction Treatment Centres will be established which will provide addictions programs covering a range of approaches to substance abuse. It is anticipated that some will be women-centered, others based on Aboriginal traditions and yet others run according to conventional lines. These will be short or medium term release placements for women who wish to follow up on the treatment they received in the Regional Women's Facility or Healing Lodge before moving into a more generalized placement.

The Addiction Treatment Centres will also be run by community agencies and groups under contract to Correctional Service of Canada although it is anticipated that they will also enter into contracts with provincial corrections and other similar government agencies to provide services to a wide range of women.

Multi-Use Women's Centres

These centres will be utilized in recognition that federally sentenced women share many characteristics with women who are not in conflict with the law. For example, those who wish to deal with issues of family violence may choose to be placed in a centre that deals with family violence in the community. These placements will be funded on an individual contract basis as the need is identified.

Mixed Group Housing

Accommodation for federally sentenced women can be combined with housing for other groups who are not in conflict with the law. For example, a house in an urban area may provide accommodation for women on community release as well as students who would pay a minimal rent. The combination of such groups would provide all residents with a unique environment for growth and development for both groups.

Mothers and Children Centre

Specialized accommodation could be provided for women who wish to continue or reestablish relationships with their children. Support services focused on fostering good relationships between mothers and children could enable mothers to resume family responsibilities while serving the community release portion of their sentence.