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Homicide, Sex, Robbery And Drug Offenders In Federal Corrections: An End-Of-1997 Review

Laurence L. Motiuk Raymond L. Belcourt
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada
January, 1998

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

I. INTRODUCTION

II. HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

III. SEX OFFENDERS

IV. ROBBERY OFFENDERS

V. DRUG OFFENDERS

VI. SUMMARY TABLES

 

I: INTRODUCTION

 

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for a fourth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-1997 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and R.L. Belcourt, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-1996 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1997).

 

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

 

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include: first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicide are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1%of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses.

The following is an end-of-1997 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

 

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,771homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-fifth (21.5%)of the total federal offender population.

 

Incarcerated Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 3,122 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 770 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum securityinstitutions, 1,818were in medium securityinstitutions, and 764 were in minimum securityinstitutions.

More specifically:

  • minimum security: 17.1%of all homicide offenders;
  • medium security: 58.2%of all homicide offenders; and
  • maximum security: 24.7%of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 1,649 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 17.7% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 258 or 15.7%were on day parole;
  • 1,225 or 74.3%were on full parole; and
  • 166 or 10.1.%were on statutory release

 

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Ontarioand Quebec regionshave the mosthomicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarterof the homicide offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regionshave more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
  • Atlantic: 7.2% of homicide offenders, and 9.0%of all offenders
  • (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders);
  • Quebec: 27.1%of homicide offenders, and 28.1%of all offenders
  • (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders);
  • Ontario: 28.6%of homicide offenders, and 26.7%of all offenders
  • (proportionately morehomicide offenders);
  • Prairies: 18.2%of homicide offenders, and 22.8%of all offenders
  • (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders); and
  • Pacific: 18.9%of homicide offenders, and 13.4%of all offenders
  • (proportionately morehomicide offenders).

 

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-1997 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particulary in federal institutions. Over a recent three-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1997) the total homicide offender populationhas increased by 8.6% the homicide offender population in institutionshas increased by 7.8%and the homicide offender population under community supervisionhas increased by 10.2%.
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

    Gender

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenderslisted to date are male (95.8%). There were 199 (4.2%)cases of a femaleoffender for whom a homicide offence was listed.
  • Age

  • On 31 December 1997, the average ageof homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 91 years old and the youngest was 20years old.
  • The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 36years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 84years old and the youngest was 18years old.
  • Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1997, the majority of homicide offenders (76.0%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportionof Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
  • Caucasian: 76.0%of homicide offenders, and 73.1%of all offenders (proportionately morehomicide offenders);
  • Native: 14.6%of homicide offenders, and 13.2%of all offenders (proportionately morehomicide offenders);
  • Black: 3.9%of homicide offenders, and 6.4%of all offenders (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders);
  • Asiatic: 1.5%of homicide offenders, and 2.9%of all offenders (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders); and
  • Other: 3.9%of homicide offenders, and 4.4%of all offenders (proportionately fewerhomicide offenders).

     

  • Nature of Offence

  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:
  • 698cases of first degree murder, and 14.6%of all homicide offenders;

    2,605cases of second degree murder, and 54.6%of all homicide offenders;

    1,468 cases of manslaughter, and 30.8%of all homicide offenders; and

    0cases of infanticide, and 0.0%of all homicide offenders.

     

    III: SEX OFFENDERS

     

    BACKGROUND

    The following is an end-of-1997 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

     

    THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Total Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,914 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (17.6%)of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 1997 there were actually 4,591sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 21%of the total federal offender population.

     

  • Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 2,771sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more thanone-fifth (21.5%)of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1997 there were actually 3,250sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 25.2%of the total federal incarcerated population.

     

  • About 526of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum securityinstitutions, 1,897were in medium securityinstitutions, and 348were in minimum securityinstitutions.

    More specifically:

  • minimum security: 12.6%of all sex offenders;
  • medium security: 68.4%of all sex offenders; and
  • maximum security: 19.0%of all sex offenders.
  •  

    Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 1,143 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 12.3% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1997 there were actually 1,341 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 14.4% of the total federal conditional release population.

     

    More specifically:

    • 160 or 14.0%were on day parole;
    • 360 or 31.5%were on full parole; and
    • 623 or 54.5%were on statutory release.

     

    REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Prairiesand Ontario regionshave the mostsex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-third and one-quarterof the sex offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regionshave moresex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

     

    • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 10.7%of sex offenders, and 9.0%of all offenders (proportionately moresex offenders);
    • Quebec: 19.1%of sex offenders, and 28.1%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders);
    • Ontario: 24.2%of sex offenders, and 26.7%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders);
    • Prairies: 31.8%of sex offenders, and 22.8%of all offenders (proportionately moresex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 14.2%of sex offenders, and 13.4%of all offenders (proportionately moresex offenders).

     

    SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-1997 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particulary on conditional release. Over a recent three-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1997) the total sex offender populationhas increased by 4.4%, the sex offender population in institutionshas increased by 2.5%and the sex offender population under community supervisionhas increased by 9.4%.

     

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

    Gender

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenderslisted to date are male (99.6%). There were 15 (0.4%)cases of a femaleoffender for whom a sex offence was listed.
  • Age

  • On 31 December 1997, the average ageof sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest sex offender was 89years old and the youngest was 20 years old.
  • The average age of sex offenders at admission was 43years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 83years old and the youngest was 19years old.

     

  • Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1997, the majority of sex offenders (72.4%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportionof Native sex offendersrelative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 72.4%of sex offenders, and 73.1%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders);
    • Native: 19.0%of sex offenders, and 13.2%of all offenders (proportionately moresex offenders);
    • Black: 4.7%of sex offenders, and 6.4%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.7%of sex offenders, and 2.9%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders); and
    • Other: 3.2%of sex offenders, and 4.4%of all offenders (proportionately fewersex offenders).

     

    IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

     

    BACKGROUND

    In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

    Although robberies represent less than 10%of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

    The following is an end-of-1997 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

     

    THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Total Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 7,136robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-third (32.1%)of the total federal offender population.

     

  • Incarcerated Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 4,737robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (36.7%)of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 1,203of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum securityinstitutions, 2,989were in medium securityinstitutions, and 546were in minimum securityinstitutions. More specifically:
    • minimum security: 11.5%of all robbery offenders;
    • medium security: 63.1%of all robbery offenders; and
    • maximum security: 25.4%of all robbery offenders.

    Conditional Release Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 2,399 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 25.8% of the total federal conditional release population.

    More specifically:

    • 411 or 17.1%were on day parole;
    • 762 or 31.8%were on full parole; and
    • 1,226 or 51.0%were on statutory release.

     

    REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebecand Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarterof the robbery offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
    • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 7.0%of robbery offenders, and 9.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders);
    • Quebec: 36.9%of robbery offenders, and 28.1% of all offenders (proportionately morerobbery offenders);
    • Ontario: 24.4%of robbery offenders, and 26.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders);
    • Prairies: 20.1%of robbery offenders, and 22.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders); and
    • Pacific: 11.8%of robbery offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders).

       

    ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-1997 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particulary in federal institutions. Over a recent three-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1997) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 3.4%, the robbery offender population in institutionshas decreased by 1.8%and the robbery offender population under community supervisionhas decreased by 7.2%.

     

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

    Gender

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenderslisted to date are male (98.4%). There were 115 (1.6%)cases of a femaleoffender for whom a robbery offence was listed.
  • Age

  • On 31 December 1997, the average ageof robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 35 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 75years old and the youngest was 19years old.
  • The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 68years old and the youngest was 18years old.
  • Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1997, the majority of robbery offenders (78.2%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportionof Caucasian robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 78.2%of robbery offenders, and 73.1% of all offenders (proportionately morerobbery offenders);
    • .Native: 12.0%of robbery offenders, and 13.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders);
    • Black: 6.5%of robbery offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
    • Asiatic: 1.3%of robbery offenders, and 2.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders); and
    • Other: 2.1%of robbery offenders, and 4.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewerrobbery offenders).

     

    V: DRUG OFFENDERS

     

    BACKGROUND

    In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

    The following is an end-of-1997 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

     

    THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Total Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,515drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (25%) of the total federal offender population.

     

  • Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 2,659drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (20.6%)of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 559 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum securityinstitutions, 1,558were in medium securityinstitutions, and 512were in minimum securityinstitutions.
    • More specifically:
    • minimum security: 19.3% of all drug offenders;
    • medium security:59.7% of all drug offenders; and
    • maximum security:21.0% of all drug offenders.

     

     

    Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 1997, there were 2,856 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 30.7% of the federal conditional release population.

     

    • More specifically:
    • 454 or 15.9%were on day parole;
    • 1,695 or 59.4%were on full parole; and
    • 707 or 24.8%were on statutory release.

     

    REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebecand Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
    • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 7.8%of drug offenders, and 9.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewerdrug offenders);
    • Quebec: 37.4%of drug offenders, and 28.1% of all offenders (proportionately moredrug offenders);
    • Ontario: 26.1%of drug offenders, and 26.7% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
    • Prairies: 18.5%of drug offenders, and 22.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewerdrug offenders);
    • Pacific: 10.3%of drug offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

     

    DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-1997 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent three-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1997) the total drug offender population has increased by 7.8%, the drug offender population in institutionshas increased by 4.6% and the drug offender population under community supervisionhas increased by 10.8%.

     

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

    Gender

  • On 31 December 1997, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenderslisted to date are male (95%). There were 273 (5%)cases of a femaleoffender for whom a drug offence was listed.
  • Age

  • On 31 December 1997, the average ageof drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 38 years old. The oldest drug offender was 75years old and the youngest was 20 years old.
  • The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 36years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 69years old and the youngest was 19years old.
  • Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 1997, the majority of drug offenders (71.6%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportionof Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 71.6%of drug offenders, and 73.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewerdrug offenders);
    • Native: 6.5%of drug offenders, and 13.2%of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 10.0%of drug offenders, and 6.4%of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 6.2%of drug offenders, and 2.9% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 5.8%of drug offenders, and 4.4%of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

     

    VI: SUMMARY TABLES

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

     

    END-OF-YEAR

     

    #

     

    (%)

    CUSTODY

    # (%)

    COMMUNITY

    # (%)

    HOMICIDE:

     

     

     

     

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    4,393

    4,318

    4,553

    4,771

    (20.0)

    (18.9)

    (20.1)

    (21.5)

    2,896 (65.9)

    2,784 (64.5)

    3,002 (65.9)

    3,122 (65.4)

    1,497 (34.1)

    1,534 (35.5)

    1,551 (34.1)

    1,649 (34.6)

    SEX:

     

     

     

     

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    3,748

    3,875

    4,041

    3,914

    (16.9)

    (17.0)

    (17.9)

    (17.6)

    2,703 (72.1)

    2,766 (71.3)

    2,974 (73.6)

    2,771 (70.8)

    1,045 (27.9)

    1,109 (28.7)

    1,067 (26.4)

    1,143 (29.2)

    ROBBERY:

     

     

     

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    7,408

    7,199

    7,418

    7,136

    (33.5)

    (31.6)

    (32.8)

    (32.1)

    4,824 (65.1)

    4,606 (63.9)

    4,902 (66.1)

    4,737 (66.4)

    2,584 (34.9)

    2,593 (36.1)

    2,516 (33.9)

    2,399 (33.6)

    DRUG:

     

     

     

     

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    5,117

    5,310

    5,615

    5,515

    (23.1)

    (23.3)

    (24.8)

    (24.8)

    2,540 (49.6)

    2,590 (48.8)

    2,899 (51.6)

    2,659 (48.2)

    2,577 (50.4)

    2,720 (51.2)

    2,716 (48.4)

    2,856 (51.8)

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

     

    END-OF-YEAR

    #/

    (%)

    MINIMUM

    %

    MEDIUM

    %

    MAXIMUM

    %

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    2,896

    2,784

    3,002

    3,122

    11.6

    13.1

    15.7

    17.1

    55.2

    56.3

    56.4

    58.2

    33.2

    29.7

    27.9

    24.7

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    2,703

    2,766

    2,974

    2,771

    11.6

    11.9

    11.5

    12.6

    66.0

    67.8

    68.6

    68.4

    22.4

    20.0

    19.9

    19.0

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    4,824

    4,606

    4,902

    4,737

    8.1

    8.8

    9.3

    11.5

    63.4

    62.4

    63.9

    63.1

    28.5

    27.7

    26.8

    25.4

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    2,540

    2,590

    2,899

    2,659

    16.4

    16.3

    17.4

    19.3

    61.0

    60.6

    59.7

    59.7

    22.6

    22.5

    22.9

    21.0

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

     

    END-OF-YEAR

     

    #/

    (%)

    DAY PAROLE

    %

    FULL PAROLE

    %

    STAT. RELEASE

    %

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1,497

    1,534

    1,551

    1,649

    14.4

    13.8

    12.8

    15.7

    79.7

    79.1

    79.1

    74.3

    5.9

    7.0

    8.1

    10.1

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1,045

    1,109

    1,007

    1,143

    15.2

    12.3

    12.3

    14.0

    42.0

    38.1

    35.6

    31.5

    42.7

    49.4

    52.1

    54.5

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    2,584

    2,593

    2,516

    2,339

    21.6

    19.5

    16.1

    17.1

    41.5

    36.3

    34.0

    31.8

    36.7

    44.1

    49.9

    51.1

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    2,577

    2,720

    2,716

    2,856

    14.9

    12.1

    10.2

    15.9

    64.9

    63.4

    63.4

    59.4

    20.2

    24.5

    26.4

    24.7

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

     

    END-OF-YEAR

    ATL.

    %

    QUE.

    %

    ONT.

    %

    PRA.

    %

    PAC.

    %

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    6.7

    6.7

    6.9

    7.2

    27.2

    27.2

    26.9

    27.1

    29.9

    29.7

    29.5

    28.6

    18.8

    18.6

    18.4

    18.2

    17.4

    17.8

    18.3

    18.9

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    13.0

    12.4

    11.4

    10.7

    20.1

    19.3

    19.0

    19.1

    26.9

    24.7

    24.5

    24.2

    27.3

    28.5

    30.7

    31.8

    15.5

    15.1

    14.5

    14.2

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    6.7

    6.5

    7.3

    7.4

    37.6

    38.0

    36.9

    36.0

    24.6

    23.7

    23.7

    23.7

    18.0

    18.2

    19.0

    19.9

    13.1

    13.6

    13.0

    13.0

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    7.2

    7.7

    8.0

    7.8

    37.8

    38.5

    38.2

    37.4

    27.9

    27.2

    26.1

    26.1

    16.1

    15.7

    17.3

    18.5

    10.9

    10.9

    10.4

    10.3

    OVERALL:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    9.9

    9.8

    9.5

    9.0

    28.9

    29.2

    28.5

    28.1

    27.6

    27.1

    26.8

    26.7

    20.2

    20.5

    22.0

    22.8

    13.4

    13.5

    13.5

    13.4

     

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

     

    END-OF-YEAR

    #

    %

    MALES

    %

    FEMALES

    % (#)

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    4,393

    4,318

    4,553

    4,771

    20.0

    18.9

    20.1

    21.5

    96.0

    96.5

    96.3

    95.8

    4.0 (176)

    3.5 (152)

    3.7 (167)

    4.2 (199)

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    3,748

    3,875

    4,041

    3,914

    16.9

    17.0

    17.9

    17.6

    99.5

    99.7

    99.7

    99.6

    0.5 (17)

    0.3 (10)

    0.3 (14)

    0.4 (15)

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    7,408

    7,199

    7,418

    7,136

    33.5

    31.6

    32.8

    32.1

    99.0

    98.9

    98.8

    98.4

    1.0 (89)

    1.1 (82)

    1.2 (88)

    1.6 (115)

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    5,117

    5,310

    5,615

    5,515

    23.1

    23.3

    24.8

    24.8

    97.0

    96.8

    95.9

    95.0

    3.0 (163)

    3.2 (172)

    4.1 (228)

    5.0 (273)

     

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

     

    END-OF-YEAR

    UNDER

    FEDERALJURISDICTION

    AT ADMISSION

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    42 YEARS (18-89)

    42 YEARS (20-89)

    43 YEARS (20-93)

    43 YEARS (20-91)

    36 YEARS (16-87)

    36 YEARS (18-84)

    36 YEARS (18-84)

    36 YEARS (18-84)

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    41 YEARS (19-86)

    42 YEARS (20-85)

    43 YEARS (19-89)

    46 YEARS (20-89)

    39 YEARS (15-85)

    40 YEARS (18-82)

    41 YEARS (18-81)

    43 YEARS (19-83)

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    34 YEARS (16-78)

    35 YEARS (19-78)

    35 YEARS (19-79)

    35 YEARS (19-75)

    31 YEARS (16-65)

    33 YEARS (18-68)

    33 YEARS (18-68)

    33 YEARS (18 -68)

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    36 YEARS (18-81)

    36 YEARS (20-73)

    37 YEARS (19-76)

    38 YEARS (20-75)

    34 YEARS (17-74)

    35 YEARS (18-71)

    35 YEARS (18-73)

    36 YEARS (19-69)

     

    DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

     

    END-OF-YEAR

    CAUCASIAN

    %

    NATIVE

    %

    BLACK

    %

    ASIAN

    %

    OTHER

    %

    HOMICIDE:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    78.9

    78.3

    77.3

    76.0

    13.0

    13.4

    13.8

    14.6

    3.1

    3.2

    3.5

    3.9

    1.0

    1.3

    1.5

    1.5

    4.0

    3.9

    3.9

    3.9

    SEX:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    76.2

    76.0

    74.1

    73.4

    16.5

    16.5

    17.8

    19.0

    4.5

    4.4

    4.5

    4.7

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    2.5

    2.6

    3.0

    3.2

    ROBBERY:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    82.4

    81.5

    79.7

    78.1

    9.3

    9.9

    10.9

    12.0

    5.4

    5.8

    6.4

    6.5

    1.1

    1.2

    1.2

    1.3

    1.8

    1.7

    1.8

    2.1

    DRUG:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    81.1

    76.4

    74.2

    71.6

    4.8

    4.8

    5.6

    6.5

    8.3

    9.2

    9.5

    10.0

    3.8

    4.3

    5.2

    6.2

    2.0

    5.3

    5.5

    5.8

    OVERALL:

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    78.3

    77.0

    75.2

    73.1

    10.5

    10.9

    12.0

    13.2

    5.5

    6.0

    6.3

    6.4

    1.9

    2.2

    2.5

    2.9

    3.8

    3.9

    4.1

    4.4