Outcomes of Federal Aboriginal Offenders in Correctional Programs: Follow-up from the ICPM Evaluation

To obtain a PDF version of the full report, contact the following address: research@csc-scc.gc.ca

Key Words

Aboriginal offenders, correctional programs, correctional program outcomes

What it means

Past research suggests that Aboriginal offenders benefit from participation in both Aboriginal-specific, and mainstream Correctional Service Canada (CSC) correctional programs. Further research on their response to the Integrated Correctional Program Model (ICPM)Footnote 1, found that Aboriginal offenders participating in the Aboriginal Integrated Correctional Program Model (AICPM) do as well as, or better than, participants in the Aboriginal Nationally Recognized Correctional Programs (NRCP). AICPM, however, demonstrates no improvement in efficiency over the Aboriginal-specific NRCP menu in assisting offenders in the timely completion of correctional programs identified on their correctional plans. Key outcomes related to sex offending, violent offending and domestic violence offending have yet to be examined.

What we found

When risk factors were controlled and region was held constant, returns to custody and returns with an offence did not differ between Aboriginal offenders participating in ICPM or AICPM and matched participants in NRCPs. When the time period during which the offenders attended programs was the same between study groups, controlling for multiple risk factors, Aboriginal offenders participating in AICPM were significantly less likely to return to custody and to return with an offence than Aboriginal offenders participating in the Aboriginal-specific NRCP menu.

An analysis of program efficiencies found that time from admission to start of the first correctional program was significantly longer for AICPM than Aboriginal NRCP. Time to the completion of the last correctional program prior to release did not differ between the AICPM and Aboriginal NRCP groups.

Why we did this study

A prior evaluation of the ICPM pointed to a trend for poorer results for offenders in the AICPM group than those in the NRCP group. Further information on the efficacy and efficiency of ICPM and AICPM for Aboriginal offenders was requested in order to inform decisions regarding full implementation of the program.

What we did

The following analyses were conducted:

  • All research reporting on outcomes for Aboriginal offenders who participated in CSC correctional programs was reviewed and summarized;
  • Aboriginal offenders in the ICPM (n = 24) and AICPM (n = 70) were compared on correctional outcomes;
  • Using a longer-term follow-up period, 137 Aboriginal participants in the ICPM/AICPM were compared to their matched NRCP pairs; and
  • The recent population of Aboriginal offenders in AICPM (n = 163) were compared to the recent population of Aboriginal offenders in Aboriginal NRCP programs (n = 858) on correctional outcomes and program efficiencies.

For more information

Stewart, L. A., & Wilton, G. (2014). Outcomes of federal Aboriginal offenders in correctional programs: Follow-up from the ICPM evaluation (Research Report R-328). Ottawa ON: Correctional Service of Canada.

To obtain a PDF version of the full report, or for other inquiries, please e-mail the Research Branch or contact us by phone at (613) 995-3975.

You can also visit the website for a full list of research publications.

Prepared by: Geoff Wilton


Footnote 1

The ICPM was introduced as a pilot project in January 2010. It targets multiple criminogenic needs in a single program. NRCPs focus on a single need such as substance abuse or violence.

Return to footnote 1