Ethnocultural Offenders in Federal Custody: Community Supervision Indicators among Men

Research Highlights: Variations were observed across several community supervision indicators for men from different ethnocultural groups.


No R-446_CM


A full PDF is also available for download on the Government of Canada Publications.

ISBN: 978-0-660-46166-3
Cat. No.: PS83-5/R446E-3-PDF

Research at a Glance: PDF

Why we did this study

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has an ethnoculturally diverse offender population. Study 3 of a three-part study examined community supervision indicators among ethnocultural, White, and Indigenous offenders.

What we did

Offenders on their first term releases during fiscal years 2015/16 to 2016/17 with a minimum follow-up period of 8 months were identified (N = 8,858 men). Ethnocultural groups with over 20 individuals were examined, with the remaining groups combined as 'Other'. Offender ethnocultural group is based on self-reported data collected as part of an intake assessment.

What we found

Table 1 presents a summary of the differences of each ethnocultural group in comparison to results for White men. Overall, although relatively few offenders from any group had a maximum-security classification at release, Black and Indigenous men had higher percentages than other groups and lower percentages of discretionary release. Controlling for risk, men rated low risk on the Static Factors Assessment identifying as Chinese (76%), South Asian (69%) and Southeast Asian (76%) were less likely than low risk White men (86%) to be granted discretionary release. In addition, compared to White men, a higher proportion of Indigenous, South Asian, and Black men on statutory release had residency conditions.

Men from most ethnocultural groups, including those identifying as Arab/West Asian, Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Southeast Asian and 'Other' ethnocultural identities, were more likely than White men to secure community employment within 8 months of release. Black and Latin American men had comparable rates as White men, and Indigenous men were less likely to be employed in the community. Men from all groups were either comparable or more likely to have a positive community employment outcome relative to White men, except for Indigenous men. Men from all ethnocultural groups were less likely than White men to enroll in a community maintenance program within 8 months of release, with the exception of men identifying as 'Other' ethnocultural identities and Indigenous. However, Filipino, South Asian, Southeast Asian and 'Other' ethnocultural men were more likely to complete such programs once enrolled.

Table 1. Community Supervision Trends among Men
  Arab/ West Asian Black Chinese Filipino Latin American South Asian Southeast Asian Other Indigenous White (%)
Rel. Max + -- -- - + 7
Disc. Release + -- +++ +++ +++ +++ --- 50
SR Residency + ++ --- -- ++ 37
Employment +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ --- 62
Positive Emp. ++ +++ +++ ++ ++ -- 36
Enroll Maint. --- -- --- --- --- --- + +++ 43
Comp. Maint. -- -- ++ - +++ +++ ++ -- 76
Note. Symbols denote trends in relation to comparison group (White offenders). ○ = +/-2%. - = -2% to -5%. -- = -5% to -10%. --- = -10% or less. + = +2% to +5%. ++ = +5% to +10%. +++ = +10% or more. † = Information suppressed due to n less than 5. Rel. Max. = Released from maximum security. Disc. Release = Discretionary Release. SR = Statutory Release. Emp. = Employment. Maint. = Maintenance program (community). Comp. = Completion.

Finally, rates of revocations within 8 months of discretionary release were lower for Black and 'Other' ethnocultural men (7% and 3%, respectively) than White men (9%). It should be noted that all groups other than White, Indigenous and Black were combined due to low base rates for post-release analyses. Indigenous men had the highest rates of revocations within 8 months of discretionary release (15%). Similar patterns were observed for revocations with an offence and for offenders with non-discretionary releases.

What it means

CSC's offender population continues to be increasingly diverse. Understanding differences across various indicators, including those related to community supervision, can identify opportunities for CSC to enhance the support of offenders from different ethnocultural groups.

For more information

Correctional Service of Canada. (2022). Ethnocultural Offenders in Federal Custody: An Examination of Admission, In-Custody, and Community Supervision Indicators (Research Report R-446). Ottawa, Ontario: Correctional Service of Canada.

To obtain a PDF version of the full report, or for other inquiries, please e-mail the Research Branch.

You can also visit the Research Publications section for a full list of reports and one-page summaries.

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