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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-1995 Review

No B-13

By:
Laurence L. Motiuk and Raymond L. Belcourt

Research Division
Correctional Service of Canada

April, 1996

Table of Contents

I: INTRODUCTION

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

III: SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS
SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS
ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

V: DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS
DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

VI: SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

 

I: INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for a second time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-1995 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

_______________

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and R.L. Belcourt, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1995).

 

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS 

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include: first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicide are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses.

The following is an end-of-1995 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,318 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise nearly one-fifth (19%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 2,784 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise about one-fifth (20.5%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 852 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,568 were in medium security institutions, and 364 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • minimum security: 13.1% of all homicide offenders;
    • medium security: 56.3% of all homicide offenders; and
    • maximum security: 29.7% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 1,534 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 16.7% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 212 or 13.8% were on day parole;
  • 1,213 or 79.1% were on full parole; and
  • 108 or 7.1% were on statutory release

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Pacific and Ontario regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 6.7% of homicide offenders, and 9.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
  • Quebec: 27.2% of homicide offenders, and 29.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
  • Ontario: 29.7% of homicide offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
  • Prairies: 18.6% of homicide offenders, and 20.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
  • Pacific: 17.8% of homicide offenders, and 13.5% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The homicide offender population has declined relative to the total homicide offender population over the past year - particulary in federal institutions. Over a one-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1995) the total homicide offender population has decreased by 1.7%, the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 3.9% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 2.5%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are male (96.5%). There were 152 (3.5%) cases of a female offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 1995, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was almost 42 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 89 years old and the youngest was 20 years old.
  • Homicide offenders as a group appear to be aging. The average age of homicide offenders at admission was about 36 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 84 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1995, the majority of homicide offenders (78.3%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 78.3% of homicide offenders, and 77.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Native: 13.4% of homicide offenders, and 10.1% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 3.2% of homicide offenders, and 6.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.3% of homicide offenders, and 2.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Other: 3.9% of homicide offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (the same proportion).

Nature of Offence

  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:
    • 642 cases of first degree murder, and 15% of all homicide offenders;
    • 2,387 cases of second degree murder, and 55% of all homicide offenders;
    • 1,289 cases of manslaughter, and 30% of all homicide offenders; and
    • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

 

III: SEX OFFENDERS 

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-1995 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,875 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (17%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 1995 there were actually 4,542 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 20% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 2,766 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise about one-fifth (20%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1995 there were actually 3,245 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 24.0% of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 553 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,876 were in medium security institutions, and 329 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • minimum security: 11.9% of all sex offenders;
    • medium security: 67.8% of all sex offenders; and
    • maximum security: 20.0% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 1,109 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise about (12%) of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1995 there were actually 1,301 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 14% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 136 or 12.3% were on day parole;
  • 423 or 38.1% were on full parole;
  • 548 or 49.4% were on statutory release; and

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has fewer sex offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders.

  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 12.4% of sex offenders, and 9.8% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Quebec: 19.3% of sex offenders, and 29.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Ontario: 24.7% of sex offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
    • Prairies: 28.5% of sex offenders, and 20.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 15.1% of sex offenders, and 13.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

. The sex offender population has continued grow relative to the total sex offender population over the past year - particulary on conditional release. Over a one-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1995) the total sex offender population has increased by 3.4%, the sex offender population in institutions has increased by 2.3% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 6.1%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are male (99.7%). There were 10 (0.3%) cases of a female offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 1995, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was almost 42 years old. The oldest sex offender was 85 years old and the youngest was 20 years old.
  • Sex offenders as a group appear to be aging. The average age of sex offenders at admission was about 40 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 82 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1995, the majority of sex offenders (76.0%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 76.0% of sex offenders, and 77.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Native: 16.5% of sex offenders, and 10.9% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Black: 4.4% of sex offenders, and 6.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.5% of sex offenders, and 2.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
    • Other: 2.6% of sex offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

 

IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-1995 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 7,199 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-third (31.6%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 4,606 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (33.8%) of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 1,277 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,876 were in medium security institutions, and 406 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • minimum security: 8.8% of all robbery offenders;
    • medium security: 62.4% of all robbery offenders; and
    • maximum security: 27.7% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 2,593 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 28.2% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 505 or 19.5% were on day parole;
  • 941 or 36.3% were on full parole; and
  • 1,143 or 44.1% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 6.5% of robbery offenders, and 9.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Quebec: 38.0% of robbery offenders, and 29.2% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Ontario: 23.7% of robbery offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Prairies: 18.2% of robbery offenders, and 20.5% of all offenders (about the same proportion); and
    • Pacific: 13.6% of robbery offenders, and 13.5% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The robbery offender population has declined relative to the total robbery offender population over the past year - particulary in federal institutions. Over a one-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1995) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 2.8%, the robbery offender population in institutions has increased by 4.5% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has increased by 0.3%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are male (98.9%). There were 82 (1%) cases of a female offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 1995, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was almost 35 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 78 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.
  • Robbery offenders as a group appear to be aging. The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 68 years old and the youngest was 1816 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1995, the majority of robbery offenders (81.5%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian robbery offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 81.5% of robbery offenders, and 77.0% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Native: 9.9% of robbery offenders, and 10.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Black: 5.8% of robbery offenders, and 6.0% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
    • Asiatic: 1.2% of robbery offenders, and 2.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Other: 1.7% of robbery offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

 

V: DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-1995 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,310 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-quarter (23.2%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 2,590 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise about one-fifth (19.0%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 583 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,570 were in medium security institutions, and 421 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • minimum security: 16.3% of all drug offenders;
    • medium security: 60.6% of all drug offenders; and
    • maximum security: 22.5% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1995, there were 2,720 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 29.5% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 328 or 12.1% were on day parole;
  • 1,725 or 63.4% were on full parole; and
  • 665 or 24.5% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of general offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 7.7% of drug offenders, and 9.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Quebec: 38.5% of drug offenders, and 29.2% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Ontario: 27.2% of drug offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
    • Prairies: 15.7% of drug offenders, and 20.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Pacific: 10.9% of drug offenders, and 13.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The drug offender population has grown relative to the total drug offender population over the past year - particulary on conditional release. Over a one-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1995) the total drug offender population has decreased by 3.8%, the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 2.0% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 5.5%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 1995, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are male (97%). There were 172 (3%) cases of a female offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 1995, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was almost 36 years old. The oldest drug offender was 73 years old and the youngest was 20 years old.
  • Drug offenders as a group appear to be aging. The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 35 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 71 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1995, the majority of drug offenders (76.4%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian, Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of general offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 76.4% of drug offenders, and 77.0% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Native: 4.8% of drug offenders, and 10.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 9.2% of drug offenders, and 6.0% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 4.3% of drug offenders, and 2.2% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 5.3% of drug offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

 

VI: SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

  End-of-year # (%) Custody #     (%) Community #    (%)
Homicide: 1994

1995

4,393

4,318

(20.0)

(18.9)

2,896 (65.9)

2,784 (64.5)

1,497 (34.1)

1,534 (35.5)

Sex: 1994

1995

3,748

3,875

(16.9)

(17.0)

2,703 (72.1)

2,766 (71.3)

1,045 (27.9)

1,109 (28.7)

Robbery: 1994

1995

7,408

7,199

(33.5)

(31.6)

4,824 (65.1)

4,606 (63.9)

2,584 (34.9)

2,593 (36.1)

Drug: 1994

1995

5,117

5,310

(23.1)

(23.3)

2,540 (49.6)

2,590 (48.8)

2,577 (50.4)

2,720 (51.2)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  End-of-year #     (%) Minimum % Medium % Maximum %
Homicide: 1994

1995

2,896  (21.8)

2,784 (20.5)

11.6

13.1

55.2

56.3

33.2

29.7

Sex: 1994

1995

2,703 (20.0)

2,766 (20.3)

11.6

11.9

66.0

67.8

22.4

20.0

Robbery: 1994

1995

4,824 (36.3)

4,606 (33.8)

8.1

8.8

63.4

62.4

28.5

27.7

DRUG: 1994

1995

2,540 (19.1)

2,590 (19.0)

16.4

16.3

61.0

60.6

22.6

22.5

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

  End-of-year #     (%) Day Parole % Full Parole % Stat. Release %
Homicide: 1994

1995

1,497  (17.0)

1,534  (16.7)

14.4

13.8

79.7

79.1

5.9

7.0

Sex: 1994

1995

1,045  (12.0)

1,109  (12.1)

15.2

12.3

42.0

38.1

42.7

49.4

Robbery: 1994

1995

2,584  (29.3)

2,593  (28.2)

21.6

19.5

41.5

36.3

36.7

44.1

Drug: 1994

1995

2,577  (29.2)

2,720  (29.6)

14.9

12.1

64.9

63.4

20.2

24.5

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  Homicide
%
Sex
%
Robbery
%
Drug
%
Homicide: 6.7 27.2 29.7 18.6
Sex: 12.4 19.3 24.7 28.5
Robbery: 6.5 38.0 23.7 18.2
Drug: 7.7 38.5 27.2 15.7
Overall: 9.8 29.2 27.1 20.5

(as of 31-12-95)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  # % Males
%
Females
%    (#)
Homicide: 4,166 18.9 96.5 3.5   (152)
Sex: 3,875 17.0 99.7 0.3    (10)
Robbery: 7,199 31.6 98.9 1.1    (82)
Drug: 5,310 23.3 96.8 3.2   (172)

(as of 31-12-95)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  End-of-year Under Federal Jurisdiction At Admission
Homicide: 1994

1995

42 YEARS  (18-89)

42 YEARS  (20-89)

36 YEARS  (16-87)

36 YEARS  (18-84)

Sex: 1994

1995

41 YEARS  (19-86)

42 YEARS  (20-85)

39 YEARS  (15-85)

40 YEARS  (18-82)

Robbery: 1994

1995

34 YEARS  (16-78)

35 YEARS  (19-78)

31 YEARS  (16-65)

33 YEARS  (18-68)

Drug: 1994

1995

36 YEARS  (18-81)

36 YEARS  (20-73)

34 YEARS  (17-74)

35 YEARS  (18-71)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  Caucasian
%
Native
%
Black
%
Asian
%
Other
%
Homicide: 78.3 13.4 3.2 1.3 3.9
Sex: 76.0 16.5 4.4 0.5 2.6
Robbery: 81.5 9.9 5.8 1.2 1.7
Drug: 76.4 4.8 9.2 4.3 5.3
Overall: 77.0 10.9 6.0 2.2 3.9

(as of 31-12-95)