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Research Brief

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Male Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends

Roberta Lynn Sinclair & Roger Boe
Research Branch
Correctional Service Canada
May, 1998

SUMMARY

The focus of this report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving male young offenders in Canada. The report was written in response to a special request, and supplements a presentation for the Heads of Corrections. To allow for comparison, the report adheres to the same format of Research Brief B-18, Female Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends, by Colleen Anne Dell and Roger Boe.

The three data sources used in compiling this report are The Uniform Crime Report Survey, the Youth Court Survey, and the Correction Key Indicator Report. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics publishes all three sources. The analyses in this report examine male young offender trends over the past five years, and are directed toward seven questions:

1. Has there been an increase in male youth charged by police, 1992-1996?

  • There has been a gradual decrease at the national level.
  • At the regional level, both the Prairie and Pacific regions expereienced a consistent decrease. The rates reamined farily stable for the other regions.
  • By offense category, there was a slight increase in violent crimes and a more dramatic increase in drug offenses. Property crimes decreased significantly and other offenses decreased.
  1. Has there been an increase in male youth processed through the youth court system, 1992/93-1996/97?
  • There has been a decrease at the national level.
  • Most regions experienced a decrease, however the Atlantic and Quebec region indicate a slight increase from 1992/93 to 1996/97.
  • There was a consistent decrease of property crimes and other crimes, while crimes of violence increased slightly. Young offenders act offenses peaked in 1993/94 and decreased in subsequent years but still slightly above the 1992/93 rate. Drug offences consistently increased.

3. Are male youth getting involved with crime at a younger age?

  • At the national level, male youth are not getting involved with crime at a younger age.
  • A mean age of 15.5 has remained consistent from 1992/93 to 1994/95, increasing to 16 in 1996/97.

4. Are male youth getting more violent?

  • The Uniform Crime Report Survey (UCR) data suggests that the national rate of violent crime among male youth has remained fairly constant at approximately 137 per 10,000 since 1992.
  • Although there was fluctuation, there were no major regional trends evident in the UCR data. The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population and Quebec had the lowest rate.
  • At the national level, there was a steady increase in the number of male youth processed through the youth court system, followed by a slight decrease in 1994/95 and 1995/96, and a slight increase in 1996/97.
  • Youth court statistics indicate relative stability among the violent offenses over the four-year period.
  1. Has there been an increase in the frequency of male youth remanded into custody pending disposition of a charge?

Due to data from only Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia, conclusions are tentative.

  • Prince Edward Island increased from 1993/94 to 1996/97.
  • Manitoba decreased in 1994/95 followed by a steady increase through to 1996/97.
  • British Columbia increased slightly over the 4-year span.

6. Are male youth getting more serious dispositions?

  • There has been consistent increase in secure custody dispositions. Open custody experienced an increase followed by a decrease in 1996/97. Probation reveals a decrease until 1994/95 when an increase trend began. Fine and community service order and absolute discharge dispositions decreased.
  • There was relative disposition stability in the Atlantic region. There was a slight decrease in the use of secure custody and a slight increase in the use of probation in the Quebec region. In the Ontario region, there was an increase in the use of secure custody and probation dispositions, and a substantial decrease in fine and community service orders. There was a slight increase in the use of secure custody dispositions in the Prairie and Pacific regions.
  • The most common disposition across regions was probation, except in the Ontario region in 1993/94 where fine and community service order were the most common dispositions.
  1. Has there been an increase in the number of male youth transferred to adult court?
  • Yes there has been an increase. From 1992/93 to 1994/95 the number of youth transferred to adult court more than doubled, fluctuating in subsequent years.
  • From 1991/92 to 1996/97, a total of 486 male youths were transferred to adult court. The majority of youth (87%) were 16 years of age or older.
  • The Prairie region has the highest number of transfers, while the Atlantic region has the lowest.

 

NOTE

  • The unit of analyses is cases processed (Youth Court Survey) and incidents or persons charged (Uniform Crime Report Survey) (in the latter case this includes the number of charges laid or recommended to be laid against those people). An explanation and definition of the data sources are presented in Appendix A and F. Please see original source for further clarification.
  • The Youth Court Survey and Corrections Key Indicator Report data are presented for fiscal years. The Uniform Crime Report Survey data are presented for calendar years. Caution must therefore be used in making comparisons between the data sources. The Postcensal and updated Postcensal population estimates (Statistics Canada) are for July 1 of the specific year.
  • The population estimates used in this report may not be the most recent revision of the data. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics provides revisions the year following the original release. The changes, however, are small and do not effect the findings of this report (See Appendix A, Canadian Census).
  • To contextualize the UCR findings in this report, the rates of adult females and males, and youth females and males charged by police increased from 1984 to 1991. From 1991 to 1996, the overall charge rates have declined.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY *

NOTE *

TABLE OF CONTENTS *

LIST OF TABLES *

LIST OF CHARTS *

RESEARCH QUESTIONS *

QUESTION 1: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH CHARGED BY THE POLICE, 1992 - 1996? *

QUESTION 2: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH PROCESSED THROUGH THE YOUTH COURT SYSTEM, 1992/93 - 1996/97? *

QUESTION 3: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE? *

QUESTION 4: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE VIOLENT? *

QUESTION 5: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF MALE YOUTH REMANDED INTO CUSTODY PENDING DISPOSITION OF A CHARGE? *

QUESTION 6: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS? *

QUESTION 7: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MALE YOUTH TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT? *

APPENDIX A *

APPENDIX B *

APPENDIX C *

APPENDIX D *

APPENDIX E *

APPENDIX F *

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Canada *

Table 1.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Canada *

Table 1.3: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Regions *

Table 1.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Regions *

Table 2.1: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, *

Table 2.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Canada *

Table 2.3: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, *

Table 2.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population, Regions *

Table 3.1: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Canada *

Table 3.2: Total Male Youth, by Age (12 - 17 Years) Population, Canada *

Table 3.3: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by *

Table 4.1: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Canada *

Table 4.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada *

Table 4.3: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Regions *

Table 4.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada *

Table 4.5: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court *

Table 4.6: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada *

Table 5.1: Male Youth Remanded into Custody* Per Month**, Select Provinces*** *

Table 5.2: Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Select Provinces *

Table 6.1: Male Youth Disposition*, Canada *

Table 6.2: Percentage of Male Youth Disposition Per Total Male *

Table 6.3: Male Youth Disposition*, Regions *

Table 7.1: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court*, Regions & Canada *

Table 7.2: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court* by Age, Canada *

 

LIST OF CHARTS

Chart 1.1A: Total Male Youth Charged by Police, Canada *

Chart 1.1B: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada *

Chart 1.1C: Male Youth Charged by Police by Offense Category Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada *

Chart 1.3A: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions *

Chart 2.1A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System *

Chart 2.1B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System *

Chart 2.3A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System *

Chart 3.1A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by *

Chart 3.1B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, Per *

Chart 3.3A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, byAge, Atlantic Region *

Chart 3.3B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Quebec Region *

Chart 3.3C: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Ontario Region *

Chart 3.3D: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Prairie Region *

Chart 3.3E: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Pacific Region *

Chart 4.1A: Total Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by *

Chart 4.1B: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per *

Chart 4.4A: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions *

Chart 4.5A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada *

Chart 4.5B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada *

Chart 5.1A: Male Youth Remanded Into Custody Per Month, Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Select Provinces *

Chart 6.2A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Canada *

Chart 6.3A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Atlantic Region *

Chart 6.3B: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Quebec Region *

Chart 6.3C: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Ontario Region *

Chart 6.3D: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Prairie Region *

Chart 6.3E: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Pacific Region *

Chart 7.1: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court, Canada 1991/92 – 1996-97 *

 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH CHARGED BY THE POLICE, 1992 - 1996?

QUESTION 2:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH PROCESSED THROUGH THE YOUTH COURT SYSTEM, 1992/93 – 1996/97?

QUESTION 3:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

QUESTION 4:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

QUESTION 5:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF MALE YOUTH REMANDED INTO CUSTODY PENDING DISPOSITION OF A CHARGE?

QUESTION 6:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS?

QUESTION 7:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MALE YOUTH TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT?

* Refer to Appendix A for definitions of data sources

** Refer to Appendix B for format of data presentation

 

QUESTION 1:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH CHARGED BY THE POLICE, 1992 - 1996?

 

Canada

  • Since 1992 there has been a gradual decrease.
  • By offense, property crimes had the most notable decrease trend. Crimes of violence increased slightly until 1995 followed by a slight decrease in 1996 to a rate slightly above the 1992 rate. A similar pattern is evident in the drug offence category, however the slight decrease in 1995 is followed by an increase in 1996.

Regions

  • There was consistent decrease in the Prairie and Pacific regions. Fluctuations experienced in the other three regions suggest no coherent patterns. Overall, the rates remained fairly steady for all regions.
  • In the Atlantic region there was a decrease from 1993 – 1995, followed by the highest rate in 1996.
  • The Quebec region experienced a decrease from 1992 – 1994, followed by an increase from 1995 – 1996 .
  • The trend in the Ontario region suggests the greatest fluctuation. A significant decrease from 1992 to 1993 was followed by a slight increase from 1994 – 1995, and a notable decrease in 1996.
  • Both the Prairie and the Pacific region consistently decreased in the rate of male youth charged by police, 1992 – 1996.
  • Over the 5-year span, the Prairie region consistently had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population, followed by the Pacific region. The lowest rate was in the Quebec region. Ontario and the Atlantic regions had similar rates.

 

Table 1.1: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Canada

  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
OFFENSE

Actual Number

Rate per**

10,000

Actual Number

Rate per**

10,000

Actual Number

Rate per**

10,000

Actual Number

Rate per**

10,000

Actual Number

Rate per**

10,000

Crimes of Violence

15,742

132.8

16,375

136.4

16,753

138.5

17,250

141.0

16,589

134.1

Property Crimes

66,591

561.9

59,242

493.6

54,784

452.9

52,945

432.9

51,242

414.1

Drugs***

2,186

18.4

2,959

24.7

4,176

37.2

4,494

36.7

4,796

38.8

Other****

27,876

235.2

27,030

225.2

26,696

220.7

26,696

218.3

26,631

215.2

TOTAL

112,395

948. 4

105,606

880.1

101,675

840.6

101,385

829.0

99,258

802.1

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

 

Table 1.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Canada

 

TOTAL MALE

YOUTH

POPULATION

 

1992

 

1993

 

1994

 

1995

 

1996

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division.

 

Chart 1.1A: Total Male Youth Charged by Police, Canada

 

 

Chart 1.1B: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

Chart 1.1C: Male Youth Charged by Police by Offense Category Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

Table 1.3: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Regions

 

1992 1993 1994   1995 1996
OFFENSE

Actual

Rate Per**

Actual

Rate Per

Actual

Rate Per

Actual

Rate Per

Actual

Rate Per

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

ATLANTIC
Crimes of Violence

1,152

104.7

1,346

124.9

1,363

129.3

1,324

127.0

1,259

121.4

Property Crimes

5,064

460.4

5,264

488.3

4,974

471.9

4,663

447.3

4,868

469.4

Drugs***

117

10.2

150

13.9

227

21.5

223

21.4

319

30.8

Other****

2,779

252.6

2,554

236.9

2,511

238.2

2,493

239.1

2,615

252.2

TOTAL

9,112

828.4

9,314

864.0

9,075

861.0

8,703

834.8

9,061

873.8

QUEBEC
Crimes of Violence

2,549

84.8

2,502

82.4

2,617

85.7

2,696

89.0

2,501

83.3

Property Crime

11,584

385.4

9,314

306.6

8,179

268.0

7,889

260.4

8,271

275.5

Drugs

538

17.7

936

30.9

1,272

41.7

1,286

42.5

1,445

48.1

Other

3,603

119.9

3,059

100.7

2,642

86.6

2,861

94.4

2,926

97.5

TOTAL

18,274

607.9

15,811

520.4

14,710

482.0

14,732

486.3

15,143

504.4

ONTARIO
Crimes of Violence

6,573

155.5

6,648

154.9

6,699

151.8

7,111

161.2

6,429

142.8

Property Crimes

21,581

510.4

19,492

454.0

17,974

415.5

18,086

409.9

16,609

369.0

Drugs

736

17.3

945

22.0

1,427

33.0

1,718

38.9

1,791

39.8

Other

11,036

261.0

10,709

249.5

10,663

246.5

10,647

241.3

9,940

220.8

TOTAL

39,926

944.3

37,794

800.4

36,763

849.8

37,562

851.3

34,769

772.4

PRAIRIE
Crimes of Violence

3,519

164.4

3,730

171.8

3,655

166.3

3,746

167.5

4,008

175.9

Property Crimes

18,474

862.9

16,487

759.4

15,349

698.3

14,435

645.6

14,054

616.8

Drugs

309

14.3

430

19.8

7,187

327.0

563

25.2

632

27.7

Other

8,303

387.8

7,914

364.5

532

24.2

7,685

343.7

8,229

361.2

TOTAL

30,605

1,429.5

28,561

1,315.6

26,723

1,215.8

26,429

1,182.0

26,923

1,181.6

PACIFIC
Crimes of Violence

1,949

141.7

2,149

151.3

2,419

165.0

2,373

157.2

2,392

153.8

Property Crimes

9,167

666.7

8,685

611.6

8,308

566.7

7,872

521.4

7,440

478.3

Drugs

507

36.7

498

35.1

2,959

201.9

704

46.6

609

39.1

Other

2,855

207.6

2,794

196.7

718

49.0

3,010

199.4

2,921

187.8

TOTAL

14,478

1,052.9

14,126

994.8

14,404

982.5

13,959

924.5

13,362

859.0

TOTAL

112,395

948.4

105,606

880.1

101,675

840.6

101,385

829.0

99,258

802.1

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

 

Table 1.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Regions

TOTAL MALE
YOUTH
POPULATION

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Atlantic

110,000

107,800

105,400

104,248

103,698

Quebec

300,600

303,800

305,200

302,919

300,221

Ontario

422,800

429,300

432,600

441,233

450,147

Prairie

214,100

217,100

219,800

223,595

227,844

Pacific

137,500

142,000

146,600

150,984

155,562

 

TOTAL

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

 

Chart 1.3A: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions


QUESTION 2:

 

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH PROCESSED THROUGH THE YOUTH COURT SYSTEM, 1992/93 - 1996/97?

 

Canada

 

  • Overall, there has been a decrease.
  • However, crimes of violence increased until 1993/94 when there was a slight decrease in 1994/95, increasing slightly in subsequent years. Young offenders act offenses peaked in 1993/94 and decreased in the following years, but remaining above the 1992/93 rate.
  • The only consistent decrease trends from 1992/93 to 1996/97 were in property crimes and other crimes (other Federal Statutes and Other Crimes).
  • The drug offense trend consistently increased.

 

Regions

  • Both the Atlantic and Quebec regions indicate an increase from 1992/93 to 1996/97. The other regions report a decrease. The most significant decrease was in the Prairie region, followed by the Pacific region.
  • In 1996/97, the Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population, followed by Ontario, Atlantic, Pacific and Quebec regions.

 

 

Table 2.1: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, Canada

1992/1993 1993/1994   1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
 

OFFENSE

Actual

Number

Rate Per

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate Per

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate Per

10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per

10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per 10,000

Crimes of Violence

16,676

140.7

17,646

147.0

17,489

144.6

18,400

150.5

18,215

147.2

Property Crimes

52,047

439.2

48,892

407.4

44,148

365.0

43,037

351.9

42,453

343.1

Drugs***

1,942

16.4

2,687

22.4

3,949

32.6

4,324

35.4

4,747

38.4

Other****

15,783

133.2

15,945

132.9

15,375

127.1

14,936

122.1

14,258

115.2

Young Offenders Act*****

7,964

67.2

8,887

74.1

8,624

71.3

8,432

68.9

8,440

68.2

TOTAL

94,412

796.7

94,057

783.8

89,585

740.6

89,129

728.8

88,113

712.0

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crimes

***** Young Offenders Act = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and

Assist/Interfere Other

 

Table 2.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Canada

TOTAL MALE
YOUTH
POPULATION

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 2.1A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

Chart 2.1B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System by Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

Table 2.3: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*,

Regions

1992/1993

1993/1994

1994/1995

1995/1996

1996/1997

OFFENSE

Actual

Number

Rate

Per**

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate Per 10,000

Actual Number

Rate per 10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per 10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per 10,000

ATLANTIC
Crimes of Violence

1,231

111.9

1,322

122.6

1,326

125.8

1,304

125.1

1,400

135.0

Property Crimes

4,243

385.7

4,088

379.2

3,923

372.2

3,840

368.4

4,086

394.0

Drugs***

114

10.4

154

14.3

206

19.5

236

22.6

333

32.1

Other ****

942

85.6

864

80.1

801

76.0

780

74.8

912

87.9

Young Offenders Act*****

548

49.8

634

58.8

662

62.8

669

64.2

791

76.3

Atlantic – Total

7,078

643.5

7,062

655.1

6,918

656.4

6,829

655.1

7,522

725.4

QUEBEC
Crimes of Violence

2,211

73.6

2,222

73.1

2,511

82.3

2,214

73.1

2,215

73.8

Property Crimes

5,160

171.7

4,841

159.3

4,542

148.8

4,120

136.0

4,860

161.9

Drugs

360

12.0

768

25.3

1,178

38.6

1,088

35.9

1,328

44.2

Other

1,205

40.1

1,135

37.4

1,214

39.8

1,286

42.5

1,317

43.9

Young Offenders Act

735

24.5

726

23.9

814

26.7

826

27.3

862

28.7

Quebec – Total

9,671

321.7

9,692

319.0

10,259

336.1

9,534

314.7

10,582

352.5

ONTARIO
Crimes of Violence

8,160

193.0

8,759

204.0

8,416

194.5

8,647

196.0

8,259

183.5

Property Crimes

20,208

478.0

20,055

467.2

17,984

415.7

17,967

407.2

16,965

376.9

Drugs

786

18.6

1,017

23.7

1,529

35.3

1,921

43.5

1,983

44.1

Other

6,878

162.7

7,071

164.7

6,835

158.0

6,871

155.7

6,695

148.7

Young Offenders Act

2,266

53.6

2,733

63.7

2,576

59.5

2,719

61.6

2,589

57.5

Ontario - Total

38,298

905.8

39,635

923.2

37,340

863.2

38,125

864.1

36,491

810.6

PRAIRIE
Crimes of Violence

4,352

203.3

4,758

219.2

4,568

207.8

4,521

202.2

4,467

196.1

Property Crimes

16,347

763.6

15,184

699.4

13,404

609.8

12,947

579.0

12,338

541.5

Drugs

379

17.7

458

21.1

642

29.2

578

25.9

659

28.9

Other

4,974

232.3

5,060

233.1

4,725

215.0

5,046

225.7

4,363

191.5

Young Offenders Act

3,080

143.9

3,360

154.8

3,154

143.5

3,117

139.4

2,909

127.7

Prairie – Total

29,132

1,360.7

28,820

1,327.5

26,493

1,205.3

26,209

1,172.2

24,736

1,085.7

PACIFIC
Crimes of Violence

1,752

127.4

1,625

114.4

1,705

116.3

1,714

113.5

1,874

120.5

Property Crimes

6,102

443.8

4,792

337.5

4,434

302.5

4,163

275.7

4,204

270.2

Drugs

346

25.2

329

23.2

447

30.5

501

33.2

444

28.5

Other

987

71.8

968

68.2

925

63.1

953

63.1

971

62.4

Young Offenders Act

1,046

76.1

1,134

79.9

1,064

72.6

1,101

72.9

1,289

82.9

Pacific – Total

10,233

744.2

8,848

623.1

8,575

585.0

8,432

558.5

8,782

564.5

TOTAL

94,412

796.7

94,057

783.8

89,585

740.6

89,129

728.8

88,113

712.0

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** YOA = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and Assist/Interfere Other.

****** 1991 YCS not included because the Youth Court Statistics Report does not differentiate between males and females with this data.

However, the data may be made available from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.

 

Table 2.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population, Regions

TOTAL MALE YOUTH
POPULATION

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Atlantic

110,000

107,800

105,400

104,248

103,698

Quebec

300,600

303,800

305,200

302,919

300,221

Ontario

422,800

429,300

432,600

441,233

450,147

Prairie

214,100

217,100

219,800

223,595

227,844

Pacific

137,500

142,000

146,600

150,984

155,562

TOTAL

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 2.3A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System   Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions

 

QUESTION 3:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

 

Canada

 

  • Overall, it appears that male youth are not getting involved with crime at a younger age. This is true both for male youth charged by police and the rate of male youth charged by police per 10,000 male youth population. There was a steady trend whereby the number of youths processed increased as the age increased.
  • The mean age of 15.5 was consistent from 1992/93 to 1994/95, increasing to 16 in 1996/97.
  • In 1993/94, a slight increase trend began in the 12-year-old category and continued into 1995/96.

Regions

  • In all regions, the greatest number of male youth processed through youth court by principle charge were 17 years of age.
  • The following is characteristic of each region:

Atlantic Region: There was a slight increase in males aged 12, 13, 14, 15 and over 17 processed from 1992/93 to 1996/97. There was a decreased number of male youth processed in the other age categories.

Quebec Region: There was a steady trend of increase in number of youth processed in every year and in each age category except for the over 17 year old age group which experienced a decrease.

Ontario Region: From 1992/93 – 1996/97 decreases were noted in all age groups except the 12, 13, 15 and over 17 age groups where there were slight increases.

Prairie Region: Decrease in numbers and in age of males processed through youth court from 1992/93 to 1996/97, except in the 12 year old age range where a slight increase was experienced.

Pacific Region: There was a decrease in numbers and of age of males processed through youth court from 1992/93 to 1996/97.

 

* See Appendix C for additional research findings

 

Table 3.1: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Canada

OFFENSE

<12

12

13

14

15

16

17

>17

Unknown

1992/1993
Crimes of Violence

13

639

1,448

2,616

3,502

4,408

4,753

33

294

Property Crimes

17

1,846

4,148

7,715

10,820

13,509

13,315

92

598

Other Crimes

1

201

640

1,586

2,534

4,188

5,149

475

212

Drugs

-

9

42

113

293

596

911

3

18

Young Offenders Act

1

50

300

905

1,525

1,881

2,272

674

67

1992/1993 TOTAL

32

2,745

6,578

12,935

18,674

24,582

26,400

1,277

1,189

Per 10,000 Male

137.0

325.0

650.0

947.9

1,240.8

1,312.8

1993/1994
Crimes of Violence

15

796

1,706

2,753

3,695

4,376

4,940

81

324

Property Crimes

13

1,648

3,912

7,218

10,376

12,451

12,647

119

576

Other Crimes

5

289

740

1,603

2,763

3,802

5,110

558

228

Drugs

-

12

68

237

487

789

1,103

11

19

Young Offenders Act

1

96

421

1,001

1,760

2,096

2,389

734

89

1993/1994 TOTAL

34

2,841

6,847

12,812

19,081

23,514

26,189

1,503

1,236

Per 10,000 Male Youth

141.8

348.3

658.7

968.6

1,184.6

1,312.1

1994/1995
Crimes of Violence

1

916

1,717

2,709

3,533

4,444

4,738

56

412

Property Crimes

3

1,620

3,623

6,512

9,331

11,379

11,117

108

594

Other Crimes

-

256

805

1,559

2,604

3,708

4,775

541

255

Drugs

-

24

98

352

727

1,201

1,556

14

30

Young Offenders Act

-

68

450

1,014

1,686

2,095

2,232

645

80

1994/1995 TOTAL

4

2,884

6,690

12,146

17,881

22,827

24,418

1,364

1,371

Per 10,000 Male Youth

1995/1996

Crimes of Violence

Property Crimes

Drugs

Young Offenders Act

Other Federal Statutes

1995/1996 TOTAL

Per 10,000 Male Youth

1996/1997

Crimes of Violence

Property Crimes

Other Crimes

Drugs

Young Offenders Act

1996/1997 TOTAL

Per 10,000 Male Youth

 

 

19

14

-

1

5

39

 

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

142.7

 

917

1,684

21

94

309

3,025

148.7

 

946

1,644

335

35

95

3,055

148.4

327.8

 

1,820

3,691

94

425

871

6,901

338.0

 

1,826

3,530

810

150

438

6,754

329.3

594.8

 

2,899

6,411

370

1,009

1,717

12,406

601.5

 

2,804

6,384

1,615

438

1,106

12,347

599.0

890.0

 

3,637

9,142

826

1,751

2,702

18,058

875.9

 

3,662

9,291

2,845

934

1,916

18,648

896.4

1,149.4

 

4,189

11,008

1,314

2,142

3,831

22,484

1,127.6

 

4,188

10,722

3,601

1,373

2,143

22,027

1,059.4

1,222.7

 

4,544

10,587

1,664

2,372

4,743

23,910

1,193.2

 

4,438

10,394

4,436

1,770

2,196

23,234

1,137.0

 

 

7

172

9

569

541

1,298

 

 

63

83

401

18

483

966

 

 

308

388

26

69

217

1,008

 

 

288

405

215

29

64

1,152

TOTAL

109

14,550

33,770

62,646

92,342

115,434

124,151

6,490

5,805

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offense, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offenses, property offenses, other Criminal Code offenses, offenses under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offenses.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

****** YOA = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and Assist/Interfere Other

******* Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

******** - is nil or zero

 

Table 3.2: Total Male Youth, by Age (12 - 17 Years) Population, Canada

Total Male Youth
Population

12

13

14

15

16

17

1992

200,300

196,600

194,500

195,600

198,500

199,500

1993

202,400

202,400

199,000

197,000

198,100

201,100

1994

202,100

204,100

204,200

200,900

198,600

199,700

1995

203,374

204,179

206,248

206,172

202,625

200,381

1996

205,915

205,127

206,113

208,039

207,925

204,353

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 3.1A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Age, Canada

 

Chart 3.1B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, by Age, Canada

 

 

1992/93

1993/94

1994/95

1995/96

1996/97

MEAN AGE

15.4

15.5

15.5

15.4

16.0

 

Table 3.3: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by

Principle Charge**, by Age***, Regions

 

 

REGION

<12

12

13

14

15

16

17

>17

Unknown

 

ATLANTIC

                 

1992/1993

1

218

499

887

1,256

1,969

2,196

29

23

1993/1994

2

207

559

854

1,335

1,879

2,139

68

19

1994/1995

2

243

534

910

1,262

1,907

1,969

64

27

1995/1996

1996/1997

2

-

210

280

541

599

890

1,166

1,373

1,516

1,812

1,938

1,948

1,939

50

54

3

30

QUEBEC                  

1992/1993

3

102

393

1,049

1,854

2,766

3,377

112

15

1993 /1994

4

123

391

1,050

1,879

2,728

3,425

92

-

1994 /1995

1

119

423

1,262

2,027

2,824

3,516

82

5

1995/1996

1996/1997

-

-

127

119

450

437

1,151

1,201

2,000

2,203

2,608

3,012

3,130

3,521

66

83

2

6

ONTARIO

                 

1992/1993

19

1,255

2,809

5,598

7,717

9,601

9,941

265

1,093

1993 /1994

16

1,284

2,996

5,701

8,395

9,596

10,104

407

1,136

1994 /1995

1

1,317

2,952

5,101

7,657

9,210

9,414

405

1,283

1995/1996

1996/1997

33

-

1,400

1,448

3,174

3,002

5,468

5,215

7,724

7,904

9,308

8,573

9,639

9,067

410

373

969

909

PRAIRIE                  

1992/1993

9

936

2,151

3,975

5,681

7,583

8,001

742

54

1993 /1994

12

1,017

2,284

3,972

5,606

6,971

8,078

800

80

1994 /1995

-

966

2,144

3,646

5,117

6,695

7,192

679

54

1995/1996

1996/1997

4

-

1,005

982

2,070

2,018

3,615

3,490

5,186

5,093

6,714

6,212

6,965

6,449

619

441

31

51

PACIFIC                  

1992/1993

-

234

726

1,426

2,166

2,663

2,885

129

4

1993 /1994

-

210

617

1,235

1,866

2,340

2,443

136

1

1994 /1995

-

239

637

1,227

1,818

2,191

2,327

134

2

1995/1996

1996/1997

-

-

283

225

666

698

1,282

1,275

1,775

1,932

2,042

2,292

2,228

2,258

153

97

3

5

                   

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offense, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offenses, property offenses, other Criminal Code offenses, offenses under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offenses.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Noting the similarity between the actual rate & the per 10,000 male youth population rate (refer to prior table), only the actual rate is referred to for the regions

***** - is nil or zero

 

 

Chart 3.3A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Atlantic Region

 

Chart 3.3B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Quebec Region

 

 

Chart 3.3C: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Ontario Region

 

 

Chart 3.3D: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Prairie Region

 

 

Chart 3.3E: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Pacific Region

 

 

QUESTION 4:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

Canada

Uniform Crime Report:

  • Overall, there was a slight trend increase. Increases in the national level peaked in 1995 before returning in 1996 to a lower rate similar to 1992.
  • The rate of homicide dropped significantly from 1992 to 1993. Since 1994 the rate has remained fairly stable at approximately 0.40 per 10,000 male youth.
  • The attempted murder rate fluctuated from the lowest point in 1993 to the highest rate in 1994, decreasing and sustaining a rate of approximately 0.65 in subsequent years.
  • There was a steady decrease in sexual assault and other sexual offenses from 1992 to 1996.
  • There was a steady increase in non-sexual assault from 1992 to 1995, followed by a marked decline in 1996 to slightly above the 1992 rate.
  • Abduction and robbery rates fluctuated, however in both offense categories variations are small.
  • Across the 5-year span, non-sexual assault had the highest charge rate among the violent offense categories, followed by robbery, sexual assault and other sexual offenses, attempted murder, homicide, and abduction.

 

Youth Court Survey:

  • From 1991/92 to 1993/94, there was steady increase in the number of male youth processed through the youth court system for a violent offense (per 10,000 male youth population), followed by a slight decrease in 1994/95 and 1995/96 and an increase in 1996/97.

Regions

Uniform Crime Report

  • Although there was fluctuation among the regions no major trends were evident.
  • An increase in the Atlantic region in 1992-1994 was followed by a decrease from 1995 to 1996.
  • Consistent increases in the Quebec region from 1993 were followed by a slight decrease in 1996.
  • The rate in Ontario decreased from 1992 to 1994. A slight increase in 1995 was followed by a marked decrease in 1996 to notably below the 1992 rate.
  • The rate of male youth charged by police for a violent offense in the Prairie region was inconsistent, with the highest rate of male youth charges in 1996.
  • In the Pacific region there was a slight increase until 1994 when a 1995 decrease trend continued into 1996.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population and Quebec region had the lowest rate.

* See Appendix D for additional research findings.

 

Table 4.1: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Canada

1992 1993   1994 1995 1996

Actual

Rate per**

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate per

OFFENSE

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Homicide

49

0.41

33

0.27

48

0.40

49

0.40

47

0.38

Attempted Murder

66

0.56

61

0.51

103

0.85

81

0.66

81

0.65

Sexual Assault &

2,231

18.83

2,245

18.71

2,036

16.83

1,709

13.97

1,634

13.20

Other Sexual Offenses***
Non-Sexual Assault

10,807

91.19

11,458

95.48

11,958

98.87

12,400

101.39

11,827

95.57

****
Abduction

3

0.03

2

0.02

8

0.07

6

0.05

5

0.04

Robbery

2,586

21.83

2,576

21.46

2,600

21.50

3,005

24.57

2,995

24.20

TOTAL

15,742

132.84

16,375

136.46

16,753

138.50

17,250

141.05

16,589

134.06

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** There may be a difference in the definition for 1996 in comparison to the prior year because 1996 does not include the category of Rape/Indecent Assault, however, it is anticipated to be negligible.

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

 

Table 4.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada

TOTAL MALE YOUTH
POPULATION

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 4.1A: Total Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Chart 4.1B: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Table 4.3: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Regions

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Actual

Rate per**

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate per

Actual

Rate Per

OFFENSE

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

ATLANTIC
Homicide

3

0.27

3

0.28

2

0.19

4

0.38

1

0.10

Attempted Murder

-

-

1

0.09

-

-

1

0.10

-

-

Sexual Assault &

235

21.36

271

25.14

220

20.87

198

19.00

167

16.10

Other Sexual Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault

847

77.0

994

92.21

1,055

100.09

1,043

100.05

1,034

99.71

Abduction

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Robbery

67

6.09

77

7.14

86

8.16

78

7.48

57

5.50

Total

1,152

104.73

1,346

124.86

1,363

129.32

1,324

127.00

1,259

121.41

QUEBEC
Homicide

11

0.37

7

0.23

13

0.43

6

0.20

4

0.13

Attempted Murder

31

1.03

19

0,63

47

1.54

20

0.66

23

0.77

Sexual Assault &

232

7.72

275

9.05

251

8.22

228

7.53

190

6.33

Other Sexual Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault

1,670

55.56

1,669

54.94

1,758

57.60

1,808

59.69

1,675

55.79

Abduction

-

-

1

0.03

-

-

-

-

-

Robbery

605

20.13

531

17.48

548

17.96

634

20.93

609

20.29

Total

2,549

84.29

2,502

82.36

2,617

85.75

2,696

89.00

2,501

83.31

ONTARIO
Homicide

14

0.33

8

0.19

11

0.25

13

0.29

18

0.40

Attempted Murder

24

0.57

16

0.37

32

0.74

35

0.79

27

0.60

Sexual Assault &

845

20.0

838

19.52

731

16.90

646

14.64

583

12.95

Other Sexual Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault

4,640

109.74

4,795

111.69

4,973

114.96

5,339

121.00

4,722

104.90

Abduction

1

0.02

-

-

4

0.09

2

0.05

-

-

Robbery

1,049

24.81

991

23.08

948

21.91

1,076

24.39

1,079

23.97

Total

6,573

155.46

6,648

154.86

6,699

154.85

7,111

161.16

6,429

142.82

PRAIRIE
Homicide

19

0.89

10

0.46

13

0.59

12

0.54

15

0.66

Attempted Murder

9

0.42

18

0.83

14

0.64

18

0.81

24

1.05

Sexual Assault &

628

29.33

587

27.04

548

24.93

418

18.69

460

20.19

Other Sexual Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault

2,312

107.99

2,517

115.94

2,502

113.83

2,623

117.31

2,766

121.40

Abduction

2

0.09

1

0.05

2

0.09

1

0.04

3

0.13

Robbery

549

25.64

597

27.50

576

26.21

674

30.14

740

32.48

Total

3,519

164.36

3,730

171.81

3,655

166.29

3,746

167.54

4,008

175.91

PACIFIC
Homicide

2

0.15

5

0.35

9

0.61

14

0.93

9

0.58

Attempted Murder

2

0.15

7

0.49

10

0.68

7

0.46

7

0.45

Sexual Assault &

291

21.16

274

19.30

286

19.50

219

14.50

234

15.04

Other Sexual Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault

1,338

97.31

1,483

104.44

1,670

113.92

1,587

105.11

1,630

104.78

Abduction

-

-

-

-

2

0.14

3

0.20

2

0.13

Robbery

316

22.98

380

26.76

442

30.15

543

35.96

510

32.78

Total

1,949

141.75

2,149

151.34

2,419

165.01

2,373

157.17

2,392

153.77

TOTAL

15,742

132.84

16,375

136.46

16,753

138.50

17,250

141.05

16,589

134.06

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

**** - is nil or zero

 

Table 4.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada

TOTAL MALE
YOUTH
POPULATION

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Atlantic

110,000

107,800

105,400

104,248

103,698

Quebec

300,600

303,800

305,200

302,919

300,221

Ontario

422,800

429,300

432,600

441,233

450,147

Prairie

214,100

217,100

219,800

223,595

227,844

Pacific

137,500

142,000

146,600

150,984

155,562

TOTAL

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

 

 

Chart 4.4A: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions

 

Table 4.5: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court

System* for a Violent Offense, Canada

1991/1992

1992/1993

1993/1994

1994/1995

1995/1996

1996/1997

 

OFFENSE

Actual

Number

Rate per***

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate per

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate per

10,000

Actual

Number

Rate per

10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per 10,000

Actual Number

Rate Per 10,000

Homicide***

58

0.52

54

0.46

38

0.32

58

0.48

43

0.35

48

0.38

Attempted Murder

42

0.37

64

0.54

47

0.39

48

0.40

39

0.32

56

0.45

Sexual Assault & Other Sexual

1,928

17.15

2,122

17.91

2,444

20.36

2,153

17.80

1,816

14.80

1,698

13.72

Offenses
Non-Sexual Assault****

9,824

87.39

10,723

90.48

11,377

94.80

11,533

95.35

11,031

90.20

11,801

95.36

Abduction

16

0.14

37

0.31

25

0.21

49

0.41

57

0.47

27

0.22

Robbery

1,921

17.09

2,145

18.10

2,032

16.93

2,050

16.95

2,073

16.95

2,442

19.73

Weapon

2,386

21.22

2,439

20.58

2,566

21.38

2,510

20.75

2,115

17.29

2,019

16.32

Other

102

0.91

122

1.03

158

1.32

125

1.03

141

1.15

124

1.00

TOTAL

16,277

144.80

17,706

149.41

18,687

155.73

18,526

153.16

17,315

141.58

18,215

147.20

* Source: Youth Court Survey.

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Offense categorizations are comprised of the following offenses:

Homicide: Murder, Manslaughter, Infanticide and Other Related; Attempted Murder: Attempted Murder; Sexual Assault and Other

Sexual Offenses: Aggravated Sexual Assault, Sexual Assault/Weapon, Sexual Assault, Rape/Indecent Assault, Other Sexual Offences; Non-Sexual Assault: Aggravated Assault, Assault With a Weapon, Cause Bodily Harm/Intent, Minor Assault, Unlawfully Cause Bodily harm, Assaulting Peace Officer, Other Assaults; Abduction: Kidnapping/Hostage Taking; Robbery: Robbery; Weapon: Dangerous Use of a Weapon, Possession of a Weapon, Other Weapons Offenses; Other: Extortion, Criminal Negligence

Note: Due to possible difference in the definitions of violent crimes, based on the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Youth Court

Survey used in this report, the enclosed tables and charts should be compared on a general level.

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

 

Table 4.6: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada

TOTAL

MALE YOUTH

POPULATION

 

1991

 

1992

 

1993

 

1994

 

1995

 

1996

1,124,000

1,185,000

1,200,000

1,209,600

1,222,979

1,237,472

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 4.5A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

Chart 4.5B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

 

QUESTION 5:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF MALE YOUTH REMANDED INTO CUSTODY PENDING DISPOSITION OF A CHARGE?

 

  • Due to data from only Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia, conclusions are tentative:

 

Prince Edward Island:

There has been a steady increase from 1993/94 to 1996/97.

Manitoba:

Slight decrease in 1994/95 was followed by a steady increase until the highest rate per 10,000 male youth in1996/97.

British Columbia:

Rate has increased slightly over the 4-year time span.

 

Table 5.1: Male Youth Remanded into Custody* Per Month**, Select Provinces***

1993/1994

1994/1995

1995/1996

1996/1997

Rate Per

Rate Per

Rate Per

Rate Per

PROVINCE

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Number

10,000

Newfoundland

-

-

-

-

62

22.7

57

21

Prince Edward Island

2

3

3

5

3

5

5

8

Nova Scotia

-

-

-

-

35

9.3

29

8

Manitoba

101

21

92

19

103

21

124

25

British Columbia

133

9

142

9

157

11

158

10

Yukon

Northwest Territories

 

18

9

150

28

3

7

25

22

-

-

-

-

6

-

41

-

* Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Young Offenders: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics

** Average Month-End Admission: Data are an indication of the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total by the number of months for the corresponding period.

*** All available information is reported in the tables

**** - is nil or zero

 

Table 5.2: Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Select Provinces

 
TOTAL MALE YOUTH
POPULATION

1993

1994

1995

1996

Newfoundland

29,500

28,400

27,300

26,980

Prince Edward Island

6,000

6,000

6,000

6,005

Nova Scotia

38,400

38,000

37,800

38,343

Manitoba

47,900

48,000

48,300

48,864

British Columbia

140,100

145,400

149,700

154,102

Yukon

Northwest Territories

 

1,200

3,200

1,200

3,200

1,300

3,300

1,460

3,379

 

Chart 5.1A: Male Youth Remanded Into Custody Per Month, Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Select Provinces

 

 

QUESTION 6:

ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS?

Canada

  • For the most serious disposition, secure custody, there was a consistent increase from 1991/92 to 1994/95. Following a slight decrease in 1995/96, the percentage returned to a higher level in 1996/97. The second most serious disposition, open custody, also revealed an increase until 1993/94. The percentage remained stable until a decrease in 1996/97. Probation revealed a consistent decrease until 1993/94 when an increase trend began. Fine and community service order and absolute discharge dispositions decreased.

Regions

  • The most common disposition in each year across all regions was probation, except in 1993/94 where fine and community service order were the most common dispositions in the Ontario region.
  • Examining percentage of male youth dispositions per total male youth disposition, the following appeared for each region:

Atlantic Region: Slight fluctuation in secure custody and probation dispositions. Slight but stable increase in open custody from 1991/92 – 1996/97. Slight decrease in fine and community service order dispositions returning to a higher percentage in 1996/97. Absolute discharge remained stable.

Quebec Region: Slight decrease in secure custody and n increase in 1994/95 in open custody dispositions. Slight but fairly steady increase in probation. Decrease in fine and community service order ends in 1994/95 followed by an increase. Stable rate of absolute discharge.

Ontario Region: The secure custody rate remained stable until a slight increase in 1994/95. Relatively stable open custody rate. The probation rate showed a marked increase in 1994/95 and remained stable in subsequent years. A marked decrease in 1994/95 and the following years in fine and community service order dispositions. Stable rate of absolute discharge.

Prairie Region: Slight increase in secure and open custody dispositions. Slight and consistent decrease in probation until 1994/95 when a slight increase trend began. Slight decrease in fine and community service and absolute discharge dispositions.

Pacific Region: Steady increase in secure and open custody dispositions. Slight and consistent decrease in probation until 1994-95, followed by a slight increase. Decrease in fine and community service order and absolute discharge dispositions.

 

Table 6.1: Male Youth Disposition*, Canada

DISPOSITION**

1991/1992

1992/1993

1993/1994

1994/1995

1995/1996

1996/1997

Secure Custody

9,014

9,785

10,033

10,521

9,671

10,396

Detention for Treatment

10

3

4

8

3

-

Open Custody

11,110

11,862

12,587

11,800

11,541

11,385

Probation

25,721

25,437

24,475

28,675

28,395

30,047

Fine

5,091

4,641

4,543

3,786

3,545

3,043

Compensation

222

225

175

136

137

162

Pay Purchaser

34

71

81

31

20

24

Compensation (Kind)

21

11

3

5

7

6

Community Service Order

7,573

7,942

8,208

3,743

3,821

3,531

Restitution

147

140

129

94

116

91

Prob./Seizure/Forfeit

64

81

144

18

25

36

Absolute Discharge

2,206

2,053

1,930

1,745

1,543

1,062

Other

1,943

2,330

2,304

798

892

1,196

TOTAL

63,156

64,581

64,616

61,360

59,716

60,979

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the

highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** - is nil or zero

 

Table 6.2: Percentage of Male Youth Disposition Per Total Male

Youth Dispositions*, Canada

% OF DISPOSITION

1991/1992

1992/1993

1993/1994

1994/1995

1995/1996

1996/1997

Secure Custody

14.0

15.2

15.5

17.2

16.2

17.0

Open Custody

17.6

18.4

19.5

19.2

19.3

18.7

Probation

40.7

39.4

37.9

46.7

47.6

49.3

Fine & Community Service Order

20.5

19.5

19.7

12.3

12.3

10.8

Absolute Discharge

3.5

3.2

3.0

2.8

2.6

1.7

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Both community service order and fine contributed to the decrease

 

Chart 6.2A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Canada

 

Table 6.3: Male Youth Disposition*, Regions

DISPOSITION** 1991/ 1992

%***

1992/ 1993

%

1993/ 1994

%

1994/ 1995

%

1995/ 1996

%

1996/ 1997

%

ATLANTIC
Secure Custody

915

13

884

15

782

13

773

13

681

12

757

13

Open Custody

1,414

21

1,267

21

1,262

21

1,333

23

1,286

23

1,392

23

Probation

3,741

56

3,220

54

3,277

55

3,154

54

3,099

55

3,217

54

Fine & CSO****

586

9

447

7

435

7

413

7

366

6

519

9

Absolute Discharge

158

2

138

2

147

3

164

3

129

2

100

2

QUEBEC
Secure Custody

1,678

22

1,531

19

1,568

19

1,548

18

1,181

15

1,473

17

Open Custody

969

12

1,124

14

1,074

13

1,257

18

1,013

13

1,072

13

Probation

3,741

48

4,014

49

4,131

51

4,264

50

4,106

54

4,669

55

Fine & CSO

1,154

15

1,166

14

1,003

12

1,117

13

1,184

15

1,265

15

Absolute Discharge

108

1

116

1

111

1

100

1

113

1

86

1

ONTARIO
Secure Custody

3,325

16

3,803

16

4,075

16

4,716

21

4,666

20

4,719

21

Open Custody

4,888

23

5,370

23

5,984

24

5,170

23

5,467

24

5,230

23

Probation

5,745

27

5,947

25

5,739

23

10,900

47

10,632

47

11,322

50

Fine & CSO

4,948

23

5,251

23

6,162

27

1,156

5

1,064

4

846

4

Absolute Discharge

947

4

1,051

5

1,009

4

868

4

727

3

490

2

PRAIRIE
Secure Custody

2,659

13

2,935

15

2,942

15

2,846

16

2,545

14

2,750

17

Open Custody

2,763

13

2,788

14

2,903

15

2,798

16

2,665

15

2,441

15

Probation

8,425

41

8,121

41

7,793

40

7,018

39

7,321

42

7,312

45

Fine & CSO

5,375

26

5,117

25

4,666

24

4,361

24

4,261

24

3,585

22

Absolute Discharge

742

4

490

2

498

3

418

2

411

2

282

2

PACIFIC
Secure Custody

437

7

632

9

664

11

638

11

598

10

697

12

Open Custody

1,076

17

1,304

19

1,364

22

1,242

21

1,110

19

1,250

21

Probation

4,069

63

4,135

59

3,535

56

3,339

56

3,237

57

3,527

59

Fine & CSO

601

9

602

9

485

8

478

8

491

8

350

6

Absolute Discharge

251

4

258

4

165

3

195

3

163

2

104

2

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** Percentage of male youth dispositions per total male youth dispositions

**** CSO = Community Service Order

 

Chart 6.3A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Atlantic Region

 

 

Chart 6.3B: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Quebec Region

 

Chart 6.3C: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Ontario Region

 

Chart 6.3D: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Prairie Region

 

Chart 6.3E: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Pacific Region

 

 

QUESTION 7:

 

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MALE YOUTH TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT?

 

  • From 1991/92 – 1996/97 there has been an increase in the number of male youth transferred to adult court in Canada.
  • From 1992/93 to 1994/95 the number of male youths transferred to adult court more than doubled. A significant decrease in 1995/96 was followed by an increase in 1996/97.
  • Since 1991/92, the Prairie region has undergone the largest increase peaking in 1994/95. A significant decrease in 1995/96 was followed by a slight increase in 1996/97.
  • The Atlantic region had the least number of male youths transferred to adult court over the 6-year span.
  • The average age remained stable from 1991/92 to 1996/97 (approximately 16.3).
  • The majority (87%) of youth transferred to adult court from 1991/92 to 1996/97 have been 16 years of age or older.

 

* See Appendix E for additional research findings

Table 7.1: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court*, Regions & Canada

 

1991/ 1992

1992/ 1993

1993/ 1994

1994/ 1995

1995/ 1996

1996/ 1997

Atlantic

5

3

1

3

-

-

Quebec

25

11

5

11

11

26

Ontario

12

19

21

25

15

12

Prairie

24

15

60

70

38

40

Pacific

2

2

7

8

6

9

Canada Total**

68 (16.6)***

50 (16.2)

94 (16.3)

117(16.3)

70 (16.1)

87(16.4)

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Average excluding male youth aged <12 or >17

*** Average age of youth transferred to adult court

 

Table 7.2: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court* by Age, Canada

Total <12

12

13

14

15

16

17

>17

Unknown

1991/1992

68

-

-

-

1

4

12

45

6

-

1992/1993

50

-

-

-

2

3

5

31

8

1

1993/1994

94

-

-

1

2

9

15

60

6

1

1994/1995

117

-

3

-

3

9

37

62

3

-

1995/1996

70

1

-

-

3

6

11

47

2

-

1996/1997

87

-

-

-

1

10

28

43

4

1

Canada Total

486

1

3

1

12

41

108

288

29

3

* Source: Youth Court Survey

 

Chart 7.1: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court, Canada 1991/92 – 1996-97

 

 

APPENDIX A

EXPLANATION AND DEFINITION OF DATA SOURCES

 

1. UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING SURVEY

  • A continuous historical record of crime and traffic statistics that have been investigated and reported by every police agency in Canada since 1962.
  • As of 1995, there were approximately 1,800 separate police locations responding to the Survey, comprising approximately 420 different police forces. The most significant loss of information occurs in the rare situation where a police force fails to submit data to the Centre. In this situation, estimates are calculated for that particular force.
  • Collected information includes the number of criminal incidents, the clearance status of those incidents and information on persons charged.
  • Data is available for nearly 100 separate criminal offenses.
  • Incidents are classified according to the most serious offense occurring in the incident (generally the offense which carries the longest maximum sentence under the Criminal Code of Canada). Violent offenses always take precedence over non-violent offenses (i.e. an incident involving a breaking and entering offense and an assault is counted as an assault incident).

 

2. REVISED, OR INCIDENT BASED, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING SURVEY

  • In 1984 the UCR Survey was re-developed and expanded in terms of the information collected. The Revised UCR Survey allows detailed examinations of accused and victim characteristics (e.g., age, sex, alcohol/drug consumption, relationship, level of injury and weapon causing injury), as well as characteristics of the incident itself (e.g., location, targets of violations, secondary violations, the presence of weapons, property type, date and time).
  • In 1996, the Revised UCR Survey had 154 police forces reporting to it, representing about 47% of the national volume of reported crime: 39% of incidents were from Quebec, 38% from Ontario, 10% from Alberta, 8% from British Columbia, 4% from Saskatchewan and 1% from New Brunswick. With the exception of Quebec, the majority of police departments are urban.

 

3. YOUTH COURT SURVEY

  • National database of statistical information on charges, cases and persons involving accused who are 12 to 17 years of age (up to the 18th birthday). It represents a census of federal statute charges (Criminal Code, Narcotic Control Act, Food and Drugs Act, Young Offender Act, and other federal statutes) heard in youth courts, excluding appeals, reviews, provincial statutes, and municipal by-law infractions.
  • Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against one young person that have the same date of first appearance.
  • Data is collected from all youth courts in Canada and is intended to achieve complete coverage of charges dealt with by youth courts.

 

4. CORRECTIONS KEY INDICATOR REPORT FOR ADULTS AND YOUNG OFFENDERS

  • Data is quite general in nature and is primarily used to monitor correctional population trends.
  • Allows for historical comparisons and provides for some indication of current trends and demands.

 

5. CANADIAN CENSUS

  • Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division (Final Postcensal Estimates for 1991, 1992; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1993, 1994, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1996).
  • Note that the population estimates used in this report are not the most recent. However, the changes are very slight and do not affect the results. To illustrate, the most recent population statistics available are the Final Postcensal Estimates for 1991 and 1992; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1993, 1994, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1996.

 

 

APPENDIX B

DATA PRESENTATION

  • This report presents data on the national and regional levels separately and provides comparisons between regions. This is done because there is often disparity between regions and Canadian totals are greatly influenced by what happens in large population provinces, such as Ontario.
  • The wording in this report, specifically the definitions, are often extracted verbatim from the sources (i.e., Uniform Crime Report and Youth Court Survey). Please refer to the original source if further clarification is needed on any definition.

 

APPENDIX C

REPORT: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

  • In their research on serious violent youth offenders, Lee and Leonard concluded that "[o]ffenses involving accused under fifteen years of age accounted for only 17% of the charges of serious violence (15% for males and 2% for females). One-fifth of the charges related to offenses that occurred when the accused was fifteen, 26% of offenses at age sixteen and 35% of offenses at age seventeen. Sixteen- and seventeen-year-old accused, therefore, accounted for the bulk (62%) of the charges" (1995:9).

APPENDIX D

REPORTS: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

A Profile of the Juvenile Justice System in Canada

Sharon Moyer, November 1996

  • There is widespread consensus among the Canadian populace and research that large portions of young offenders are perpetrators of the most serious forms of violence. This is evident in the extensive media coverage afforded to the topic. However, according to Lee and Leonard (1995), these accounts "belie the fact...that the phenomenon of serious youth violence is actually so infrequent that it tends to elude statistical analysis" (1). Similarly, the research of Moyer (1996:2) concludes that "[e]ven a cursory look at the type of offenses which result in system involvement shows that the vast majority of juvenile criminal behavior involved is not, by any definition, very serious in nature" (1996:2).

 

  • Lee and Leonard (1995:4) state that "[t]o put this base into perspective it is worth noting that during the reference period, in the nine jurisdictions included in the study, approximately three million individuals were at risk of being charged under the YOA, that is, they were between the ages of 12 and 17 years at some time during the reference period. The estimated number of young persons identified for this study, therefore, represents a mere 0.06% of the population at risk, and their charges relating to serious offenses are approximately 0.3% of the 900,000 charges of all types dealt with by youth courts of the nine jurisdictions in the same period."

 

APPENDIX E

REPORT: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

  • Only a small fraction of young persons (males and females) charged with serious violent offenses were transferred to adult court.
  • Transfer orders were issued by youth courts in more cases that did not involve violent offenses than in cases that did.
  • Youth who were transferred tend to be of the upper limit of the age jurisdiction of the YOA.
  • Youth who were transferred tend to have rather high charge to person ratios in their youth court histories. They share these characteristics, however, with many who remain in the youth justice system and receive dispositions under the Act. The data signal a need for more detailed research into the working and effects of the transfer provisions of the YOA (50).

 

APPENDIX F

Youth Court Survey

  • A case is one or more charges against a young person which are presented in court on the same date. Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against a young person that have the same date of first appearance. Identifiers used to link charges to cases are the coded name, sex, date of birth, date of first court appearance and court location code. This report uses case counts as the unit of analysis.

 

Uniform Crime Report

  • An incident is the basis for counting reported crime. An incident is the set of connected events usually constituting an occurrence report. In the aggregate survey, the incident is used in conjunction with the Most Serious Offense rule to form the aggregate offense counts (see below for definition of the Most Serious Offense rule). In the incident based survey, information for each incident is reported individually. Aggregate most serious offense rules are then applied to these data in order to reconcile them with historical aggregate counts as well as with data from aggregate respondents.
  • Most Serious Offense Rule - The UCR classifies incidents according to the most serious offense in the incident. In categorizing incidents, violent offenses always take precedence over non-violent offenses. The UCR Survey scores violent incidents differently from other types of crimes. For violent crimes, a separate incident is recorded for each victim (categorized according to the most serious offense against the victim). If, for example, one person assaults three people, then three incidents are recorded. If three people assault one person, only one incident is recorded. For non-violent crimes, one incident (categorized according to the most serious offense in the incident) is counted for every distinct or separate occurrence.
  • Robbery is one exception to the above ruling. Robbery is categorized as a violent offense. Unlike all other violent offenses, one occurrence of robbery is equal to one incident, regardless of the number of victims. The reason for this exception is that robbery can involve many people who could all be considered victims. In a bank robbery with 5 tellers and 20 customers present, 25 incidents of robbery would be counted if the normal scoring rule for violent incidents were applied. This would seriously overstate the occurrence of robbery.
  • Thus, the total number of incidents recorded by the UCR survey is not a census of all violations of the law that come to the attention of the police. Rather, it is equal to the number of victims of violent crimes (other than robberies) plus the number of separate occurrences of non-violent crimes (and robberies).
  • Persons charged - The UCR also records the number of persons charged. For incidents that are cleared, the survey collects the number of adults charged by gender, as well as the number of youths (aged 12 to 17 years) charged by gender. The "persons charged" category includes the number of people charged or recommended for charges by police, not the number of charges laid or recommended or laid against those people. A person who is simultaneously charged with more than one offense is counted according to the most serious offense, even if the offenses occurred in more than one incident. In addition, persons may be counted more than once throughout the year; that is, individuals are counted on each occasion that they are charged by the police.
  • Persons charged refers to persons who were charged in connection with a particular incident. These persons, however, may have been charged later with a lesser offense. For example, a person who commits a breaking and entering offense may end up being charged with possession of stolen goods if, for instance, the police have better evidence on the latter offense. Both the actual incident and the person charged are counted under breaking and entering, even though the person was actually charged with possession of stolen goods.

Corrections Key Indicator Report

The data used in this report are the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total number of months for the corresponding period. Actual in counts includes all youths on remand and temporary detention, sentenced offenders and other young offenders who are legally required to be at a facility and are present at the time the count is taken.