Canada's Correctional System: A Team Effort - Glossary

Canada's Correctional System: A Team Effort


Criminal Code: An Act respecting the Criminal Law, the Criminal Code for short, is the federal statute that governs all criminal penalties that may be imposed under sovereign government authority for criminal justice offences such as sexual assault, murder and theft. The federal Department of Justice is responsible for drafting, correcting and revising Criminal Code provisions.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police: The RCMP’s scope of operations includes combating terrorism, organized crime and specific crimes related to the illicit drug trade; economic crimes such as counterfeiting and credit card fraud; and offences that threaten the integrity of Canada’s national borders. The RCMP also protects VIPs, including the Prime Minister and foreign dignitaries, and provides the law enforcement community with a full range of computer-based security services.

Crown Attorney: Called the “Crown Prosecutor,” or in the provinces and territories “Attorney General,” the Crown Attorney is respectively senior counsel to federal, provincial and territorial governments. The Crown Attorney represents the State and prosecutes on behalf of the Crown anyone who commits a criminal act.

Jury: Depending on the seriousness of the offence, the accused may have to choose between a jury and a non-jury trial. In Canada, a criminal law jury is made up of 12 jurors selected from among citizens of the province or territory in which the court is located. Generally, any adult Canadian citizen is qualified to be considered for jury duty.

Probation: A sentence during which an offender is supervised in the community instead of serving time in a correctional facility.

Federal facility: Facility for adult offenders (18 years of age and older) serving sentences of two or more years.

Provincial or territorial facility: Facility for offenders serving sentences of under two years, for young offenders and for probationary or community sentences.

Quakers: Known also as the Religious Society of Friends, this is a religious movement founded in England in the 17th century by some Anglican dissidents led by George Fox. Quakerism advocates pacifism and a simple lifestyle.

Salvation Army: An international Christian church whose mission is to manifest the love of Jesus Christ, meet the essential needs of people and transform communities.

Chaplaincy: A service comprising numerous volunteers to provide individual support, worship services, and various activities and interventions such as circles of support and accountability. These volunteers bring a continuity of care from community to institution and back to community.