2020-21 Departmental Results Report

2020-21 Departmental Results Report

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada,
represented by the Minister of Public Safety, 2021

Catalogue No. PS81-15E-PDF
ISSN 2561-1364

This document is available on the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat website at http://www.tbs‑sct.gc.ca

This document is available in alternative formats upon request.

From the Minister

The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.

As Canada’s Minister of Public Safety, it is my pleasure to present to Parliament the Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC) Departmental Results Report for 2020-21. This report highlights CSC’s operational results and achievements, which is essential in keeping Canadians informed, and in ensuring a just and accountable federal correctional system.

This year posed unprecedented challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which was especially the case for CSC with its unique congregate living settings. As always, the safety of employees, offenders, and the public was CSC’s top priority. CSC introduced public health measures to help provide a safe environment to all during the pandemic. I am impressed by CSC’s immediate response in taking coordinated, collaborative, and transparent measures to maintain safe and secure operations in institutions and community correctional centres. CSC managed the outbreaks in collaboration with national, provincial and local public health authorities, labour partners, and external stakeholders.

The pandemic prompted CSC to assess the challenges and benefits of digital services for both staff and offenders, and shifted to audio and video conferencing to maintain operations. This included:

  • increasing video court capacity;
  • increasing video visitation capabilities so that offenders can continue to connect with their families and support networks, which is an essential element of their rehabilitation and reintegration;
  • offering Indigenous offenders access to Elders, counselling, traditional ceremonies and practices via videoconference and telephone; and
  • continuing the Digital Education Pilot Project and initiating the Virtual Correctional Program Delivery to facilitate offender access to interventions in order to prepare them for release.

This year was the first full year of operations for the Structured Intervention Units (SIUs). The 15 SIUs across the country are closely monitored by Independent External Decision-Makers, who operate at arms-length from CSC, to ensure transparency and accountability.

We have more work to do to address the overrepresentation of Indigenous peoples, Black Canadians, and other racialized groups in the correctional system. We remain committed to working with CSC and external stakeholders to ensure positive reintegration outcomes for all offenders. I invite you to read in more detail about the results of the past fiscal year. I want to thank all CSC employees for their outstanding efforts, which assist offenders in their rehabilitation and safe reintegration into society as law-abiding citizens. I look forward to supporting CSC in achieving these outcomes to keep communities and Canadians safe.


The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Public Safety

Results at a glance

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is committed to protecting the health and safety of staff, offenders, and the public in all of its operations while delivering on its public safety mandate.

Fiscal year 2020-21 was unprecedented for all, but especially for organizations such as CSC that operate 24/7. The health, safety, and wellness of CSC employees, offenders, stakeholders, and the public were paramount. Managing the response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in congregate living environments required CSC to take extraordinary measures and employ layers of mitigation strategies to deliver on its mandate. CSC’s pandemic response evolved as more was learned about the virus, and how it could be best avoided or contained in its facilities. Many of CSC’s performance indicators were unavoidably impacted given the necessary measures and health restrictions that were imposed to ensure the health and safety of employees, offenders, and the public.

Over the year, CSC adapted through various measures, such as:

Despite a challenging year, CSC recognized successes during 2020-21:

Atlantic Region:

Quebec Region:

Ontario Region:

Prairie Region:

Pacific Region:

Population Management

The number of admissions declined in 2020-21 (5,205), as compared to the previous year (7,008).

Particular to this reporting period, the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the overall decline in the federal inmate population. As waves of COVID-19 infections spread throughout Canada, the courts primarily suspended or scaled back operations before resuming some services with restrictions. The reduction in court services meant that there were less criminal hearings and trials conducted during the fiscal year, resulting in fewer sentences imposed, and a higher number of accused persons awaiting trial.

As well, offenders sentenced to federal length sentences remained in provincial custody longer than normal. Provincial health restrictions required inmates to quarantine before receiving clearance to transfer to a federal site, and CSC’s health restrictions required newly arrived inmates to medically isolate for 14 days. These measures restricted the flow of inmate movement from provincial to federal jurisdiction.

CSC implemented rigorous public health and safety measures to minimize the risk of virus outbreaks in its institutions, community correctional centres, and workplaces, such as personal protective equipment guidelines, contact tracing unit protocols, the use of rapid tests for staff and offenders, and the provision of vaccines to inmates. Federal inmates, through CORCAN, which is the agency within CSC responsible for inmate employment and employability skills training, joined the pandemic response effort by expanding production of bath linens, bedding, clothing and mattresses, and by producing 850,000 non-medical masks and 61,000 gowns.

The population management approach in response to the pandemic was different for the regions, and even for individual institutions, as each presented its own challenges with respect to the virus. CSC deployed a range of population management strategies based on a cohort model that allowed groups of inmates from the same range or living unit to attend work, school, programs, and recreation time.

Structured Intervention Units

Fiscal year 2020-21 was the first full year of operations for the Structured Interventions Units (SIUs). SIUs have been implemented at 10 men’s institutions and all five women’s institutions across the country. These units support inmates by providing structured interventions and programming to address their specific risks and needs, with the goal of facilitating their reintegration into a mainstream inmate population as soon as possible. SIUs are closely monitored by Independent External Decision-Makers across the country, providing added transparency and accountability. Despite the impact of COVID-19 on correctional operations, some SIU sites benefitted from significant involvement by volunteers and community organizations. Therapy dogs, workshops, art, social activities, and increased video visitation and telephones to connect with their supports have been introduced in SIUs.

To respond to SIU operational challenges in real-time on an ongoing basis, CSC issued a number of formal and informal policy directives through various instruments to strengthen operational direction and accountabilities. Renewal of the SIU policy suite is also underway to address the operational challenges in SIUs. In addition, work is underway to review all data, quantitative and qualitative, to help inform adjustments and improvements required to operations.

Indigenous Offenders

During the 2020-21 fiscal year, CSC continued to play a role in responding to whole-of-government initiatives to advance key commitments to address Indigenous over-representation in the Criminal Justice and Public Safety portfolios, including its responsibility to respond to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s Calls to Action Endnote i and the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls’ Calls for Justice.

Although the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the way cultural and social supports for Indigenous offenders were delivered, the 1,700 Indigenous employees and 140 Elders continued to use their innovation and resilience to play a vital role in the rehabilitation of Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders by adapting and providing quality services and care at critical times for inmates. The results this past fiscal year show that CSC has gained momentum. Of note, CORCAN continues to work collaboratively with the Elders, Pathways programs, and Indigenous Intervention Centres at various sites in order to enhance partnerships and increase employment program opportunities for Indigenous offenders. For example, staff from the agriculture program at Joyceville Institution engaged with Indigenous program staff at the site, resulting in increased Indigenous offender participation in the program.

CSC also continued to engage its community partners, including Section 81 Endnote ii Healing Lodges, to address the collective challenges. In the spirit of honouring the renewed relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples, CSC continued to engage Indigenous communities as self-determining partners, respecting those communities that imposed lockdowns to prevent local outbreaks. While some Indigenous communities imposed significant restrictions to prevent or slow the spread of COVID-19, CSC continued to focus its efforts on utilizing Section 81 Endnote iii and Section 84 Endnote iv of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act to the full extent of its legislative intent. 

Mental Health

With increasing health care demands, prioritization of health services were re-evaluated on an ongoing basis to ensure the optimal use of resources across the different levels of care. CSC’s Health Services undertook a wide range of infection prevention and control activities to prevent and reduce the spread of COVID-19, while continuing to provide essential health services and interventions in keeping with CSC’s mandate. CSC prioritized mental health services for those with urgent needs, such as the assessment and management of inmates who are suicidal or self injurious as per the policy requirements of Commissioner’s Directive 843, Interventions to Preserve Life and Prevent Serious Bodily Harm, Endnote v mental health assessments for inmates in the SIU, and those with a significant mental health need. Despite the challenges of managing the pandemic, results on all mental health indicators remained at similar levels to those in past years prior to the pandemic.

Staff Well-Being

The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on the employees, at a personal and professional level. Managers supported employee mental health in the workplace, and ensured CSC’s workforce continued to be resilient and productive while shaping the new normal. CSC based its health practices for staff and offenders on ethical and evidence-based decisions, in consultation with national, provincial, and local public health authorities.

CSC worked actively and constantly to build a culture of respect and environments free of harassment, discrimination, and violence of any kind. In October 2020, CSC launched the National Comprehensive Strategy on Workplace Wellness and Employee Well-Being - Strategic Framework 2020-2023, Endnote vi which serves as the foundation for prioritizing activities crucial to the respect, well-being, health, and mental health of employees and managers at all levels this fiscal year.

In addition, CSC began its planning phase with respect to an Audit of CSC Culture. This audit will assess all aspects of CSC’s environment, as well as inform the right approaches to improve CSC’s culture and the way forward.

As well, CSC continued to support Indigenous employees through the Connecting Spirits, Creating Opportunities initiative. This wellness and networking initiative for Indigenous employees working at CSC supports the participants and their managers in career planning, while creating a space for the establishment of a mutually supportive community. Honouring Indigenous traditions of storytelling, CSC is gaining insights and knowledge from participants who discuss challenges and solutions to improve their workplace and Indigenous corrections as a whole.

For more information on CSC’s plans, priorities and results achieved, see the ‘Results: what we achieved’ section of this report.

Results: what we achieved

Core responsibility 1: Care and Custody


CSC provides for the safety, security and humane care of inmates, including day-to-day needs of inmates such as food, clothing, accommodation, mental health services, and physical health care. It also includes security measures within institutions such as drug interdiction, and appropriate control practices to prevent incidents.

CSC, as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the rule of law, contributes to public safety by actively encouraging and assisting offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure, and humane control.


During fiscal year 2020-21, CSC worked closely and collaboratively with the Public Health Agency of Canada and local public health authorities to respond to COVID-19, and to implement extensive measures to protect the health and safety of staff and offenders in its care. Correctional institutions are particularly at risk of COVID-19 outbreaks due to the close proximity of the inmate population, and the difficulty in physical distancing. As such, CSC put into place a governance structure to manage the pandemic response across the country. CSC developed an Integrated Risk Management Framework (IRMF), an extensive, layered, color-coded risk management process to prevent and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The IRMF process identified required mitigation strategies for specific correctional activities, and was continually monitored and updated, in accordance with the identified risk level for COVID-19 transmission in the community where the CSC facility is located. CSC provided frequent COVID-19-related communications in both official languages to employees, inmates, stakeholders, and the public, with a focus on prevention and transparency, including daily online publishing of inmate testing results.

CSC Health Services was dedicated to the pandemic’s response, and undertook a wide range of infection prevention and control activities over the last fiscal year, such as a testing strategy, contact tracing, active screening of staff, visitors, and contractors, development of guidelines, and vaccine roll out. As at March 31, 2021, as part of an initial small roll-out for elderly inmates over 70 and those with multiple co-morbidities prioritized according to the National Advisory Committee on Immunization, Endnote vii CSC administered 1,199 total doses to the inmate population, which accounted for 4.7% of the active inmate population having received at least one dose, and 4.6% having received two doses. Footnote 1

Additional measures were incorporated into the existing Health Services discharge planning process of offenders for each jurisdiction to help prevent and contain the spread of the virus based on consultation with local, provincial, and territorial public health authorities. In addition, CSC collaborated with Indigenous Services Canada and local public health authorities to support discharge planning that protects the health and safety of Indigenous offenders and the communities in which they were released.

CSC provided and continues to provide offenders with access to patient advocacy in accordance with the Corrections and Conditional Release Act. Endnote viii CSC policy requires that, consistent with the requirements of their professional health regulatory colleges, health care professionals, including those providing services under contract, will use their expertise and influence to advocate on behalf of patients for provision of care that advances their health and well-being. CSC also facilitates access to provincially-appointed patient advocates for offenders certified under provincial mental health legislation, and actively encourages the engagement of these independent bodies. Furthermore, CSC remains committed to supporting the work of inmate advocates from non-governmental agencies, such as the John Howard Society, the Native Women's Association of Canada, and the Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies.

In accordance with the increased focus on patient care, patient relations, and clinical independence, Health Services now has the responsibility to address complaints and to respond to health grievances. As part of the change, patients are provided the opportunity to request an interview at any level of the complaint or grievance process, which encourages open communication between the patient and their health care team. Health Services has also used some anonymous examples of grievances as a teaching tool for health care professionals by sharing lessons learned and identifying opportunities for improvement.

COVID-19 Clinical Corner is a forum that was created for CSC's health workforce to learn and share clinical information related to COVID-19. This forum increases the awareness of the issues pertaining to COVID-19, and engages the workforce in discussion with the goal of having a positive influence on patient outcomes.

After steady increases in recent years, the number of patients in the Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) stabilized this fiscal year, with an average of just under 2,500 patients on OAT in any given month. CSC continues to focus on addressing the OAT waitlist, which is approximately 465 people in any given month. In keeping with the Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy, Endnote ix CSC continued to focus on enhancing treatment and harm reduction services.

Nationally, the rate of critical drug-related incidents decreased significantly in 2020-21, with one critical drug-related incident at Bowden Institution in the Prairie region. It is possible that the ongoing COVID-19 restrictions contributed to the decrease in critical drug-related incidents. As well, CSC has been working on educating both staff and inmates on the risks of highly toxic substances and the use of naloxone, which may have contributed to the decrease in overdose and suspected overdose deaths.

In 2020-21, CSC continued to support drug enforcement activities through the use of search tools, such as detector dogs, urinalysis and ion scanners. This reporting period, drug identification devices were purchased to enhance CSC’s ability to identify opioids within sites where rates of drug overdoses, positive urinalysis, and drug seizures are most significant. These new instruments will help identify drug trends within the institutions, increase staff awareness, and assist in the sharing of information with health and law enforcement partners. As well, CSC strengthened partnerships and deployed new technology aimed at mitigating the risks associated with the introduction of contraband via drones.

CSC achieved positive results related to Indigenous offenders who were not re-admitted to federal custody on a new sentence within five years following their sentence expiry date, from 78.7% in the previous fiscal year to 80.6% in 2020-21.

Nationally, the rate of non-natural and undetermined offender deaths in custody decreased compared to the previous year; however, it continues to be outside of the anticipated range. While the number of non-natural offender deaths decreased compared to the previous year, the number of undetermined deaths has increased. In accordance with Commissioner’s Directive 041, Incident Investigations, Endnote x CSC’s Incident Investigation Branch investigates all occurrences of non-natural deaths.

CSC provides food services in accordance with Canada’s Food Guide. Endnote xi Inmates in women’s institutions prepare their own food in large part. In men’s institutions, CSC updated their menu in January 2021. The new menu increased in calories, and meets the Canada Food Guide recommendations and requirements. Feedback from inmate committees across the country were considered in implementing some of the changes to recipes and options to the new menu. The purpose of the national menu is to standardize and provide inmates with food in adequate quality and quantity to support well-being throughout their incarceration.

Gender-based analysis plus

CSC collects performance data, which are disaggregated, where applicable, by sex, gender and other intersecting identity factors, thereby enabling identification of impacts of programs or initiatives on specific groups of men, women or offenders of other genders. (Please refer to the Gender-based analysis plus Supplementary Information Table for information on program impacts on gender and diversity).

Results achieved
Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018-19
Actual results
2019-20 Actual results 2020-21
Actual results
Institutions are safe and secure Rate of non-natural and undetermined offender deaths in custody per 1,000 offenders (Objective: Zero) Footnote 2 0.95 - 1.26 2021-03-31 1.34 1.75 1.53
Rate of escapes from federal correctional institutions and Section 81 Healing Lodges per 1,000 offenders (Objective: Zero) Footnote 3 New indicator for

FY 2020-21
2021-03-31 0.92 0.87 0.89
Rate of serious incidents per 1,000 offenders in federal custody 16.9 - 18.6 2021-03-31 21.1 32.0 28.0
Inmates are managed in a humane manner Maintain Health Services Accreditation Footnote 4 Accreditation 2021-03-31 Accreditation Accreditation Accreditation
Of the inmates identified as having a mental health need, the percentage who received mental health treatment Footnote 5 90% 2021-03-31 84.7% 84.8% 83.3%
Percentage of newly admitted offenders receiving health assessments at intake 95% - 100% 2021-03-31 95.1% 97.2% 93.6%
Rate of upheld inmate grievances Footnote 6 per 1,000 offenders in federal custody 70.7 - 94.7 2021-03-31 62.8 51.9 45.7
Median number of days spent in a Structured Intervention Unit (SIU) within the fiscal year Footnote 7 New indicator for FY 2020-21 2021-03-31 Unavailable 11 Footnote 8 16
Percentage of successful transfers out of a Structured Intervention Unit (SIU) within the fiscal year (successful if the inmate remains in general population for a period of 120 days)Footnote 9 New indicator for
FY 2020-21
2021-03-31 Unavailable 54.7% Footnote 10 59.9%
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
Main Estimates
Planned spending
Total authorities available for use
Actual spending
(authorities used)
(Actual spending minus Planned spending)
1,625,362,484 1,625,362,484 2,003,919,806 1,875,093,281 249,730,797
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
Planned full-time equivalents
Actual full-time equivalents
(Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
10,521 10,576 55

The variance of $378.6 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Care and Custody's authorities available for use were $2,003.9 million and the variance with the actual spending was $128.8 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2021-22.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the sub-program level under Core Responsibility 1.0 Care and Custody.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xii is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xiii

Core responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions


CSC conducts assessment activities and program interventions to support federal offenders’ rehabilitation and facilitate their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens. CSC also engages Canadian citizens as partners in its correctional mandate, and provides outreach to victims of crime.


With respect to correctional program results, the strategies outlined in the IRMF enabled CSC to keep inmates safe while providing opportunities for correctional activities and programming; however, the pandemic created some challenges for correctional program delivery.

While group program delivery resumed in July 2020, changes to the management and delivery of correctional programs were made to ensure its compliance with the public health parameters for offender and staff safety. For example, the physical distancing requirements reduced the capacity and group size, and impacted program availability and duration. In addition, correctional program delivery was impacted by modified routines, COVID-19 outbreaks in the institutions and in the community, and staff shortages related to illness or isolation. As a result, the offender completion of nationally recognized correctional programs saw its lowest point in the last five years (69.1% prior to first release, 78.3% prior to sentence expiry date). Significant efforts were made to ensure that offenders completed their correctional programs prior to their release in the community. If offenders do not complete their main correctional program prior to release, they will have the opportunity to participate in programs in the community. Of note, sites reviewed and prioritized correctional program needs based on inmate risks and their release eligibility dates.

During the 2020-21 fiscal year, Motivational Module-SIU and Motivational Module-SIU-Indigenous continued to be delivered in SIUs across the country. In some cases, during times when the pandemic prohibited spending prolonged periods with others in enclosed spaces, Correctional Program Officers utilized alternative delivery methods, such as the telephone, to continue offering the program.

The percentage of education referrals actioned within 120 days of admission to federal custody fell below the performance target range. Notwithstanding challenges related to education referrals, the number of offenders with an identified need for an upgrade to their education or vocational training who received such upgrades and training have continued to perform in accordance with the performance target ranges.

CSC enhanced offender access to computer-skills training at some men and women sites, such as the Internet and Computing Core Certification (IC3). In collaboration with CORCAN, education staff provided the necessary support and skills to prepare offenders for the IC3 certification exam. In 2020-21, additional IC3 licenses were purchased in order to expand this program to more institutional sites to allow more offenders the opportunity to obtain the IC3 certification. Such investments in computer literacy for the offender population complement the developments in virtual technologies being implemented by CSC.

The year-end performance indicator results for completion of offenders enrolled in the Community Integration Program were below the planned results due to the structure in place to respond to the pandemic as outlined in the IRMF. CSC revised this program in fiscal year 2019-20, and the training on the revised program that was planned in fiscal year 2020-21 was postponed until next year.

Institutional chaplaincy services were also impacted by COVID-19-related challenges and restrictions. A national strategy was implemented to mitigate risks and the impact of COVID-19 on these activities, which included facilitating communication between offenders and chaplains via phone and video conferencing capabilities, maintaining institutional support for religious accommodations and observations, on-site personal visits to respond to urgent or critical needs, and a process for providing religious materials and inspirational messages to inmates. Chaplains also used closed-circuit television and other virtual opportunities in new and innovative ways to offer religious services and educational activities.

Residential home and accommodation modular construction provided on-the-job and vocational training for Indigenous offenders at multiple Prairie region facilities, including Pe Sakastew Centre, Saskatoon Community Industry, Edmonton Community Industry, Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge, Saskatchewan Penitentiary and Stony Mountain Institution.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic response measures, CSC shifted Elder services to a telework approach. Elders continued to participate in the provision of correctional interventions for Indigenous offenders, and to engage with case management teams and inmates by telephone and videoconference.

Elder orientation was revitalized for virtual delivery and the Indigenous Initiatives Directorate updated its content, adding a section on gender considerations that will be delivered to newly contracted Elders/Spiritual Advisors and Elder Helpers.

To provide the necessary support, guidance, and recommendations to CSC in the contracting of Elders, each region established an Elder Circle, Advisory Group or Elder Council to ensure services were delivered in a culturally-appropriate manner.

Over the last four years, the percentage of Indigenous offenders with an established Section 84 Endnote xiv release plan prior to first release has been steadily decreasing. This may be attributed to a lower than anticipated level of interest in Section 84 Endnote xv releases on the part of offenders and, specifically during this fiscal year, access being restricted by some Indigenous governing bodies to their communities in an effort to control the spread of the virus.

The EXCOM Sub-Committee on Indigenous Corrections identified Section 84 Endnote xvi releases as a priority to better understand and address the declining trend in the releases. To that end, the Sub-Committee convened an inter-disciplinary working group to explore opportunities to streamline the lengthy, administratively heavy Section 84 Endnote xvii process, and potential policy implications, with a view to improving results.

Another priority for the Sub-Committee was the impact of actuarial tools on case management, security reviews, and reintegration planning for Indigenous offenders, which explored options for cases involving Indigenous offenders whose initial Offender Security Level, as recommended, was incongruent with the Custody Rating Scale.

In October 2019, CSC entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the University of Regina to develop an Indigenous-informed risk assessment tool. CSC has been engaging at arm’s length in order to allow the various Indigenous scholars involved the flexibility to meaningfully respond to the various consultations with stakeholders (especially Indigenous stakeholders and peoples). In 2020-21, the first stage of the project plan was completed with three deliverables: an understanding of existing tools used for risk assessment and recidivism prediction; a comprehensive legal review of the relevant decisions, policies and principles to inform how to best incorporate these components in risk assessment tools; and, a community consultation strategy to solicit input of Indigenous community members and leaders.

As well, during the review period, a file review of suspension and revocation cases involving Indigenous women was completed as part of the Sub-Committee’s work plan, which reaffirmed the positive impacts of Indigenous Suspension Review Boards on reintegration outcomes for Indigenous offenders. These Boards can be consulted prior to issuing a warrant to permit consideration of alternatives to a suspension, and in cases following the execution of a suspension warrant to permit consideration of alternatives to recommending a revocation. The consultation serves to examine and discuss the risk posed by the Indigenous offender, while considering their unique systemic and background factors (if applicable), and determining whether less restrictive conditions, or alternatives or cultural/restorative options could contribute to reducing the risk and better meet the offender’s needs in accordance with the Indigenous Continuum of Care.

The percentage of successful transfers to healing lodges has continued to increase with a success rate of 95.9% this past year, as compared to a rate of 91.4% in 2017-18. The continued success can be attributed to a number of factors, including the efforts of the case management team and the work of the receiving healing lodge in integrating the individual in a unique, culturally-grounded, Elder-driven environment.

While the rate of successful transfers to healing lodges has been improving, the number of these transfers has continued to steadily decline, even more significantly in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. To address this challenge, CSC’s Institutional Heads and their teams continued to offer transfers to Section 81 and CSC healing lodges as part of an individual’s gradual transition to the community.

CSC undertook initiatives to promote and facilitate the conditional release of ethnocultural offenders to an ‘other location’, such as their home communities, following the PBC expansion of the definition of  “Day Parole - Other Location.” In 2020-21, CSC welcomed over 60 staff volunteers into the role of Ethnocultural Site Coordinator to provide ongoing support to offenders and help establish a strong “community of practice.”

The decline in referrals to the Restorative Opportunities program this past year (a percentage decrease of 24% from the previous year) was attributed to early months of nation-wide lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as an inability to meet clients in-person and to complete face-to-face victim-offender mediation processes. Cases progressed more slowly as participants could not spend as much time on video as they might have in-person. To remedy this, CSC implemented videoconferencing solutions to meet the needs of the confidential nature of victim-offender mediation. It is expected that case progression and referrals will return to pre-COVID-19 numbers as restrictions lessen.

CSC’s National Victim Services Program provides services and responds to requests to approximately 8,700 victims who are registered with CSC and receive information to which they are entitled on a regular basis. In 2020, CSC conducted an internal audit Endnote xviii of the program as part of CSC’s 2019-22 Risk-Based Audit Plan. Results of the audit were overall positive, and provided helpful insight to continue to improve the program.

Beginning in fiscal year 2020-21, the National Victim Services Program has increased its engagement with its federal/provincial/territorial (FPT) partners. For example, the FPT working group on Victims of Crime began meeting twice a month to ensure coordination in carrying out the group’s objectives during the pandemic. CSC has actively participated in the working group to ensure continued promotion of victim registration with provincial/territorial partners.

In the Quebec region, CORCAN worked alongside the First Nations Regional Adult Education Center to implement an Indigenous offender employment initiative by providing expanded vocational training opportunities to Indigenous offenders, while also working in collaboration with the Regional Indigenous Initiatives to develop training material that is uniquely suited for some Indigenous offenders.

Unemployment rates in the larger community and pandemic-related closures of businesses had an impact on offenders’ ability to find and maintain employment in the community. This led to a decrease in offenders with an identified need for community employment receiving such an opportunity. CORCAN monitored the results and conducted monthly random sampling in 2020-21 that suggested the lowest point of offender employment in the community occurred in July 2020 and has been recovering since.

Despite these challenges, CORCAN continued to engage partners in delivering relevant employment and employability skills training to the offender population. As an example, CORCAN coordinated an Asbestos Worker Health and Safety training for offenders in the community for employment opportunities through an Alberta hiring agency, which resulted in eight offenders being hired.

CORCAN continued to expand its engagement with Indigenous communities and other government departments, in particular in the Prairie region and more recently in the Pacific region. These engagements promoted an increased knowledge of CORCAN’s program, and assisted in establishing partnerships and client agreements with the communities’ housing and infrastructure needs, particularly noting a significant increase of agreements with Saskatchewan Indigenous communities.

These agreements provided increased opportunities for Indigenous offenders to participate in on-the-job and vocational training while working on client orders.

While community reintegration was difficult this fiscal year, the percentage of offenders who were not readmitted to federal custody within five years of their sentence expiry date saw an improvement (from 85.4% in 2019-20 to 87.5%) this fiscal year. Of note, this performance indicator may have been impacted by fewer court proceedings during the height of the global pandemic.

Gender-based analysis plus

CSC collects performance data, which are disaggregated, where applicable, by sex, gender and other intersecting identity factors, thereby enabling identification of impacts of programs or initiatives on specific groups of men, women or offenders of other genders. (Please refer to the Gender-based analysis plus Supplementary Information Table for information on program impacts on gender and diversity.)


The Digital Education Pilot Project was developed in response to the recommendations of the 2015 Evaluation Report on Offender Education Programs and Services. In 2017-18, CSC started developing plans to bridge the technological gap between learning environments in institutions and those in the community. The Digital Education Pilot Project was introduced in that context in the Ontario region to supplement education programs. The aim of the project is to provide an opportunity for CSC to innovate in the area of computer-assisted learning in a controlled manner, and to offer opportunities for offenders to gain the computer skills needed for increasing literacy levels. In November 2020, the Digital Education Pilot project officially launched at Bath Institution, and the first student was enrolled on the digital education platform. The pilot project was able to expand the course offerings and actively added materials to enhance its ability to engage with a broader range of learners with an emphasis on diversity and inclusion. At the end of fiscal year 2020-21, the Digital Education Project expanded to Grand Valley Institution.

CORCAN also worked with Information Management Services and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety to update the content for two computer-based vocational certifications, the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System and the Working at Heights. New online vocational certifications were also provided to offenders under community supervision through CORCAN Community Industries in the Prairie region, which allowed offenders to continue employment training in a digital education format that aligns with community standards following their release.

CSC initiated the Virtual Correctional Program Delivery project which aims to move traditional classroom-based delivery of correctional programs to a virtual platform to augment offender access.

CSC initiated the Long-Term Evolution Case Planning and Decisions project, which aims to leverage technology in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the correctional planning and pre-release case preparation processes.

United Nations' (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the UN Sustainable Development Goals

CSC implemented its 2020-23 Sustainable Development StrategyEndnote xix and achieved four of its 24 commitments. Specifically, CSC installed LED lighting at Matsqui Institution (see target 10), purchased electric vehicles at the Pacific Regional Headquarters, created and implemented a national solid waste reduction plan (see target 15), and prohibited the single use of plastics (see target 16). Many of the sustainable development strategy targets and commitments were delayed over the past year due to conflicting priorities and restrictions related to COVID-19. The intent is to have all the commitments achieved by March 31, 2023.

Results achieved
Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018-19
Actual results
2019-20 Actual results 2020-21
Actual results
Offenders are prepared for their release from CSC’s jurisdiction as law-abiding citizens Percentage of successful transitions to lower security (successful if no reclassification to higher security within 120 days) 94.7% - 96.2% 2021-03-31 93.7% 95.0% 92.7%
Percentage of successful Indigenous offender transitions to lower security (successful if no reclassification to higher security within 120 days) 94.5% - 96.3% 2021-03-31 91.7% 95.2% 93.2%
Median percentage of sentence served prior to first release, for offenders with moderate or high reintegration potential 50.2% - 52.9% 2021-03-31 41.5% 42.5% 45.8%
Percentage of Indigenous offenders who were granted a discretionary release at the time of their first releaseFootnote 11 27.8% - 28.8% 2021-03-31 44.3% 40.1% 38.6%
Of the offenders with an identified need for a nationally recognized correctional program, the percentage who complete prior to first releaseFootnote 12 84.1% - 87.5% 2021-03-31 78.6% 77.6% 69.1%
Of the offenders with an identified need for an upgrade to their education, the percentage who upgrade prior to first release 54.0% - 64.8% 2021-03-31 68.0% 68.5% 57.6%
Of the offenders with an identified need for vocational training (labour market skills), the percentage who complete prior to first release 58.2% - 60.5% 2021-03-31 60.8% 65.7% 61.4%
Of the offenders with an identified need for employment in the community, the percentage who secure such employment prior to sentence expiry date 73.5% - 74.7% 2021-03-31 76.9% 75.7% 72.5%
Of the offenders with an identified need for a nationally recognized correctional program, the percentage who complete prior to sentence expiry date 90.5% - 92.0% 2021-03-31 83.7% 80.1% 78.3%
Of the Indigenous offenders who identify an interest in following a traditional healing path, the percentage who receive an Elder Review (Elder reviews are required as part of a traditional healing path) 90.2% - 95.5% 2021-03-31 94.8% 91.2% 91.9%
The percentage of offenders who, five years after the end of their sentence, have not been readmitted to federal custody 81.4% - 83.1% 2021-03-31 85.3% 85.4% 87.5%
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
Main Estimates
Planned spending
Total authorities available for use
Actual spending
(authorities used)
(Actual spending minus Planned spending)
445,660,085 445,660,085 514,673,572 495,803,539 50,143,454
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
Planned full-time equivalents
Actual full-time equivalents
(Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
4,406 4,289 -117

The variance of $69.0 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Correctional Interventions' authorities available for use were $514.7 million and the variance with the actual spending was $18.9 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2021-22.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Core Responsibility 2.0 Correctional Interventions.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xx is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxi

Core responsibility 3: Community Supervision


CSC supervises offenders in the community and provides structure and services to support their safe and successful reintegration into the community. Services include accommodation options, community health services, and the establishment of community partnerships. CSC manages offenders on parole, statutory release, and long-term supervision orders.


The community population slightly increased this reporting period as compared to the previous fiscal year, from 9,377 to 9,421.

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the swift implementation of new procedures and community supervision methods to maintain offender supervision, while respecting public health recommendations.

The results for the percentage of offenders with a completed review of their health care needs prior to release, although better than the previous fiscal year (from 83.5% to 87.0%), still fell below the anticipated target of 95.0%. The results related to the percentage of offenders with a completed medication reconciliation prior to release improved over the previous year, which brought them within the anticipated target range. Both performance indicators were affected by COVID-19 for a number of reasons related to health staff needing to assume different health responsibilities in the management of the pandemic (e.g., testing and wellness checks and contact tracing), as well as impacts of reduced footprint in the institutions (e.g., implementing different methods of medication administration, and the scheduling of health care staff on rosters to minimize the spread of COVID-19). Other impacts included the need to identify ranges for medical isolation, which in some cases resulted in the loss of units that were traditionally used for inmates with health-related needs.

In addition, as part of the discharge planning process, CSC has a Memorandum of Understanding in place with Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) to assist Status First Nations federal offenders in obtaining or renewing their Secure Certificate of Indian Status (SCIS) prior to release. The secure status card serves as a valid government-issued identification, and may be used to access benefits and services to support community reintegration. This fiscal year, CSC implemented an adapted SCIS registration process in the Prairie region, where four virtual instructional sessions were delivered to 39 CSC staff from men’s and women’s institutions and healing lodges across the region. The region has submitted 485 pre-screenings and 195 completed applications. From these, ISC processed and issued 69 SCIS cards to registered First Nations federal offenders.

CSC has a long-standing partnership with the Canadian Families and Corrections Network (CFCN), and with the Citizens Advisory Committee Endnote xxii (CAC). During the pandemic, CFCN developed telephone-based family resiliency sessions to encourage positive well-being, family connections, and supportive relationships. In December 2020, the CAC National Executive Committee launched a five-year strategic plan for CACs (2020-2025), which was developed after a nation-wide consultation with CAC members and CSC staff.

Although the pandemic impacted Community-Based Residential Facilities’ (CBRF) capacity due to new responsibilities and restrictions, CSC worked with its partners to maximize bed space, particularly as it pertained to Indigenous offenders.

The rate of failure to return per 1,000 offenders in a contracted CBRF, while still within the performance range, increased compared to the previous fiscal year. There may be a number of explanations for these results, some of which may be attributable to the pandemic. Many areas were under stringent public health measures, including lock downs, stay-at-home orders, and, in some cases, curfews. These measures had a significant impact on all members of the public, especially those living in congregate settings. For offenders who were mandated to reside in a CBRF, these increased public health measures may have increased the rate of failure to returns. Of note, the number of suspensions decreased overall during the same time period. Case management efforts by staff to find safe and secure alternatives to suspensions so that the offender could be maintained safely and securely in the community as opposed to returning to custody during the pandemic proved fruitful.

Work with new and existing community partners continued throughout the reporting period, and resulted in numerous expansions to provide appropriate community accommodations for offenders. Approved expansions in 2020-21 accounted for approximately 35 new beds across the country, of which some were targeted to specific populations (women, offenders with substance abuse needs, Indigenous offenders, aging offenders, and offenders with complex health needs). Despite some partners facing significant challenges (operationally and financially), and having to reduce capacity or limit admissions to implement public health measures to contain the coronavirus, the community accommodation network came together to find solutions to the challenges, such as setting up isolation units that served an entire area.

CSC saw a decrease in the percentage of time spent employed for offenders under community supervision (from 68.2% in 2019-20 to 63.3% in 2020-21), which is consistent with the impacts of the pandemic on employment in the broader community. For offenders, securing employment after release from federal custody is fundamental in their successful reintegration. CSC saw an increase in the percentage of offenders with a residency requirement successfully transitioning out of residency (63.5% in 2020-21, up from 60% in 2019-20).

Although CSC has been using electronic monitoring (EM) since 2015 as a means to enhance community supervision and public safety, there has been a strong upward trend in its use over the last fiscal year. Specifically, the year over year increase from April 2019 (123 cases) to March 2020 (139 cases) was approximately 15%, comparable to previous years. In contrast, between April 2020 and March 2021 (282 cases), there has been an increase of 102% in the number of offenders on the EM program. This increase is partly attributable to the pandemic, which resulted in front-line staff exploring alternatives to CBRF placements and considering alternative types of conditional releases (Day Parole - Other Location, medical leave privileges, etc.). As well, CSC implemented a new EM device in October 2020, which necessitated staff to retrain in the implementation of the device, and, in turn, increasing EM's visibility and use.

Gender-based analysis plus

CSC collects performance data, which are disaggregated, where applicable, by sex, gender and other intersecting identity factors, thereby enabling identification of impacts of programs or initiatives on specific groups of men, women or offenders of other genders. (Please refer to the Gender-based analysis plus Supplementary Information Table for information on program impacts on gender and diversity).

Results achieved
Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018-19
Actual results
2019-20 Actual results 2020-21
Actual results
Offenders are law-abiding citizens while under community supervision Percentage of offenders on conditional release successfully reaching sentence expiry date without re-admission (no revocation, charge or conviction) 54.9% - 58.5% 2021-03-31 62.1% 60.5% 61.5%
Rate of convictions on supervision for serious or violent offences, per 1,000 offenders 28.2 - 35.8 2021-03-31 25.4 28.8 22.7
Rate of convictions on supervision for offences resulting in death, per 1,000 offenders (Objective: Zero) 0.50 - 0.64 2021-03-31 0.32 0.32 0.77
The percentage of offenders with a completed review of their health care needs prior to release Footnote 13 95% 2021-03-31 Not available 83.5% 87%
Percentage of employable time spent employed, for offenders under community supervision 62.5% - 64.7% 2021-03-31 67.9% 68.2% 63.3%
Percentage of offenders with a residency requirement successfully transitioning out of residency (no revocation, charge or conviction) 58.3% - 59.7% 2021-03-31 62.5% 60.0% 63.5%
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
Main Estimates
Planned spending
Total authorities available for use
Actual spending
(authorities used)
(Actual spending minus Planned spending)
157,883,871 157,883,871 173,643,128 172,006,751 14,122,880
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
Planned full-time equivalents
Actual full-time equivalents
(Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
233 230 -3

The variance of $15.8 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Community Supervision's authorities available for use were $173.6 million and the variance with the actual spending was $1.6 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2021-22.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Core Responsibility 3.0 Community Supervision.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxiii is available in GC InfoBase.Endnote xxiv

Internal Services


Internal Services are those groups of related activities and resources that the federal government considers to be services in support of programs and/or required to meet corporate obligations of an organization. Internal Services refers to the activities and resources of the 10 distinct service categories that support Program delivery in the organization, regardless of the Internal Services delivery model in a department. The 10 service categories are:

The National Comprehensive Strategy on Workplace Wellness and Employee Well-being was launched and released in October 2020. It is based on the principles of culture and pride, capacity building, and environments that are mentally and physically healthy, and resilient for all.

CSC’s new Working Group for Women Employees identified and addressed issues as well as systemic barriers to recruitment, retention, professional development and work-life balance. The group also initiated a national survey to gather feedback from women at CSC at the end of 2020-21. Additionally, in response to the Accessible Canada Act, a National Working Group was established to develop an accessibility plan for CSC.

CSC’s workforce reflects the diversity of the Canadian population and that of its offender population. In fiscal year 2020-21, the Human Resource Management Sector signed the Statement of Action against Racism, Bias and Discrimination in the Public Service. As well, CSC appointed a Multiculturalism Champion, and under their leadership, mobilized employees from coast to coast to promote an inclusive workplace where employees from diverse groups can continue to support CSC’s priorities. A designated senior official for employment equity, diversity and inclusion was also appointed.

In early 2021, CSC set local representation objectives for Indigenous peoples and visible minorities that exceed the workforce availability (WFA), and that are based on the offender population representation. Ambitious hiring objectives were set to increase the representation of women and persons with disabilities over the next four years with an aim to meet the WFA by 2025. During 2020-21, CSC’s national representation increased across all four employment equity designated groups as identified in the combined quarterly report.Endnote xxv

CSC established the Gender Considerations Secretariat, comprised of subject-matter experts from various divisions within CSC. The mandate of the Secretariat is to develop CSC’s overarching direction, guidance, and tools for the management of offenders with gender considerations. More specifically, the Secretariat is responsible for:

Learning and Development (L&D) adapted a Canada School of Public Service training for CSC staff, which will allow participants to better understand unconscious bias and learn to identify and manage their biases to foster a respectful and inclusive workplace. L&D worked to ensure the continuation of the Correctional Training Program (CTP) during the pandemic by temporarily establishing regionally-based training locations to meet the COVID-19 guidelines established by each province, while maintaining national oversight of all CTP program delivery. While the ability to invite and train new Correctional Officer recruits was negatively impacted at the start of the pandemic, given the measures mentioned, CSC was able to meet 84% of its initial estimated number of new hires for Correctional Officers in 2020-21.

In February 2021, CSC launched an Introduction to Indigenous Corrections pilot as part of the Correctional Training Program for Correctional Officer recruits in the Prairie region. The course is co-facilitated by one Indigenous trainer and one non-Indigenous trainer who have extensive knowledge and experience in the facilitation of Indigenous social history and demonstrated cultural competence. In addition, the staffing operations team commenced work to develop a best practices document for use in future Indigenous inventories.

CSC’s Research Branch informed strategies around correctional approaches, interventions, policies, procedures, and programs by providing relevant research results/reports and consultations. CSC published two research reports this fiscal year. A study on Institutional Behaviour and Post-Release Outcomes for Veteran Men Offenders Endnote xxvi found that Veteran offenders have more stable institutional behaviour and better post-release outcomes than non-veterans, and the findings from A Profile of Young Adult Federal Offenders Endnote xxvii concluded that young adult offenders (18-21) have similar need profiles to those aged 22 to 30.

CSC ensured that its empirical and fact-based information in performance results and reports from internal evaluations, audits, and investigations were available to decision makers and policy analysts to draft policies and guidelines. The 2020-21 planned evaluation of the Correctional Programs - Supplementary Evaluation of the Integrated Correctional Program Model (Community Program and Motivation Modules) was completed, and its anticipated time of publication is winter 2022.

CSC increased awareness of values and ethics, internal disclosure of wrongdoing and conflict resolution by regularly promoting and providing guidance on related policies, codes, directives, procedures and laws. In view of the pandemic, the deadline to complete CSC’s Ethical Risk Assessment Initiative has been extended to March 31, 2022, and will be offered in virtual format. The National Advisory Committee on Ethics provided advice and guidance to the Commissioner on issues related to organizational values and ethics, including significant matters where a particular action, policy or direction might conflict with CSC’s Values and Ethics Framework. The Office of Conflict Management continued to deliver services (e.g., coaching, mediation, facilitated discussion and awareness sessions) upon request and adapted its virtual delivery capabilities.

Throughout the pandemic, CSC continued to engage with provincial/territorial and international partners and stakeholders by utilizing virtual platforms. In October 2020, the Intergovernmental Relations Division (IGR) coordinated the Fall Heads of Corrections meeting, where sub-committees presented their respective reports on the COVID-19 Response Best Practices. As all planned delegation visits and in-person conferences were postponed, CSC used virtual means to pursue information-sharing engagements with international partners interested in broader and more in-depth discussions on specific aspects of CSC’s operations. As part of the Canada’s co-chairmanship of the Group of Friends of Corrections in Peace Operations, IGR continued to advance corrections globally by providing expert technical advice.

During 2020-21, CSC performed a detailed analysis to ensure that CSC’s financial policy instruments were aligned with the Treasury Board’s (TB) policy instruments. A plan to address any identified gaps will be developed in 2021-22. A risk-based system of internal control over financial management is established and maintained at CSC, and has been incorporated into internal controls monitoring plans. Assessments of internal controls in key financial management processes were conducted in 2020-21. In addition, CSC commenced work on updating the organizational internal control framework to fully align with the requirements of the TB Policy on Financial Management.

CSC stabilized its existing Departmental Financial Management System (DFMS) via an Oracle technical upgrade, and continued advancing plans to modernize the DFMS through a SAP hosting solution. CSC signed a Letter of Intent with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to continue working together to establish a robust SAP Partnership that will achieve mutual benefits within both organizations. CSC completed a detailed options analysis on the way forward for the Resource Management Tool and the Resource Allocation Tool to better align with ongoing efforts to modernize its DFMS. The SAP Business Planning and Consolidation product was chosen to replace both of these legacy applications.

During 2020-21, Corporate Services restructured the reporting relationship of the National Depot to strengthen procurement and materiel management activities at CSC. As a result, the National Depot became the centralized location for the warehousing and distribution of essential products to sites across Canada, which enabled the effective and timely oversight of tracking and distribution of these items across CSC during the pandemic.

As well, Corporate Services commenced work on reviewing and updating CSC contracting and materiel management policy instruments to align with the requirements and timelines of the new TB Directive on the Management of Procurement and Directive on the Management of Materiel.

In response to COVID-19, CSC positioned itself digitally, by implementing electronic signatures, converting several forms, completing the Enterprise Data Information Management Program maturity assessment, and publishing Open Government datasets.

Information Management Services (IMS) also increased CSC’s access to audio conferencing and videoconferencing solutions. This included significant increases in infrastructure capacity through close collaboration with Shared Services, thus enabling CSC to continue to build relationships and share information remotely with public safety partners at the national, regional, and local levels while aiding CSC’s modernization.

During fiscal year 2020-21, a number of activities took place to advance the agile procurement process for the Offender Management System Modernization (OMS-M) project. In October 2020, CSC met with over 60 participants from different software companies as part of CSC’s Industry Day. This event showcased the collaboration and coordination efforts of both the OMS-M project team and the IMS group. This virtual event gave vendors and stakeholders the opportunity to learn about the OMS-M project and CSC’s request for information (RFI). Throughout February 2021, CSC met with six of the vendors that responded to the RFI for one-on-one sessions to enhance CSC’s understanding of what is available from vendors. Since some requirements are unique to Canada, the OMS-M project has adopted a component-based approach that will blend vendor components with custom-developed applications, both leveraging the Data Foundation architecture. A modernized OMS will assist CSC in improving public safety outcomes by systematically incorporating structured assessments of risk and interventions with offenders into information management systems and procedures.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
Main Estimates
Planned spending
Total authorities available for use
Actual spending
(authorities used)
(Actual spending minus Planned spending)
324,932,680 324,932,680 516,570,389 388,312,515 63,379,835
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
Planned full-time equivalents
Actual full-time equivalents
(Actual full-time equivalents minus Planned full-time equivalents)
2,659 2,751 92

The variance of $191.6 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Internal Services' authorities available for use were $516.6 million and the variance with the actual spending was $128.3 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2021-22.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Internal Services.

Analysis of trends in spending and human resources

Actual expenditures

Departmental spending trend graph

The following graph presents planned (voted and statutory spending) over time.

Departmental Spending Trend Graph
Departmental Spending Trend Graph

The table shows details of CSC's planned spending in $ millions for fiscal years 2018-19, 2019-20, 2020-21, 2021-22, 2022-23 and 2023-24. In 2018-19 there was 223 million of spending on statutory and 2,366 million on voted for a total of 2,589 million. In 2019-20 there was 229 million of spending on statutory and 2,424 million on voted for a total of 2,653 million. In 2020-21 there was 246 million of spending on statutory and 2,685 million on voted for a total of 2,931 million. In 2021-22 there will be 247 million of spending on statutory and 2,547 million on voted for a total of 2,794 million. In 2022-23 there will be 244 million of spending on statutory and 2,574 million on voted for a total of 2,818 million. In 2023-24 there will be 246 million of spending on statutory and 2,586 million on voted for a total of 2,832 million.

Budgetary performance summary for Core Responsibilities and Internal Services (dollars)
Core responsibilities and Internal Services 2020-21
Main Estimates
Planned spending
Planned spending
Planned spending
Total authorities available for use
2018-19 Actual spending (authorities used) 2019-20 Actual spending (authorities used) 2020-21 Actual spending (authorities used)
1.0 Care and Custody 1,625,362,484 1,625,362,484 1,799,685,523 1,815,488,502 2,003,919,806 1,664,493,616 1,669,389,184 1,875,093,281
2.0 Correctional Interventions 445,660,085 445,660,085 461,582,718 464,628,586 514,673,572 432,616,375 452,591,211 495,803,539
3.0 Community Supervision 157,883,871 157,883,871 172,015,943 173,526,410 173,643,128 166,107,821 173,361,655 172,006,751
Subtotal 2,228,906,440 2,228,906,440 2,433,284,184 2,453,643,498 2,692,236,506 2,263,217,812 2,295,342,050 2,542,903,571
Internal Services 324,932,680 324,932,680 374,529,517 377,818,248 516,570,389 326,102,253 357,479,385 388,312,515
Total 2,553,839,120 2,553,839,120 2,807,813,701 2,831,461,746 3,208,806,895 2,589,320,065 2,652,821,435 2,931,216,086

For the fiscal year 2020-21, CSC’s actual spending exceeded planned spending by $377.4 million.

To fund the above variance, CSC’s total authorities available for use were increased by $655.0 million. Taking into consideration this increase, CSC’s total authorities available for use were $3,208.8 million and the variance with the actual spending was $277.6 million. Of this variance, a total of $115.4 million in operating and capital funds were requested to be reprofiled to future years and $143.7 million in operating and capital funds were carried forward to 2021-22.

The net increase in authority of $655.0 million is due to the following:

Carry forward amounts in the 2020-21 fiscal year were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Operating expenditures saw an increase, as CSC did its part to prevent the spread of the virus and manage outbreaks at several institutions. Conversely, planned capital expenditures were not reached, as large capital projects were put on hold, as mandated by municipal and federal governments, in response to the pandemic. All unused funding was either requested for reprofile or has been made available in the carry-forward calculations to 2021-22.

Actual human resources

Human resources summary for core responsibilities and Internal Services
Core responsibilities and Internal Services 2018-19 Actual full-time equivalents 2019-20 Actual full-time equivalents 2020-21
Planned full-time equivalents
2020-21 Actual full-time equivalents 2021-22 Planned full-time equivalents 2022-23 Planned full-time equivalents
1.0 Care and Custody 10,361 10,343 10,521 10,576 10,975 11,058
2.0 Correctional Interventions 4,197 4,310 4,406 4,289 4,322 4,338
3.0 Community Supervision 228 231 233 230 237 237
Subtotal 14,786 14,884 15,160 15,095 15,534 15,633
Internal Services 2,580 2,714 2,659 2,751 2,734 2,733
Total 17,366 17,598 17,819 17,846 18,268 18,366

The variance between planned and actual FTEs of 27 is mostly explained by increases in hires and the extension of contracts related to positions supporting CSC’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic and related Public Safety measures. Funding dedicated to the pandemic response was provided to CSC to ensure the safety and care of all staff and inmates. As such, increases over planned hires of 119 FTEs were seen across the country in positions within CSC’s Health Sector. These temporary positions will continue to be required, with adjustments being made according to the evolution of the pandemic situation. The Budget 2021 provided funding for preventing the spread of COVID-19 in Correctional Institutions for the financial year 2021-22. CSC will continue to work with central agencies to ensure that CSC’s financial resources are sufficient to ensure an effective response to COVID-19 in CSC’s institutions. Because of the unpredictable nature of the pandemic, these discussions could be ongoing beyond 2021-22. The FTE increase was further offset by lower numbers of filled Correctional Officer positions, as the pandemic also resulted in fewer Correctional Training Programs being held than anticipated during the year. CSC is gradually resuming CTP offerings as the situation allows, given the applicable Public Health measures in place.

Expenditures by vote

For information on CSC’s organizational voted and statutory expenditures, consult the Public Accounts of Canada 2020-2021.Endnote xxviii

Government of Canada spending and activities

Information on the alignment of CSC’s spending with the Government of Canada’s spending and activities is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxix

Financial statements and financial statements highlights

Financial statements

The Correctional Service of Canada’s financial statements (unaudited) for the year ended March 31, 2021, are available on the departmental website. Endnote xxx

Financial statement highlights

Condensed Statement of Operations (unaudited) for the year ended March 31, 2021 (dollars)
Financial information 2020-21
Planned results
Actual results
Actual results
(2020-21 Actual results minus 2020-21 Planned results)
(2020-21 Actual results minus 2019-20 Actual results)
Total expenses 2,712,656,543 3,139,766,391 3,140,514,209 427,109,848 (747,818)
Total revenues 70,347,556 43,291,391 52,027,209 (27,056,165) (8,735,818)
Net cost of operations before government funding and transfers 2,642,308,987 3,096,475,000 3,088,487,000 454,166,013 7,988,000

Over 90% of CSC’s total expenses are personnel costs, amortization, utilities, supplies and professional services. As reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements, CSC’s total expenses decreased by $2.1 million compared to 2019-20 primarily due to an increase in salary costs offset by a reduction in expenses related to the prior year accrual for contingent liabilities and the asset write-down in the prior year.

Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations

Internal services 13%; Care and custody 62%; Correctional interventions 19%; Community supervision 6%

CSC earns revenue through the sale of goods and services produced by the CORCAN Revolving Fund, a special operating agency within CSC established to aid in the safe reintegration of offenders into Canadian society by providing employment and training opportunities to offenders incarcerated in federal penitentiaries and, after they are released into the community. Total actual revenues were lower than the original 2020-21 planned results by $27 million primarily as a result of reduced CORCAN revenues being impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic which had not been anticipated.

The Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations shows actual expenses of $3,139 million for 2020-21. The Care and Custody core responsibility represents $1,938 million (62%), the Correctional Interventions core responsibility represents $608 million (19%), Internal Services represent $413 million (13%) and the Community Supervision core responsibility represents $181 million (6%).

Condensed Statement of Financial Position (unaudited) as of March 31, 2021 (dollars)
Financial Information 2020-21 2019-20 Difference
(2020-21 minus
Total net liabilities 996,290,774 889,346,722 106,942,552
Total net financial assets 509,042,874 420,509,663 88,533,211
Departmental net debt 487,247,900 468,837,459 18,409,341
Total non-financial assets 2,401,619,548 2,366,001,640 35,617,908
Departmental net financial position 1,914,371,647 1,897,164,581 17,208,567

For detailed financial information, refer to CSC's 2020-21 Consolidated Financial Statements.

CSC’s net liabilities include $810.3 million in accounts payable and accrued liabilities, $109.7 million in vacation pay and compensatory leave, $52.4 million in employee future benefits, $21.0 million in the inmate trust fund, $2.7 million in environmental liabilities and $0.2 million in deferred revenue. The increase in total net liabilities is mainly explained by an increase in the accounts payable to other government departments and accrued salaries and wages.

The total net financial assets include $388 million in the amount due from the Consolidated Revenue Fund, $107.8 million in accounts receivable, advances and loans and $14 million in inventory held for resale. The increase in total net financial assets is mainly explained by an increase in receivables with other government departments related to timing of recoveries and billings.

Corporate Information

Organizational profile

Appropriate minister[s]:The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.

Institutional head: Anne Kelly, Commissioner

Ministerial portfolio: Public Safety

Enabling instrument[s]: Corrections and Conditional Release Act, Endnote xxxi S.C. 1992, c.20

Year of incorporation / commencement: 1979 (March 31)

Raison d’être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do

‘Raison d’être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do’ is available on CSC’s website. Endnote xxxii

Operating context

Information on the operating context is available on CSC’s website. Endnote xxxiii

Reporting framework

CSC’s Departmental Results Framework and Program Inventory of record for 2020-21 are shown below.

Graphical presentation of Departmental Results Framework and Program Inventory
Program Code Program Name
Core Responsibility 1: Care and Custody
P1 Institutional Management and Support
P2 Preventive Security, Intelligence and Supervision
P3 Drug Enforcement
P4 Clinical Services and Public Health
P5 Mental Health Services
P6 Food Services
P7 Accommodation Services
Core Responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions
P8 Offender Case Management
P9 Community Engagement
P10 Chaplaincy
P11 Elder Services
P22 Correctional Programs
P15 Offender Education
P16 CORCAN Employment and Employability
P17 Social Program
Core Responsibility 3: Community Supervision
P18 Community Management and Security
P19 Community-Based Residential Facilities
P20 Community Correctional Centres
P21 Community Health Services
Internal Services

Supporting information on the program inventory

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxxiv is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxxv

Supplementary information tables

The following supplementary information tables are available on CSC's website Endnote xxxvi

Federal tax expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures each year in the Report on Federal Tax Expenditures.Endnote xxxvii This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs as well as evaluations and GBA Plus of tax expenditures.

Organizational contact information

Correctional Service of Canada website Endnote xxxviii
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9

Phone: (613) 992-5891
Fax: (613) 943-1630

Appendix: definitions

appropriation (crédit)
Any authority of Parliament to pay money out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.
budgetary expenditures (dépenses budgétaires)
Operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations.
core responsibility (responsabilité essentielle)
An enduring function or role performed by a department. The intentions of the department with respect to a core responsibility are reflected in one or more related departmental results that the department seeks to contribute to or influence.
Departmental Plan (plan ministériel)
A report on the plans and expected performance of an appropriated department over a 3 year period. Departmental Plans are usually tabled in Parliament each spring.
departmental priority (priorité)
A plan or project that a department has chosen to focus and report on during the planning period. Priorities represent the things that are most important or what must be done first to support the achievement of the desired departmental results.
departmental result (résultat ministériel)
A consequence or outcome that a department seeks to achieve. A departmental result is often outside departments’ immediate control, but it should be influenced by program-level outcomes.
departmental result indicator (indicateur de résultat ministériel)
A quantitative measure of progress on a departmental result.
departmental results framework (cadre ministériel des résultats)
A framework that connects the department’s core responsibilities to its departmental results and departmental result indicators.
Departmental Results Report (rapport sur les résultats ministériels)
A report on a department’s actual accomplishments against the plans, priorities and expected results set out in the corresponding Departmental Plan.
experimentation (expérimentation)
The conducting of activities that seek to first explore, then test and compare the effects and impacts of policies and interventions in order to inform evidence-based decision-making, and improve outcomes for Canadians, by learning what works, for whom and in what circumstances. Experimentation is related to, but distinct from innovation (the trying of new things), because it involves a rigorous comparison of results. For example, using a new website to communicate with Canadians can be an innovation; systematically testing the new website against existing outreach tools or an old website to see which one leads to more engagement, is experimentation.
full time equivalent (équivalent temps plein)
A measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person year charge against a departmental budget. For a particular position, the full time equivalent figure is the ratio of number of hours the person actually works divided by the standard number of hours set out in the person’s collective agreement.
gender-based analysis plus (GBA Plus) (analyse comparative entre les sexes plus [ACS Plus])
An analytical process used to assess how diverse groups of women, men and gender-diverse people experience policies, programs and services based on multiple factors including race ethnicity, religion, age, and mental or physical disability.
government-wide priorities (priorités pangouvernementales)
For the purpose of the 2019-20 Departmental Results Report, those high-level themes outlining the government’s agenda in the 2019 Speech from the Throne, namely: Fighting climate change; Strengthening the Middle Class; Walking the road of reconciliation; Keeping Canadians safe and healthy; and Positioning Canada for success in an uncertain world.
horizontal initiative (initiative horizontale)
An initiative where two or more federal organizations are given funding to pursue a shared outcome, often linked to a government priority.
non budgetary expenditures (dépenses non budgétaires)
Net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the Government of Canada.
performance (rendement)
What an organization did with its resources to achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve, and how well lessons learned have been identified.
performance indicator (indicateur de rendement)
A qualitative or quantitative means of measuring an output or outcome, with the intention of gauging the performance of an organization, program, policy or initiative respecting expected results.
performance reporting (production de rapports sur le rendement)
The process of communicating evidence based performance information. Performance reporting supports decision making, accountability and transparency.
plan (plan)
The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally, a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead to the expected result.
planned spending (dépenses prévues)
For Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports, planned spending refers to those amounts presented in Main Estimates. A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and received. The determination of planned spending is a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports.
program (programme)
Individual or groups of services, activities or combinations thereof that are managed together within the department and focus on a specific set of outputs, outcomes or service levels.
program inventory (répertoire des programmes)
Identifies all the department’s programs and describes how resources are organized to contribute to the department’s core responsibilities and results.
result (résultat)
A consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead they are within the area of the organization’s influence.
statutory expenditures (dépenses législatives)
Expenditures that Parliament has approved through legislation other than appropriation acts. The legislation sets out the purpose of the expenditures and the terms and conditions under which they may be made.
target (cible)
A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative.
voted expenditures (dépenses votées)
Expenditures that Parliament approves annually through an appropriation act. The vote wording becomes the governing conditions under which these expenditures may be made.
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