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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-1996 Review

No B-16

Laurence L. Motiuk     Raymond L. Belcourt

Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada

January 1997

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS
SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS
ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND
THE CURRENT SITUATION
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS
DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE
DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

 

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for a third time1,2 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-1996 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.


1 L.L. Motiuk and R.L. Belcourt, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1995).

2 L.L. Motiuk and R.L. Belcourt, Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-1995 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1996).

 

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include: first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicide are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses.

The following is an end-of-1996 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,553 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-fifth (20%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 3,002 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-fifth (22.0%) of the federal incarcerated population.

About 837 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,694 were in medium security institutions, and 471 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • minimum security: 15.7% of all homicide offenders;
    • medium security: 56.4% of all homicide offenders; and
    • maximum security: 27.9% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1996, there were 1,551 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 17.2% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 198 or 12.8% were on day parole;
  • 1,227 or 79.1% were on full parole; and
  • 126 or 8.1.% were on statutory release

 

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.

In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 6.9% of homicide offenders, and 9.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
  • Quebec: 26.9% of homicide offenders, and 28.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
  • Ontario: 29.5% of homicide offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
  • Prairies: 18.4% of homicide offenders, and 22.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
  • Pacific: 18.3% of homicide offenders, and 13.2% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1996 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particulary in federal institutions. Over a recent two-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1996) the total homicide offender population has increased by 3.6% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 7.1% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 3.6%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are male (96.3%). There were 167 (3.7%) cases of a female offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1996, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 93 years old and the youngest was 20 years old.

The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 36 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 84 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1996, the majority of homicide offenders (77.3%) were Caucasian.

In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 77.3% of homicide offenders, and 75.2% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Native: 13.8% of homicide offenders, and 12.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 3.5% of homicide offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.5% of homicide offenders, and 2.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Other: 3.9% of homicide offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (the same proportion).

Nature of Offence

Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

  • 689 cases of first degree murder, and 15.3% of all homicide offenders;
  • 2,497 cases of second degree murder, and 55.5% of all homicide offenders;
  • 1,312 cases of manslaughter, and 29.2% of all homicide offenders; and
  • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders

 

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-1996 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction. 

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,041 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (18%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 1996 there were actually 4,740 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 21% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 2,974 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-fifth (22%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1996 there were actually 3,489 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 25.6% of the total federal incarcerated population.

About 593 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,039 were in medium security institutions, and 342 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • minimum security: 11.5% of all sex offenders;
    • medium security: 68.6% of all sex offenders; and
    • maximum security: 19.9% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 1,067 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 12% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1996 there were actually 1,252 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 14% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

    • 131 or 12.3% were on day parole;
    • 380 or 35.6% were on full parole; and
    • 556 or 52.1% were on statutory release. 

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-third and one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.

In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic and Prairies regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 11.4% of sex offenders, and 9.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
  • Quebec: 19.0% of sex offenders, and 28.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.5% of sex offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
  • Prairies: 30.7% of sex offenders, and 22.0% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
  • Pacific: 14.5% of sex offenders, and 13.2% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1996 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particulary on conditional release. Over a recent two-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1996) the total sex offender population has increased by 7.8%, the sex offender population in institutions has increased by 10.0% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 2.1%

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are male (99.6%). There were 14 (0.4%) cases of a female offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1996, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest sex offender was 89 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

The average age of sex offenders at admission was 41 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 81 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1996, the majority of sex offenders (74.1%) were Caucasian.

In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

  • Caucasian: 74.1% of sex offenders, and 75.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
  • Native: 17.8% of sex offenders, and 12.0% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
  • Black: 4.5% of sex offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
  • Asiatic: 0.6% of sex offenders, and 2.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
  • Other: 3.0% of sex offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

 

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-1996 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction. 

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 7,418 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-third (32.8%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 4,902 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (36.0%) of the total federal incarcerated population.

About 1,313 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 3,131 were in medium security institutions, and 458 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • minimum security: 9.3% of all robbery offenders;
    • medium security: 63.9% of all robbery offenders; and
    • maximum security: 26.8% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 2,516 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 27.9% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

    • 404 or 16.1% were on day parole;
    • 856 or 34.0% were on full parole; and
    • 1,256 or 49.9% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.

In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 7.3% of robbery offenders, and 9.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Quebec: 36.9% of robbery offenders, and 28.5% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
  • Ontario: 23.7% of robbery offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Prairies: 19.0% of robbery offenders, and 22.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
  • Pacific: 13.0% of robbery offenders, and 13.2% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1996 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particulary in federal institutions. Over a recent two-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1996) the total robbery offender population has increased by 0.1%, the robbery offender population in institutions has increased by 1.6% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has decreased by 2.7%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are male (98.8%). There were 88 (1%) cases of a female offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1996, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 35 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 79 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 68 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1996, the majority of robbery offenders (79.7%) were Caucasian.

In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

  • Caucasian: 79.7% of robbery offenders, and 75.2% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
  • Native: 10.9% of robbery offenders, and 12.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Black: 6.4% of robbery offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
  • Asiatic: 1.2% of robbery offenders, and 2.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
  • Other: 1.8% of robbery offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

 

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-1996 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction. 

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,615 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (25%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 2,899 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (21.3%) of the federal incarcerated population.

About 665 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,730 were in medium security institutions, and 504 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • minimum security: 17.4% of all drug offenders;
    • medium security: 59.7% of all drug offenders; and
    • maximum security: 22.9% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1996, there were 2,716 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 30.2% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

    • 277 or 10.2% were on day parole;
    • 1,722 or 63.4% were on full parole; and
    • 717 or 26.4% were on statutory release. 

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.

In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.0% of drug offenders, and 9.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Quebec: 38.2% of drug offenders, and 28.5% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
  • Ontario: 26.1% of drug offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
  • Prairies: 17.3% of drug offenders, and 22.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Pacific: 10.4% of drug offenders, and 13.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1996 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent two-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1996) the total drug offender population has increased by 9.7%, the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 14.1% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 5.4%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1996, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are male (96%). There were 228 (4%) cases of a female offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1996, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 37 years old. The oldest drug offender was 76 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 35 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 73 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1996, the majority of drug offenders (74.2%) were Caucasian.

In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of , Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:

  • Caucasian: 74.2% of drug offenders, and 75.2% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
  • Native: 5.6% of drug offenders, and 12.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Black: 9.5% of drug offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
  • Asiatic: 5.2% of drug offenders, and 2.5% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
  • Other: 5.5% of drug offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS


End
of
year
#_ (%) Custody

#_     (%)

Community

#_     (%)

Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

4,393

4,318

4,553

(20.0)

(18.9)

(20.1)

2,896 (65.9)

2,784 (64.5)

3,002 (65.9)

1,497 (34.1)

1,534 (35.5)

1,551 (34.1)

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

3,748

3,875

4,041

(16.9)

(17.0)

(17.9)

2,703 (72.1)

2,766 (71.3)

2,974 (73.6)

1,045 (27.9)

1,109 (28.7)

1,067 (26.4)

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

7,408

7,199

7,418

(33.5)

(31.6)

(32.8)

4,824 (65.1)

4,606 (63.9)

4,902 (66.1)

2,584 (34.9)

2,593 (36.1)

2,516 (33.9)

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

5,117

5,310

5,615

(23.1)

(23.3)

(24.8)

2,540 (49.6)

2,590 (48.8)

2,899 (51.6)

2,577 (50.4)

2,720 (51.2)

2,716 (48.4)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL


End
of
year
#_  (%) Minimum

%

Medium

%

Maximum

%

Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

2,896 (21.8)

2,784 (20.5)

3,002 (22.0)

11.6

13.1

15.7

55.2

56.3

56.4

33.2

29.7

27.9

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

2,703 (20.0)

2,766 (20.3)

2,974 (21.8)

11.6

11.9

11.5

66.0

67.8

68.6

22.4

20.0

19.9

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

4,824 (36.3)

4,606 (33.8)

4,902 (36.0)

8.1

8.8

9.3

63.4

62.4

63.9

28.5

27.7

26.8

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

2,540 (19.1)

2,590 (19.0)

2,899 (21.3)

16.4

16.3

17.4

61.0

60.6

59.7

22.6

22.5

22.9

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS


End
of
year
#_  (%) Day parole
%
Full parole
%
Stat. release
%
Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

1,497 (17.0)

1,534 (16.7)

1,551 (17.2)

14.4

13.8

12.8

79.7

79.1

79.1

5.9

7.0

8.1

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

1,045 (12.0)

1,109 (12.1)

1,007 (11.9)

15.2

12.3

12.3

42.0

38.1

35.6

42.7

49.4

52.1

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

2,584 (29.3)

2,593 (28.2)

2,516 (27.9)

21.6

19.5

16.1

41.5

36.3

34.0

36.7

44.1

49.9

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

2,577 (29.2)

2,720 (29.6)

2,716 (30.2)

14.9

12.1

10.2

64.9

63.4

63.4

20.2

24.5

26.4

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION


End
of
year
Atl.
%
Que.
%
Ont.
%
Pra.
%
Pac.
%
Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

6.7

6.7

6.9

27.2

27.2

26.9

29.9

29.7

29.5

18.8

18.6

18.4

17.4

17.8

18.3

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

13.0

12.4

11.4

20.1

19.3

19.0

26.9

24.7

24.5

27.3

28.5

30.7

15.5

15.1

14.5

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

6.7

6.5

7.3

37.6

38.0

36.9

24.6

23.7

23.7

18.0

18.2

19.0

13.1

13.6

13.0

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

7.2

7.7

8.0

37.8

38.5

38.2

27.9

27.2

26.1

16.1

15.7

17.3

10.9

10.9

10.4

Overall: 1994

1995

1996

9.9

9.8

9.5

28.9

29.2

28.5

27.6

27.1

26.8

20.2

20.5

22.0

13.4

13.5

13.5

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER


End
of
year
#_ % Males
%
Females
%    (#_)
Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

4,393

4,318

4,553

20.0

18.9

20.1

96.0

96.5

96.3

4.0  (176)

3.5  (152)

3.7  (167)

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

3,748

3,875

4,041

16.9

17.0

17.9

99.5

99.7

99.7

0.5  (17)

0.3  (10)

0.3  (14)

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

7,408

7,199

7,418

33.5

31.6

32.8

99.0

98.9

98.8

1.0  (89)

1.1  (82)

1.2  (88)

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

5,117

5,310

5,615

23.1

23.3

24.8

97.0

96.8

95.9

3.0  (163)

3.2  (172)

4.1  (228)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE


End
of
year
Under federal jurisdiction At admission
Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

42 Years (18-89)

42 Years (20-89)

43 Years (20-93)

36 Years (16-87)

36 Years (18-84)

36 Years (18-84)

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

41 Years (19-86)

42 Years (20-85)

43 Years (19-89)

39 Years (15-85)

40 Years (18-82)

41 Years (18-81)

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

34 Years (16-78)

35 Years (19-78)

35 Years (19-79)

31 Years (16-65)

33 Years (18-68)

33 Years (18-68)

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

36 Years (18-81)

36 Years (20-73)

37 Years (19-76)

34 Years (17-74)

35 Years (18-71)

35 Years (18-73)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY


End
of
year
Caucasian
%
Native
%
Black
%
Asian
%
Other
%
Homicide: 1994

1995

1996

78.9

78.3

77.3

13.0

13.4

13.8

3.1

3.2

3.5

1.0

1.3

1.5

4.0

3.9

3.9

Sex: 1994

1995

1996

76.2

76.0

74.1

16.5

16.5

17.8

4.5

4.4

4.5

0.4

0.5

0.6

2.5

2.6

3.0

Robbery: 1994

1995

1996

82.4

81.5

79.7

9.3

9.9

10.9

5.4

5.8

6.4

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.8

1.7

1.8

Drug: 1994

1995

1996

81.1

76.4

74.2

4.8

4.8

5.6

8.3

9.2

9.5

3.8

4.3

5.2

2.0

5.3

5.5

Overall: 1994

1995

1996

78.3

77.0

75.2

10.5

10.9

12.0

5.5

6.0

6.3

1.9

2.2

2.5

3.8

3.9

4.1