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Women Offender Programs and Issues

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Correctional Service of Canada

Role Statement

The Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge provides a safe and empowering environment where Aboriginal women can begin their individual healing journeys, while being supported and encouraged through daily interaction with Aboriginal spiritual leaders, community representatives and Healing Lodge staff.

Office of the Deputy Commissioner for Women
National Headquarters
Correctional Service of Canada


Table of Contents









Annex A:

Annex B: Mission of Correctional Service of Canada

Annex C: Creating Choices

Annex D: Mental Health Strategy for Women Offenders

Annex E: Correctional Program Strategy for Women Offenders

Annex F: Profile of Women Offenders at Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge



Accepted by the federal government in September 1990, Creating Choices: The Report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women , made recommendations for a new correctional approach to manage women that is responsive to their unique needs. The Task Force also identified the requirement for a different correctional model, which would respond to the needs of incarcerated Aboriginal women. This approach led to the creation of four regional institutions and an Aboriginal healing lodge to replace the only federal facility for women in Canada , the Prison for Women 1.

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) achieved a major objective in establishing a more equitable and appropriate correctional model for women offenders in Canada with the opening of regional women's institutions between 1995 and 1997. Following extensive consultation with Aboriginal Elders and community representatives, the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge was established in 1995 on land belonging to the Nekaneet First Nation, near the town of Maple Creek in south-western Saskatchewan .


The Vision for Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge was put to paper some 10 years ago and remains as important today as it was when first written:

For as long as our people can remember, the Aboriginal people of Turtle Island 2 have lived in balance with the Sacred and Natural Laws of Creation. We have lived here long before history was written.

The Aboriginal people were never in a hurry. There was virtually nothing that we needed that we could not have, and have in abundance. We were rich in identity and culture. We were sovereign. Our work was conducted in an atmosphere of respect for the Creator and respect for ourselves. We had time for each other, and our success was living in the way the Creator intended. Our emphasis was placed on cooperation and sharing. In cooperation, we experienced peace between nations, people, animals, and their spirituality. There was infinity in the Circle of Life.

We lived by a principle that was based on the Power, the Beauty, the Sacredness and the Harmony of Creation. The Principle of Life is to walk in Balance with Creation.

At the centre of our universe was the teaching of peace; peace within ourselves, with our families, with our communities and within our nations.

Our relationship to the Earth is integral to our healing; for Healing is the emotional, physical, mental and spiritual connection of all people to the Creator. Healing is to regain peace and tranquility within ourselves and is a process, not an event. As Keepers of the Sacred Circle of Life, we are devoted to the preservation of the endangered Earth Mother, and the continuation of all Life.

As we watch, Wasabainoquay (Wa-sa-ba-no-quay), the Morning Star Woman, begin her walk before the Grandfather Sun begins his journey. At first light ceremony, we are reminded once again of the original instructions given to us by the Creator. Aboriginal people of Turtle Island are the Keepers of the Land. As women and mothers, we understand our connection to Mother Earth. Our Elders tell us that only when we returned to our spirituality and when humankind re-kindles deep respect for nature, will we find our health and balance with the Earth Mother and within ourselves.

The way to our Spirituality is the teachings of the Circle of Life. The Circle represents life as it is, as it can be experienced. Unity is the Circle, for there is harmony in unity. It represents the holistic belief of Aboriginal culture. The circle shows that we are only a small part of Creation. With Creation, we can discover ourselves.

Through the teachings of the Medicine Wheel, all things are part of Creation. We begin with the Centre of the Circle of Life, the Creator, and the Creation. The Centre is also ourselves where we find Vision, our direction on the Spiritual Path in Life.

At Creation, we were given four Sacred Gifts of Life: From the East, the gift of Fire; from the South, the gift of Rock; from the West, the gift of Water; and from the North, the gift of Wind.

  • The gift of Fire is for warmth and growth, and the Grandfather Sun is the fire that protects us by day.
  • The gift of Rock is for physical contact with the Universe. Mother Earth is the Sacred gift of Rock. She is home and nourishment for our physical bodies, our Spirit and our foundation of Life. We honor her in the Sweat lodge Ceremony with the Sacred Rock Spirits.
  • The gift of Water cleanses and purifies and is essential to all living things. The Grandmother Moon controls the water, the ebb and tide, protecting us by night.
  • The gift of the Wind is the Sacred Breath of Life, the air we breathe. It gives us direction, just as the stars do at night. Each of the Sacred gifts have Spirit, Life unto itself.

Then the sustenance of Life was created: from the East, Plant Life that included flowers for medicine and beauty; from the South, Grasses for food for all Creation; from the West, vegetables for food and nourishment; from the North, Trees for protection and shelter.

Then the animals came: from the East, the two-legged (humans); from the South, the winged ones; from the West, the water life; from the North, the Four legged. Our humanity is connected to the animal world, as humans are part of the animal world. All animals are gifted with a Sacred Direction and there is a link between humans and animals in the Circle of Life.

All things go through the Four Hills of Life which represent the Four Stages of Life: in the East, Infancy and its gift of Innocence; in the South, Childhood and its gift of Freedom; in the West, Adulthood and its gift of Responsibility; in the North, Old Age and its gift of Wisdom.

We were given the Sacred Laws of the Creation to provide natural flow with the Universe. Sacred Life is the balance between the physical and spiritual world. We are responsible to walk in balance with the Sacred Law of Creation.

  • In the East, the Law of Control over self which provides the freedom of choice that the mind has choosing positive or negative thoughts and actions.
  • In the South, the Law of Order which is the natural order of Creation in its entirely. Natural Order is how things would happen and is the Sacred Balance between all things, physical, mental, spiritual and universal.
  • In the West, the Law of Balance is contained in the natural cycles of all Life. Mankind has created worldly imbalances with the Creation; therefore, Mankind has the responsibility to restore and maintain balance.
  • In the North, the Law of Harmony combines the Four Sacred Laws of Creation. Together, they provide control, order, balance and harmony with the Creator.

As Aboriginal People, we have the responsibility to walk in balance with Creation. This balance is to recognize the Sacred Law of Creation, as well as the physical laws. The way we carry out our responsibility is to recognize, as one, our Spirit, our Mind and our Body. The walk is for all nations, but it is a personal responsibility to begin the first step.

To live in balance with Creation, we are to follow Four Spiritual Principles.

  • From the East, the principle of Love is to love oneself, to love others, to love Creation, unconditionally. When we have done all three, then we have found Love.
  • From the South, the Principle of Honesty is when we have found the Truth in Sacred Law. The Truth is reflected in how we live within that Law.
  • From the West, the Principle of Unselfishness is the gift of sharing. Sharing your abundance, sharing what you have, sharing your knowledge, sharing for the well being of others, and therefore the well being of Creation.
  • From the North, the principle of Purity is the freedom from negative thoughts and feelings. To live by this Principle means remaining positive, so only good things come to you.

These gifts are brought together in the Medicine Wheel of Life, which is the Sacred Circle comprised of the Four Directions of the Universe. These represent the Four Origins of Humanity and their gifts to the Creation.

  • In the East, the gift of Birth and re-Birth and the Spring of new growth. From the East comes the Red Woman and her gifts of Vision and Prophecy. These gifts are found in the Spirit animal of the Buffalo , the sustainer of Life for the Red Nation.
  • In the South, the gift of Learning and the summer of Fruitfulness. From the South comes the Yellow Woman and her gifts of Enlightenment and Illumination. These gifts are found in the Spirit animal of the Golden Eagle, the one who sees all and flies to the greatest of heights.
  • In the West, the gift of Looking Within and the Autumn of Cleansing. From the West comes the Black Woman and her gifts of Introspection and Reasoning. These gifts are found in the Spirit Animal of the Thunderbird. The thunder comes before lightening to bring about change.
  • In the North, the gift of Serenity and the Winter of rest. From the North comes the White Woman and her gifts of Wisdom. These gifts are found in the White Buffalo, the Wise Visionary that has attained purity.

These Sacred Directions come together in harmony with the Creator, within the Circle of Life, and the Spiritual path we walk. Through this, the people can find their walk in Life and begin to heal the Love and Kindness of Creation.

In conclusion, this Pizoniwikwon (from the Waubaneau People of the Eastern Doorway of the Maliseet Nation), this Healing Lodge, a safe place or power spot, is the pathway on which a holistic approach to healing and human development will take place.

Commitment to Vision

Staff at Okimaw Ohci will remain committed to the Vision and ensure residents are familiar with what the expectations are, as outlined therein. In this way, the Vision will continue to direct and guide daily activity at the Lodge and ensure residents are encouraged to follow their individual healing paths.


Circle of Life

The Committee responsible for the original Vision document consisted of representatives from the community, the Native Women's Association of Canada, the Correctional Service of Canada, and Aboriginal Elders. The Correctional Service of Canada sees the Vision for the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge as the umbrella under which all other activities occur.

The Healing Lodge, through the following 5 principles 3, will provide Aboriginal women offenders with the opportunity to:

Restore pride and dignity as women and mothers: Within the disorganization and breakdown of communities, Aboriginal women have been impacted through their loss of role and loss of pride and dignity. This is especially true for incarcerated women. Women will have opportunities to learn about the integral role that women once held within Aboriginal communities, and be encouraged to carry forward the traditional women's teachings into contemporary society. A significant role from the past is the role of mother, nurturing and sensitive to the needs of all children, and particularly their own. Children are closer to the spirit world, and have innocence and wisdom that can heal others, which is acknowledged by both W and staff at the Lodge.

Restore a sense of worth, dignity, and hope: Within Aboriginal communities, the loss of self-worth, loss of respect, and loss of hope for the future is apparent. Returning women to a healthy self-image and improving self-esteem is a critical step along the ‘healing journey'. This is accomplished through healthy interactions with staff and other women, by setting boundaries, and through mediation and conflict resolution.

Rebuild their families and their communities: Many families and communities have suffered losses, including the loss of the extended family and the close-knit communities that ensured survival over the centuries. In helping Aboriginal women to begin their healing journey and improve themselves, a ripple effect will be felt as their actions impact on families and communities. The Nekaneet First Nation acts as ‘host community', as many women are disconnected from their home communities.

Build bridges between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal societies: The divisions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal societies have created barriers for Aboriginal people. Each has different values, different history, and different worldviews. The Lodge can incorporate traditional teachings and traditional worldviews into a contemporary setting. The staff at the Lodge will include both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people to teach the residents about diversity and assist the residents to function in today's society. The Lodge welcomes visitors in order to appreciate different or new perspectives. It will also be open to other CSC staff interested in Aboriginal cultures.

Promote the healing of the Earth and all her creatures: Mother Earth is in crisis as people live on the land without respect. The Lodge has a natural environment, which must be maintained. The women at the Lodge have opportunities to attune themselves to Mother Earth, through ceremonies and recreational activities.

While the original Vision document spoke of seasonal gatherings, redevelopment of relationships with all creatures sharing the Earth and of the creation of an economic land base that would provide for self-sufficiency, actual activities at the Lodge have varied since it opened in 1995, depending on the needs of the residents incarcerated there at a given time.

PART 2 Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge Objectives

The Vision establishes the overall spiritual philosophy for the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge and, as such, is an important component in all lodge objectives and activities. The Vision is a living entity, visible in all interactions with residents and should be the background for any future direction for the Lodge. The original Vision was developed by Elders and as such, they remain an integral part of daily operations. All residents, staff and contractors adhere to the overarching philosophy provided by the Vision.

Healing for Aboriginal women means the opportunity, through Aboriginal teachings, programs, spirituality and culture, to recover from histories of abuse, regain a sense of self-worth, gain skills and rebuild families. Through healing, Aboriginal women are able to change or release negative behaviours such as addictions and criminal behaviour. Delving deep into issues allows for an intensive healing experience, which improves their ability to re-establish themselves in their community. The Healing Lodge will ensure the following objectives are operationalised in a way that is conducive to healing and mindful of the Vision for the Healing Lodge.

  • Provision of an environment that is free of racism and sexism, thereby promoting respect and understanding of self and others.
  • Provision of an operational model that blends established correctional methods for women offenders with traditional Aboriginal teachings and ceremonies thereby creating an internal community committed to the Vision and the promotion of overall wellness (mental, spiritual, physical and emotional).
  • Interaction with Aboriginal spiritual leaders and the sharing of oral traditions to assist Aboriginal women offenders to successfully reintegrate at the most appropriate point in their sentence.
  • Provision of an environment in which Aboriginal women offenders are supported in their efforts to become actively involved in parenting their children, either on-site or at a distance.
  • Creation and maintenance of partnerships with the local community and with involved stakeholders positioned to advance the Vision and objectives of the Healing Lodge, nationally and internationally.
  • Creation of and support for community outreach activities involving community partners, spiritual leaders and community staff to better assist Aboriginal women offenders on conditional release.

PART 3 Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge Design and Operational Philosophy

3.1 Lodge Design

The Healing Lodge complex consists of the following structures:

  • Main Lodge;
  • Spiritual Lodge;
  • Elders' Lodge;
  • Safe Lodge;
  • 4 one-level town house; living units;
  • a Private Family Visit unit (PFV);
  • a program building;
  • 2 sweat lodge sites
  • maintenance buildings;
  • Horse barn.

The design of the main Lodge enhances the sense of community for both staff and residents and is a constant reminder of the original purpose and Vision. It accommodates the following services: administration (finance, personnel services, and central records), health services, case management, admission and discharge, telephones, laundry, hair dressing, library, and the daycare centre. A large central social area provides a space for the staff and the residents to have their noon meal and facilitate communal activities, including visits. A central courtyard located within the circular design of the Main Lodge is used for a variety of activities including spiritual ceremonies.

The Spiritual Lodge is used for the daily morning circle, National Parole Board hearings, program space, counseling and mediation activities, staff circles and training, ceremonies, and provides a space where residents can gather to sing in the evening or spend time to reflect. Areas are also available within this lodge to prepare and store herbs and medicines.

The Elders' Lodge provides accommodation for visiting Elders. This Lodge is also used by visiting Elders for the provision of counseling services to the residents 4.

The program building accommodates classroom and program space, a gymnasium, a weight room, arts and crafts area as well as offices.

On Lodge property, there are two sweat lodge sites (winter and summer). The winter site consists of a building enabling the ceremony to be conducted indoors and has an adjacent changing area. The summer sweat lodge site is located in the meadow where recreational activities also take place as well as the collection of sage and sweetgrass, used in ceremonial activities.

Within the maintenance buildings cluster are found a water treatment plant and cistern, fire truck, and general maintenance areas. A wood splitter is also located in this area in support of ceremonies, which require firewood.

Approximately twice a year, Nekaneet band members offer the Horse Program. A horse barn is located near the maintenance buildings cluster enabling the Lodge to house the horses that are necessary for this program.

The Safe Lodge is used for a number of purposes. Primarily, it serves as orientation and reception space for newcomers. It can also provide a nurturing environment which permits residents to obtain additional support and/or facilitate short term administrative segregation when it is not operationally viable to allow a resident in crisis to remain in her own unit.

The interior design of the living units promotes the development and maintenance of community-based living skills and incorporates the small meal preparation program. Within each unit, there is a common living area/kitchen as well as individual bedrooms, which the residents can personalize in accordance with Lodge policy. Each resident is provided with a key to her bedroom thus enabling her to lock her room when she is away from the residence. Residents have the opportunity to reside and care for their children in the living units, in accordance with the Mother-Child Program 5.

One of the living units is specially equipped to assist residents who have physical disabilities.

1 The Prison for Women closed July, 2000.

2Turtle Island : Known to non-Aboriginal people as North America

3 These principles were outlined in the original Vision document however further elaboration was developed by the Kikawinaw in 2003.

4 This is done in accordance with the National Operational Protocol – Frontline Staffing .

5 Commissioner's Directive 768 Institutional Mother-Child Program


3.2 Rated Capacity

The Healing Lodge has a rated capacity of 28 beds.

3.3 External Environment

The Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge is situated in the Cypress Hills of southwestern Saskatchewan on land leased from the Nekaneet First Nation.

"Cypress Hills” is a sacred place. It is to these hills that people come for healing, inspiration, and to hear the voice of their Creator. It is a natural place for restoration of both the body and the spirit.

'Okimaw Ohci' and 'Thunder Breeding Hills' - the 'Cypress Hills' have had several names evincing their power and spiritual importance." 6

When selecting the location for the first national Aboriginal Healing Lodge, the Planning Committee understood the importance of both land and water to Aboriginal people. The above noted quote was included in the submission by the town of Maple Creek and the Nekaneet First Nation to the federal government. The federal government subsequently accepted these recommendations.

On this land there are rolling meadows , forests, streams, rivers and a multitude of birds and animals. All of these things encourage the residents to appreciate their natural surroundings and provide ample space to contemplate their healing journey.

6 Maple Creek/Nekaneet submission Feb 1992

3.4 Daily Operational Routine

Each morning, residents and staff gather in the Spiritual Lodge for the Morning Circle. The Circle is usually led by an Elder and includes a smudge, prayers, Elder's teachings and a sharing circle.

Following this, the residents proceed to employment or programs. The noon meal is taken communally in the Main Lodge. Afternoons are much the same as mornings, with the residents involved in either employment or programming or a combination of both. Evenings and weekends provide time for individual and communal cultural and leisure activities.

3.5 Operational Practices

3.5(i) Communication

Communication plays an essential role in the overall operation of the Healing Lodge. It is necessary to ensure both formal and informal communications systems are well established. Types of communication forums such as morning meetings, shift briefings, staff meetings, circles, case conferences, informal discussion, and electronic mail are some of the tools which are integrated into the overall communication strategy of the Lodge. Good communication is an essential component of dynamic security and is a cornerstone in the overall operation of the Lodge.

3.5(ii) Dynamic Security

At the Lodge, dynamic security refers to any activity that promotes or contributes to a safe, secure and healing correctional environment by encouraging constructive relationships and by increasing awareness of factors that contribute to or detract from a safe and secure environment. Dynamic security speaks specifically to the relationship that exists between all staff members and the residents with whom they work. It is the interaction between these two groups of people that has a cumulative effect on the overall culture of the Lodge. Every interaction has the potential to create positive staff/resident interactions essential to teamwork.

Dynamic security

3.5(iii) Static Security

Due to the location and design of Okimaw Ohci, and the fact that it is a Lodge and not a traditional correctional institution, there are few static security devices on the site. In order for static security to be effective, it must work in an integrated manner with dynamic security and supervision. Static security measures at the Lodge include locked and/or alarmed doors, restraint equipment and camera observation. While static security measures are a necessary part of Lodge operations, it is essential they be considered as one tool among many in the overall management of the facility.

The basic operational objectives required to manage any correctional facility include communication, dynamic and static security and can be illustrated as follows:

Objective How We Do It


Dynamic supervision and security; communication systems, information sharing


Dynamic supervision and security; information sharing, communication systems, cameras, lights


Dynamic supervision and security; information sharing, cameras, detection systems (dogs), alarms (doors, windows, PPA system)


Staff observation, communication systems, cameras, information sharing


Staff intervention, secure security systems (doors, windows), situation management techniques


Staff intervention (conflict resolution, negotiation, use of force), use of static measures and situation management intervention techniques (dynamic and defensive)

3.6 Crisis Management

Crisis management is an accepted and necessary component of the management of any facility, including Healing Lodges. Crisis Management Training is mandatory for managers and staff who are, or could be, members of a Crisis Management Team. Although not formal Team members, Elders at Okimaw Ohci are used during and after incidents to provide support to both staff and residents.

Emergency planning activities are an essential element of crisis management and each facility is expected to have current contingency plans in place to deal with all types of internal and external emergencies. The contingency plan for the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge also specifies the roles, responsibilities and protocols to be followed by male Institutional Emergency Response Team members from men's facilities (should they be required for perimeter containment), male police, and RCMP officers (if required in some circumstances) during interventions with the residents.

The Healing Lodge utilizes an all-female cell extraction team. When authorized by the Crisis Manager, the team is utilized to deal with emergency situations 7 following the use of all other least restrictive measures, as outlined in policy.

Critical Incident Stress Management is an important element of the emergency planning process and is essential in assisting the facility in returning to normal operations as soon as possible following an incident. Those involved in an incident are encouraged to attend these types of debriefing sessions.

7 Since the opening of the Lodge there has been fewer than one incident per year requiring CET intervention.

PART 4 Human Resources

First and foremost, the Healing Lodge must provide a safe, secure and humane environment for both staff and residents. The management model of the Healing Lodge, while based on a progressive and humanistic correctional model is greatly enhanced by traditional Aboriginal approaches to daily life. This innovative model was developed from the recommendations and guiding principles enunciated in Creating Choices. The Lodge is a small operational unit and many responsibilities/duties are integrated within one position.

4.1 Organizational Components

There are two organizational components at the Lodge: Operations and Management Services. Included in the Operations category are the following functions: case management, sentence management, security, health care, programs, recreation, visiting, assessment and treatment, education, employment, spirituality, and other related areas.

Management Services is regarded as the services/support component and is responsible for maintaining the operation of the facility and providing administrative services. Included under this category are the following functions: administration, clerical support, informatics, personnel services, technical services, financial management, maintenance, purchasing and inventory control, food services, contract administration and other related services.

4.2 Organizational Model

While the Healing Lodge operates according to a standard organizational chart, the philosophical model for the Healing Lodge is represented by the Circle, depicting life in Aboriginal culture as a never-ending spiral of growth.

Beginning with the Inner Circle , Iskwewak are the Aboriginal women incarcerated at the Lodge. They are the centre of the Lodge and of the healing process. It is at this point that the residents make the decision to begin their healing journeys.

The next circle represents the Kikawinaw who actively supports, assists and guides the decisions made by the Iskwewak. She is responsible for the overall direction of services and activities at the Lodge and works, with her staff, to empower Iskwewak to make meaningful and responsible choices.

The third circle represents the Lodge 's corporate relationship with the Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner for Women and the Regional Deputy Commissioner, Prairies.

The outermost circle represents both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities who support and assist the Lodge with its mandate to reintegrate women offenders at the safest, most appropriate time in their sentence.

The focus of all the above noted relationships is the sharing of expertise and an exchange of learning.

4.3 Human Resource Strategy

The Correctional Service of Canada will make every effort to recruit and retain Aboriginal managers and staff for the Healing Lodge as outlined in the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Nekaneet Band of Indians and the Commissioner of Corrections (1994). It is recognized that Elders and other teachers and healers are critical to the successful operation of the Lodge. Staff at all levels will be recruited with high emphasis on their life experiences and their ability to act as positive role models.

Cree Terms Meaning Correctional Titles
ISKWEWAK Women Women Offenders
KIKAWINAW Our Mother Warden
KIKAWISINAW Aunt Team Leader
--   Assistant Team Leader
KIMISINAW Older Sisters Primary Workers

The Healing Lodge operates under the leadership of a Kikawinaw who has primary responsibility for the Lodge on a day-to-day basis. The Kikawinaw has a direct reporting relationship with the Regional Deputy Commissioner, Prairies and a functional reporting relationship with the Deputy Commissioner for Women. The Kikawinaw is a member of the Regional Management Committee as well as the National Women's Facilities Warden's Committee.

The organizational configuration is based on a minimal hierarchical structure and many of the functions of a traditional male institution are integrated into the duties of the Aunts and the Assistant Team Leaders.

Kimisinaws (Primary Workers/Older Sisters) have an integrated role that encompasses both static and dynamic security duties as well as the case management work required in support of the reintegration process. A specific selection process is used to ensure that these key staff have the knowledge, abilities, skills and personal suitability required to work in this specialized environment. Their dual role is challenging and it is important that they model attitudes and life style choices conducive to Aboriginal teachings, in order to assist the women on their healing journeys.

Although the Healing Lodge is small, relative to the regional women's institutions, it must provide programs and services consistent with those available to women housed elsewhere. As noted earlier, within the Operations Division, staff are responsible for program delivery, health care, psychology, sentence management, the case management function, as well as overall security at the Lodge. Within the Management Services Division, staff are responsible for general administration, informatics, finance, human resources, food services, general maintenance, stores, records, media, and the health and safety file. Consistent with the above noted integration of duties, staff in both of these divisions may hold responsibility for more than one function.

As required by the MOA, many members of the Nekaneet band provide services to the facility and to the residents, either as staff, contractors or volunteers, beyond those offered by their Elders. The Lodge strives to create a community where everyone works together to achieve the Vision as well as the correctional goals.

4.4 Cross Gender Staffing

In 1997, CSC developed a National Operational Protocol - Front-Line Staffing in order to provide direction and guidance with respect to cross gender procedures within resident's institutions. Procedures related to intrusive (frisk and strip) searches, cell extractions, and camera monitoring as well as day to day operational practices within the institutions are included. Consistent with general staffing practices, all employees are expected to perform all the duties in their work descriptions regardless of gender, with the exception of specific procedures as set out in the Protocol and as stated in policy. As result, the Healing Lodge implements operational practices in accordance with the Protocol.

Traditionally, there is recognition that Aboriginal teachings for residents be delivered by women however, the need for balance ensures that both women and men participate in the healing process. Aboriginal community members of both genders assist with the work at the Healing Lodge and the Protocol is shared with them, thus ensuring a clear understanding of cross gender issues.

4.5 Staff Training Plan

The chart below identifies national training requirements for staff working in the resident's institutions.

4.5(i) Staff Training Requirements

1 . For newly hired staff

Course Comments # Days PW # Days Non-PW


13 days to 12 weeks depending on classification

12 weeks

10 days

Parole officer training

Full course for PW or others doing case management work

2 weeks


OMS training

All staff

½ day

½ day

Woman-Centred Training (WCT)

All staff

10 days

3-days (non-PW)
1 day (managers)

Non-Violent Crisis Intervention

Curriculum as per regional training plan.

2 -5 days

2 -5 days

Suicide Prevention

Course used by each region

1-2 days

1-2 days

Mental health awareness and issues

All staff working in the SLE houses, Secure Units and IERT members. Is a pre-requisite for the Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) and Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR) training.

2 days

2 days



Up to 19 weeks

Up to 8 weeks

2. For current CSC staff from outside the women's facilities

Course Comments # Days PW # Days NON-PW


All staff coming from men's institutions or parole offices who have not had WCT

10 days


Non-violent crisis intervention

All staff (see above comments)

2-5 days (est. 3)

2-5 days (est. 3)

Suicide Prevention

Refresher if needed.

2 days

2 days

Additionally, the Lodge regularly provides in-service training opportunities on a variety of topics relating to women offenders. At times, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal community members assist in facilitating these sessions.

As noted in the MOA, staff training relating to correctional issues (escorts, policies and procedures, protocols, etc.) is provided to Nekaneet band members thus enabling them to work effectively with staff and residents at the Lodge.


5.1 Case Management

The case management process has three components beginning with Intake Assessment and Correctional Planning. This initial component is completed at Edmonton Institution for Women (EIFW) for all women offenders in the Prairie Region, as the regional women's intake unit is located there. Women offenders interested in residence at Okimaw Ohci must submit a request for admission to the Lodge while housed at EIFW. The Offender Management Review Board at the Lodge reviews the requests in order to determine their appropriateness. Okimaw Ohci developed an admission criteria policy that is adhered to during the review.

Following placement to Okimaw Ohci, each resident is given an orientation to the facility. The orientation process familiarizes the resident with the rules and regulations of the lodge, the healing process, as well as her responsibilities and rights during her incarceration.

Each resident is assigned a case management team (CMT) which includes, at a minimum, the resident, an Older Sister, a Parole Officer, an Aunt and other ad hoc members as may be required. This team creates and implements the resident's Correctional Plan thereby solidifying the resident's agreed upon strategy for her safe and timely reintegration as a law-abiding citizen.

Following admission to the Lodge, the Case Management Team meets with the resident to discuss and obtain information required in the development of her Personal Healing Journey Plan . While the correctional and the healing plans are independent, they complement each other and focus on enabling the resident to successfully return to the community.

The next phase the woman enters into is the Intervention Phase. Interventions are aimed at assisting the woman in changing the behaviours that contributed to her criminality and are outlined in the Correctional Plan while underlining issues are address through the Personal Healing JourneyPlan.

While both static and dynamic risk factors are associated with re-offending, it is the dynamic factors that are amenable to treatment. Thus, the primary purpose of assessing dynamic factors is for treatment planning. Dynamic risk factors can be equated with criminogenic needs. They are a subset of a resident's risk level; they are dynamic characteristics of the resident that, when changed, are associated with changes in the probability of re-offending. However, while static factors such as age, race, and criminal history have shown to be strong predictors of re-offending, dynamic factors such as antisocial attitudes, criminal associates, and substance abuse show even stronger predictive accuracy.

Static risk factors, such as age of onset of criminal behaviour, number of previous offences, a history of violent offending are good predictors of future criminal behaviour. However, although they predict criminal behaviour, they are unalterable, and therefore insensitive to change over time.

Dynamic and static risk factors, however, are useful in contributing to institutional placement and supervision decisions and in providing information regarding level of programming intensity that will best meet a resident's needs. Specifically, intervention is most effective when intensive services are directed toward individuals who present a high risk for recidivism. Accordingly, low risk individuals benefit from lower levels of treatment.

The final phase is the Decision-Making Phase. At some point in her sentence, a resident will have a decision made with respect to her case. Effective case preparation hinges on the competent assessment of the risk posed by the resident relative to the decision being made. These decisions include, but are not limited to, participation in the Private Family Visiting Program, Temporary Absence (either escorted or unescorted), Work Release, Day or Full Parole, and Statutory Release.

The case management process encourages residents to take responsibility for their lives. It also encourages them to become part of the decision-making process to which they have made a commitment in their Correctional Plan and to assume the consequences of their informed choices. Ultimately case management supports the principles of Creating Choices and the Program Strategy for Women Offenders (2004).

5.2 Programs

Programming for residents is in accordance with the Program Strategy for Women Offenders (2004) and consists of established core programs which target criminogenic needs as well as a variety of other programming/education/vocational options.

As the only national Healing Lodge for women offenders, it is essential Okimaw Ohci provide Aboriginal-specific programming to its population. While some of these culturally specific programs are offered to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders in other regional institutions, there are programs specific to the Lodge such as the Nekaneet Horse Program.

5.2(i) Circles of Change

This program was developed by Aboriginal developers in Manitoba . It is an intensive program of 130 sessions and entails three rehabilitative strategies: relational, cognitive-behavioural, and solution-focused. The goals of the program are:

  1. to explore the relationship between actions and life circumstances;
  2. to learn new coping skills;
  3. to build connections which will provide pro-social alternatives to criminal activities.

5.2(ii) Spirit of a Warrior

This 14-week program is designed to alter cognitive distortions as they contribute to the criminality of violent female offenders. Significant cultural and spiritual components provide the foundation of this work. Substance abuse, family relations, communication, problem solving and other related topics are dealt with in-depth. There is continuous support offered by facilitators and the Elders. Warrior is offered with ongoing consultation between the facilitators, Elders and staff at the Lodge. The program takes residents through the Stages of Life, including infancy/childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, and they explore their life experiences through the program.

5.2(iii) Nekaneet Horse Program

This is a 4-week program, designed and delivered by the Nekaneet First Nation. As a holistic program, there are numerous elements to the Horse Program, including grieving, Cree language, circle teachings, ceremonies, and sharing circles. The residents experience their innermost self through the connection to the Horse Spirit. The focus of the program is learning about oneself and others, understanding ceremonies and the connection to language and culture, learning about the spirituality of the Horse, and the integral role of horses in the life of Cree people. Teaching is done using a variety of approaches including the traditional indirect approach of story telling and reflecting on the moral or teaching behind the story. Practical experience of caring for and riding a horse is also provided in the program.

5.2(iv) Mother-Child Program

One of the major concerns identified in Creating Choices was the separation of women offenders from their children. This was particularly critical, given the number of incarcerated residents who were mothers. The Task Force recommendation that women offenders be allowed to have their children with them in the institution, subject to certain conditions and criteria, was accepted by the government. The Task Force recommended that the program include a range from full-time and part-time residency, to regular or enhanced visiting. CSC has subsequently developed policy (CD 768 Institutional Mother-Child Program) in this area after extensive research and consultation.

The goal of the Mother-Child Program at the Healing Lodge is to foster positive relationships between mothers and their children; however, the overriding focus and basis for decision-making is the best interests of the child . The best interests of the child include ensuring the safety and security as well as the physical, emotional and spiritual well being of the child.

The Healing Lodge has the physical capacity to accommodate mother and children living together and has a fully equipped on-site daycare centre.

The age limit for full-time residency is four (4) years and for part-time residency, twelve (12). Eligibility and assessment criteria for both the resident and the child are set out in policy (CD 768). Parenting skills programs are mandatory for mothers participating in the program. Coordination with and consent from the provincial authorities are required, as child welfare legislation is a provincial matter. Health care for the children is also under the auspices of the Province of Saskatchewan .

The Mother-Child Program has been operational at Okimaw Ohci, to varying degrees, since July 1996 and has enabled mothers and their children to establish and maintain these critical relationships.

5.2(v) Peer Support Program

The Peer Support program was first utilized at the Prison for Women in Kingston , Ontario as a way for women offenders to assist one another. There is strict screening criteria and training for inclusion into the program as a Peer Supporter. All women's institutions and the Healing Lodge are able to use this program as required.

PART 6 Health Services

The Health Care Centre is responsible for providing education and information on general health and well being by educating, encouraging and supporting the development of healthier values, attitudes and behaviours. This enables the residents to assume the primary responsibility for their own health and make informed choices regarding their well being. This approach captures the spirit of the principles of shared responsibility, meaningful and responsible choices in a supportive environment, as outlined in Creating Choices .

The Health Service department at the Lodge provides a wide range of services to the residents. When a resident arrives, she has a brief "contact interview" with one of the nurses. An admission self-harm/suicide risk assessment is completed at this time. Within the next few days, the resident receives the formal "Women's Health Assessment". This allows a treatment plan to be developed in order to provide continuity of care and to meet the needs of the resident. With the exception of psychological services, residents are escorted into the community (Maple Creek, Medicine Hat , Saskatoon , Regina , etc.) for all health-related issues. Psychological services are provided by a contract psychologist attending Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge six days a month. During this time a follow up self-harm/suicide risk assessment is completed for each new resident. Treatment needs identified, psychological therapy provided, clinical summaries and progress reports prepared, Intake Risk Assessments, ETA/UTA risk assessments, and Detention Review, Day/Full Parole Risk Assessments are completed within this timeframe by prioritizing the mental health needs of the residents.

Health Services ensure a blend of traditional and western medicine when providing service and teachings to the residents. Health promotion and illness prevention programs are provided on an ongoing basis including the Choosing Health in Prison, Reception Awareness Program, Suicide Prevention Awareness Program and the Circles of the Knowledge Keepers.

The CHIP program (Choosing Health in Prison) is a health promotion program advocating healthy lifestyle choices and is delivered over a two-week period. This program has a grade 7 literacy level and is presented in 18 modules covering the topics of Making Choices, Exercise for Health, Nutrition, Understanding Health, Healthy Bodies & Birth Control, Stress, Hepatitis A, B, C, HIV/Aids, Tuberculosis, Airborne Diseases, Salmonellas, Infection, How it Happens, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Lice/Scabies, Rabies and Ticks, and Pre-Release. The modules are complimented with various adult learning modalities using educational videos, group assignments, and individual sessions when required, homework assignments, and sharing circles to make this experience meaningful in a cultural and gender sensitive way.

All Nations Hope /Aids Regina Network visit the Lodge several times a year to deliver a 1/2 day interactive educational program on HIV and Aids. This provides a perspective on living with HIV/Aids through guest speakers as well as establishes a network of contacts for support in the community.

Suicide Awareness and Prevention Workshop :

This workshop is delivered over a three-hour period with a manual divided into two parts. Part 1 provides information on what you need to know and what to do. Topics such as definitions, suicide facts and myths, information about suicide, possible stressors to suicide and signs and symptoms of suicide risk are discussed. Part 11 provides information to help the resident with what to do if someone is thinking about suicide, whether it is herself or someone else.

Circles of Knowledge Keepers :

This Program is the Aboriginal Component of the Peer Support Program with the goal to prevent and reduce the spread of HIV/Aids among Aboriginal residents in federal institutions. It teaches the resident to be a peer educator and counselor/peer support for HIV/Aids positive people. It speaks mainly about HIV/Aids, but also involves education on Hepatitis A, B, C and TB. The program is delivered over a two week period and includes nine circles of information to include the introduction, basic facts, sex, sexuality and gender roles, risky behaviors, skills development, HIV testing, Aboriginal Health Promotion & Care Issues, self-care & stress relief, program planning. The concept that education is a right, not a privilege is portrayed in the manual and Aboriginal people have the right to information on how to protect themselves. Everyone that takes this program does not enter into the formal role of Knowledge Keeper at the Healing Lodge, however each resident becomes a Knowledge Keeper for herself. The resident identified as a coordinator/leader for the Knowledge Keeper takes on the role of support for residents who are HIV/Aids positive as well as a source of information on the prevention, care, treatment and support for others.

Although the Institutional Mother-Child Program is managed through the Programs Division, Health Services at the Healing Lodge also supports this initiative by ensuring expectant mothers receive appropriate, timely pre-post natal information and care. This is done in partnership with the Public Health Nurse and the Medical community. Health care services are provided for children living at the Lodge with their mothers and the mothers are encouraged to take responsibility for their children's health, including the immunization program for their newborns that is available in the local community. This support is required and appreciated by the residents, many of who have not had the opportunity to parent their children in a supportive, helpful environment.

Open access to Health Services allows the residents to discuss issues and concerns with the nurse on duty and to receive support for health issues.

Annex A: Policy, Mandate and Legislative Framework

The management and operations of the Healing Lodge are based on the Corrections and Conditional Release Act ( CCRA), the Mission of the Correctional Service of Canada, the principles of Creating Choices, the Mental Health Strategy for Women Offenders , and the Program Strategy for Women Offenders.

Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA)

The foundation for the regional facilities is found in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA).

In particular Section 3:

The purpose of the federal correctional system is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by:

  • carrying out sentences imposed by the courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders; and
  • assisting the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the community.

4. The principles that shall guide the Service in achieving the purpose referred to in Section 3 are:

  • that the protection of society be the paramount consideration in the corrections process;
  • that the Service use the least restrictive measures consistent with the protection of the public, staff members and offenders;
  • that offenders retain the rights and privileges of all members of society, except those rights and privileges that are necessarily removed or restricted as a consequence of the sentence;
  • that correctional policies, programs and practices respect gender, ethnic, cultural and linguistic differences and be responsive to the special needs of offenders and aboriginal peoples, as well as to the needs of other groups of offenders with special requirements;
  • that offenders are expected to obey penitentiary rules and conditions governing temporary absence, work release, parole and statutory release, and to actively participate in programs designed to promote their rehabilitation and reintegration;
  • that staff members be properly selected and trained, and be given
  • appropriate career development opportunities,
  • good working conditions, including a workplace environment that is free of practices that undermine a person's sense of personal dignity, and
  • opportunities to participate in the development of correctional policies and programs

Additionally, Section 30 sets out the requirement for the classification of offenders:

  • 30. (1) The Service shall assign a security classification of maximum, medium or minimum to each inmate in accordance with the regulations made under paragraph 96 (6).

With respect to living conditions, the CCRA states in section 70:

  • The Service shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that penitentiaries, the penitentiary environment, the living and working conditions of inmates and the working conditions of staff members are safe, healthful and free of practices that undermine a person's sense of personal dignity.

As identified by the Task Force, appropriate programs to meet the unique needs of women are essential components of the regional facilities. Sections 76 and 77 state:

  • The Service shall provide a range of programs designed to address the needs of offenders and contribute to their successful reintegration into the community

As is outlined in section 77, the CSC is to provide programming to meet the needs of women offenders:

Without limiting the generality of section 76, the Service shall:

  • provide programs designed particularly to address the needs of female offenders; and
    • consult regularly about programs for female offenders with:
    • appropriate women's groups, and
    • other appropriate persons and groups with expertise on, and experience in working with, female offenders

In addition, the need to provide specialized programs to address the needs of Aboriginal offenders is outlined in section 80:

  • Without limiting the generality of section 76, the Service shall provide programs designed particularly to address the needs of aboriginal offenders

Annex B: Mission of Correctional Service of Canada

The Healing Lodge reflects the Mission Statement:

The Correctional Service of Canada, as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the rule of law, contributes to the protection of society by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to become law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control .

And in particular these specific core values and strategic objectives:

Core Value 1: We respect the dignity of individuals, the rights of all members of society, and the potential for human growth and development.

Strategic Objective 1.7: To respect the social, cultural and religious differences of individual offenders.

Core Value 2: We recognize that the offender has the potential to live as a law-abiding citizen.

Strategic Objective 2.2: To ensure that the special needs of female and native offenders are addressed properly.

Core Value 3: We believe that our strength and our major resource in achieving our objectives is our staff and that human relationships are the cornerstone of our endeavors.

Strategic Objective 3.4: To ensure that staff spend as much time as possible in direct contact with offenders.

Annex C: Creating Choices

The on-going development of the women's institutions is guided by the goals and vision of Creating Choices: The Report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (1990), which emphasized a holistic vision with respect to the treatment of women offenders. This approach is guided by the five principles of Creating Choices :

Empowerment: Empowerment is the process through which women gain insight into their situation, identify their strengths, and are supported and challenged to take positive action to gain control of their lives.

Meaningful and Responsible Choices: Women need options that allow them to make responsible choices. Dependence on alcohol and/or drugs, men, and government financial assistance has denied residents the opportunity and ability to make choices.

Respect and Dignity: Correctional Service of Canada had often been criticized for its tendency to encourage, and therefore perpetuate, dependent and child-like behaviour among women offenders. Mutual respect is needed among women, among staff and between the two.

Supportive Environment: The quality of the environment (both physical and emotional) can promote physical and psychological health and personal development.

Shared Responsibility: There is a role to play for all levels of government, corrections, volunteer organizations, businesses, private sector services, and the community in developing support systems and continuity of service for women offenders.

Annex D: Mental Health Strategy for Women Offenders

The Mental Health Strategy for Women Offenders (2002) provides the framework for the development of all mental health services for women offenders. It acknowledges the mental health needs of residents in general and of women offenders in particular. It outlines the mental health issues and problems faced by women offenders and the treatment, intervention, and programs required by legislation and policy to address these issues. The Strategy also describes a continuum of mental health care and the inter-connected nature of all programs and services in support of mental well being for women offenders.

The goal of mental health services for women offenders is to develop and maintain a coordinated continuum of care that addresses the varied mental health needs of women offenders in order to maximize well-being and to promote effective reintegration .

According to the Strategy , the key principles underlying the delivery of mental health programs and services for women offenders are:


This principle refers to promoting wellness rather than "treating pathology." It implies holistic thinking and programming, avoiding labels, reinforcing personal development and independent living skills, and involving family, Elders and others in addition to mental health professionals. It recognizes the importance of all aspects of women's health and experience (body, mind, spirit and emotions) and their relationships within the institution and community.


This refers to providing women offenders with reasonable access to appropriate essential and non-essential mental health services in keeping with community standards. This includes early assessments of needs and timely intervention to minimize symptom escalation and prevent acute crisis situations.


Programs and services must be designed to meet the specific needs of women and be delivered by personnel sensitive to women and women's issues. They must acknowledge personal autonomy, connection to others and mutually respectful relationships. A women-centered approach involves a comprehensive inter-disciplinary treatment plan that honours a woman's articulated needs, fosters hope and commitment to change, provides for empathic intervention from consistent staff, and positive contingencies.

Client Participation (a principle of fundamental justice)

Women must play as active a role as possible in their treatment including their initial assessment, treatment planning and decision-making. Wellness can only be attained through a process of personal growth and a resident's commitment to change: others can not impose it. Traditional correctional facilities that do not acknowledge the need for client participation have an "institutionalizing" effect that disempowers and infantalizes those in their custody. This severely limits women's capacity for successful community reintegration. They also severely limit women's capacity to view themselves as effective, personally responsible and capable of creating a life worth living.

Least Restrictive Intervention

Treatment must be based on the least restrictive/intensive form of intervention possible with the lowest level of security required to ensure public safety.

Annex E: Correctional Program Strategy for Women Offenders

The Program Strategy for Women Offenders (2004) was developed in order to provide program consistency in women's facilities. It is based on and respects CSC's Correctional Strategy , yet is flexible enough to recognize and incorporate the needs of women offenders. This document is a guide for the development of programs and describes the overall correctional program strategy for women offenders.

In determining the most effective programs for women, a number of variables have been taken into consideration. Firstly, there are two themes running through the literature on women offenders. There is an overwhelming consensus that in most instances women's criminal behaviour is largely associated with their backgrounds and life circumstances. This appears to be especially valid for Aboriginal women offenders. Secondly, a holistic approach to correctional programming for women offenders has been adopted. Additionally, other factors impacting program development include research, program availability, and theoretical ideology of programming for women, and the relatively small number of incarcerated women. Program effectiveness for women offenders requires the inclusion of the following six elements: women-centred principles, principles of adult education, diversity, analytical principles, program structure and program process.

Though research is limited in terms of evaluating program effectiveness for women offenders, CSC has nationally adopted the cognitive and social learning approach to programming, which has proven to be an effective strategy for the carceral population. To that end, correctional programs are based on the social learning theory. This approach has proven to be particularly effective in targeting change of behaviour in women offenders. Social learning theory is based on the concept that behaviour is learned through modeling, observation, repeated exposure and reinforcement of the behaviour. Social learning theory supports the principle that cognitive processes mediate environmental and experiential events; that social learning experiences influence how women think about themselves and their world and that their thinking in turn, influences how they perceive and react to their environment (Ross & Fabiano, 1985).

The Program Strategy for Women Offenders (2004) outlines programs available in the women's institutions. They are similar to those for men, with one exception: Survivors of Abuse and Trauma Program. There is not a demonstrated link between surviving violence/abuse/trauma and criminal behaviour; however, the impact of this type of victimization is severe enough to affect women's adjustment and ability to engage/benefit from other programs while incarcerated. The Core Programs for women offenders include Living Skills, Women Offender Substance Abuse, Literacy and Continuous Learning, and Survivors of Abuse and Trauma. Core Programs are specifically targeted toward addressing identified need areas, and are compulsory insofar as they comprise part of a woman's Correctional Plan.

Effective program development and delivery assists residents to address their identified criminogenic needs at the most appropriate time in their sentence, while reducing the risk to public safety. Programs available at Okimaw Ohci are identified in a timeline over an 18-month period allowing staff to facilitate program planning in a timely manner.

As set out in the Program Strategy for Women Offenders (2004), employment programs for women must provide an adequate amount, intensity and quality of training in work that is relevant to the job market and should focus on jobs which have the potential to earn the woman a salary that will lead to economic independence.

Job inventories at the Lodge include such services as vehicle maintenance, ceramics, outdoor maintenance, cleaning, kitchen (both cooking and food distribution), Librarian, Elder's helper, home maintenance (painting, repairing damages, etc.), canteen operator (part-time to run canteen once a week), assistant for Inmate Pay, and Day Care assistant.

Programs such as vocational/employment/leisure are a regional responsibility since local community resource availability would shape the type of activities offered. With respect to vocational/industrial programs, the immediate focus has been on short-term activities and the creation of job inventories so that there will be no gap in institutional pay for women.

ANNEX F: Profile of Women Offenders at Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge

The women offender population at Okimaw Ohci has decrease over the last four years.  October 31, 2004 , 18 women resided at the Lodge.  The average age of women offenders was 31 years with Aboriginal women accounting for majority of the population (17). 

Comparison Factor Incarcerated Population Medium-Security Minimum-Security No Security Level yet

Incarcerated population





1 st degree murder





2 nd degree murder





Schedule I





Schedule II










Serving less than 6 years





No prior federal conviction










Married/Common law





The population at OOHL in 1997 was 20, in 2000, 27 and in 2004, 18.  The percentage of increase from 1997 to 2000 was 35% and a decrease from 2000 to 2004 of 33.3%.

The proportion of single women in 2004 was 61.1% and for married and common-law, 38.9%.

With respect to race, the proportion of Aboriginal women has decreased at the same proportion as the decrease in the overall population (33.3%) and as in 2004 this predominate group of women represented 83.3% (15) of the Lodge's population.

Caucasian women represent 16.7% (3) of the overall population.  As of October 31, 2004 , the average age of women residing at OOHL was 31 and the median age was 29.

As of October 31, 2004 there are no women serving a sentence for first and second degree murder.

Offence Type 2004

The proportion of offenders serving a sentence under a Schedule I offence is approximately 83.3%.

The proportion of offenders serving a sentence under a Schedule II offence is approximately 5.6%, and for non-schedule offence is 11.1%.

From April 1, 2004 to October 31, 2004 there were 3 revocations to the Lodge.

Since April 1, 2004 , there were no new admissions to the Lodge compared to 1997 when there were 3.

Percentage of women who were serving terms less than 3 years:

1997 -  25%
2001 -  35%
2003 -  31.8%
2004 - 27.8%