Correctional Service Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Research Brief

Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Selected Annotated Bibliography: Restorative Justice

2000, No. B-23, pdf

Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la direction de recherche, Service Correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

HOMICIDE, SEX, ROBBERY AND DRUG OFFENDERS IN FEDERAL CORRECTIONS: AN END-OF-1998 REVIEW

Laurence L. Motiuk and Mark Nafekh
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada
January,

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

II. HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

III. SEX OFFENDERS

IV. ROBBERY OFFENDERS

V. DRUG OFFENDERS

VI. SUMMARY TABLES

I: INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years. This report summarizes data gathered for a fifth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-1998 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and R.L. Belcourt, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-1997 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1998).

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include: first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicide are not included. Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 1997, the homicide rate was 1.95 per 100,000 population. The following is an end-of-1998 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,695 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-fifth (21.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 2,992 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-quarter (25.6%) of the federal incarcerated population. . About 659 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,699 were in medium security institutions, and 529 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:
minimum security: 17.7% of all homicide offenders;
medium security: 56.8% of all homicide offenders; and
maximum security: 25.5% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 1,703 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 17.4% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:
272 or 16.0% were on day parole;
1,265 or 74.3% were on full parole; and
166 or 9.7.% were on statutory release

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Atlantic: 7.2% of homicide offenders, and 8.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Quebec: 26.7% of homicide offenders, and 27.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Ontario: 29.0% of homicide offenders, and 27.5% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Prairies: 18.3% of homicide offenders, and 22.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Pacific: 18.7% of homicide offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1998 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent four-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1998) the total homicide offender population has increased by 6.9% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 3.3% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 13.8%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are male (96.6%). There were 199 (3.4%) cases of a female offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1998, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 42 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 92 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 35 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 92 years old and the youngest was 14 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1998, the majority of homicide offenders (74.4%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Caucasian: 74.4% of homicide offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Native: 16.1% of homicide offenders, and 14.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Black: 4.0% of homicide offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Asiatic: 1.5% of homicide offenders, and 3.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Other: 4.0% of homicide offenders, and 4.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders)

Nature of Offence

Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

763 cases of first degree murder, and 15.6% of all homicide offenders;
2,736 cases of second degree murder, and 56% of all homicide offenders;
1,385 cases of manslaughter, and 28.4% of all homicide offenders; and
0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

III: SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-1998 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,676 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (17.1%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 1998 there were actually 4,312 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 20% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 2,433 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-fifth (20.8%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1998 there were actually 2,854 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 24.4% of the total federal incarcerated population. About 446 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,633 were in medium security institutions, and 354 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:
minimum security: 14.6% of all sex offenders;
medium security: 67.1 % of all sex offenders; and
maximum security: 18.3% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 1,243 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 12.5% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1998 there were actually 1,458 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 14.9% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:
188 or 12.7% were on day parole;
412 or 33.2% were on full parole; and
673 or 54.1 % were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-third and one-fifth of the sex offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Atlantic: 9.7% of sex offenders, and 8.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Quebec: 19.2% of sex offenders, and 27.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Ontario: 24.8% of sex offenders, and 27.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Prairies: 31.7% of sex offenders, and 22.7% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
Pacific: 14.5% of sex offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1998 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particulary on conditional release. Over a recent four-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1998) the total sex offender population has decreased by 1.9%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 10% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 18.9%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are male (99.5%). There were 17 (0.5%) cases of a female offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1998, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest sex offender was 97 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. The average age of sex offenders at admission was 41 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 82 years old and the youngest was 14 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1998, the majority of sex offenders (71.1%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Caucasian: 71.1% of sex offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Native: 19.9% of sex offenders, and 14.0% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Black: 5.1% of sex offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Asiatic: 0.6% of sex offenders, and 3.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
Other: 3.2% of sex offenders, and 4.6 % of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included. Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses. The following is an end-of-1998 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,850 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (31.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 4,190 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (35.9%) of the total federal incarcerated population. About 1,040 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,607 were in medium security institutions, and 533 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:
minimum security: 12.7% of all robbery offenders;
medium security: 62.2% of all robbery offenders; and
maximum security: 25.1% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 2,660 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 27.1% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:
551 or 20.7% were on day parole;
773 or 29.1% were on full parole; and
1,336 or 50.2% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Atlantic: 7.4% of robbery offenders, and 8.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Quebec: 35.1% of robbery offenders, and 27.9% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Ontario: 24.4% of robbery offenders, and 27.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Prairies: 20.0% of robbery offenders, and 22.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Pacific: 13.1% of robbery offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1998 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particulary in federal institutions. Over a recent four-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1998) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 7.5%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 13.1% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has increased by 2.9%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are male (98.3%). There were 118 (1.7 %) cases of a female offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1998, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 36 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 81 years old and the youngest was 17 years old. The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 81 years old and the youngest was 17 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1998, the majority of robbery offenders (77%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Caucasian: 77% of robbery offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Native: 12.9% of robbery offenders, and 14% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Black: 6.8% of robbery offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
Asiatic: 1.3% of robbery offenders, and 3.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Other: 2.0% of robbery offenders, and 4.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

V: DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA). The following is an end-of-1998 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,437 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise about one-quarter (26.3%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 2,398 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (20.5%) of the federal incarcerated population. About 501 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,344 were in medium security institutions, and 553 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:
minimum security: 23.1% of all drug offenders;
medium security: 56.0% of all drug offenders; and
maximum security: 20.9% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1998, there were 3,039 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 31.0% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:
517 or 17% were on day parole;
1,722 or 56.7% were on full parole; and
800 or 26.3% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Atlantic: 7.6% of drug offenders, and 8.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Quebec: 36.8% of drug offenders, and 27.9% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Ontario: 26.8% of drug offenders, and 27.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Prairies: 19% of drug offenders, and 22.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Pacific: 9.8% of drug offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1998 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent four-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1998) the total drug offender population has increased by 6.3%, the drug offender population in institutions has decreased by 5.6% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 17.9%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1998, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are male (94.6%). There were 291 (5.4%) cases of a female offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1998, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 37 years old. The oldest drug offender was 79 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. . The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 36 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 79 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1998, the majority of drug offenders (69.9%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders.

More specifically:
Caucasian: 69.9% of drug offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Native: 7.1% of drug offenders, and 14.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Black: 10.2% of drug offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Asiatic: 6.8% of drug offenders, and 3.1% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
Other: 6.1% of drug offenders, and 4.6% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

VI: SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

  YEAR # (%) CUSTODY
# (%)
COMMUNITY
# (%)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
(20.0)
(18.9)
(20.1)
(21.5)
(21.9)
2,896 (65.9)
2,784 (64.5)
3,002 (65.9)
3,122 (65.4)
2,992 (63.7)
1,497 (34.1)
1,534 (35.5)
1,551 (34.1)
1,649 (34.6)
1,703 (36.3)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
(16.9)
(17.0)
(17.9)
(17.6)
(17.1)
2,703 (72.1)
2,766 (71.3)
2,974 (73.6)
2,771 (70.8)
2,433 (66.2)
1,045 (27.9)
1,109 (28.7)
1,067 (26.4)
1,143 (29.2)
1,243 (33.8)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
(33.5)
(31.6)
(32.8)
(32.1)
(31.9)
4,824 (65.1)
4,606 (63.9)
4,902 (66.1)
4,737 (66.4)
4,190 (61.1)
2,584 (34.9)
2,593 (36.1)
2,516 (33.9)
2,399 (33.6)
2,660 (38.8)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,155
5,437
(23.1)
(23.3)
(24.8)
(24.8)
(25.3)
2,540 (49.6)
2,590 (48.8)
2,899 (51.6)
2,659 (48.2)
2,398 (44.1)
2,577 (50.4)
2,720 (51.2)
2,716 (48.4)
2,856 (51.8)
3,039 (55.9)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  YEAR # MINIMUM
%
MEDIUM
%
MAXIMUM
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2,896
2,784
3,002
3,122
2,992
11.6
13.1
15.7
17.1
17.7
55.2
56.3
56.4
58.2
56.8
33.2
29.7
27.9
24.7
26.5
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2,703
2,766
2,974
2,771
2,433
11.6
11.9
11.5
12.6
14.6
66.0
67.8
68.6
68.4
67.1
22.4
20.0
19.9
19.0
18.3
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
4,824
4,606
4,902
4,737
4,190
8.1
8.8
9.3
11.5
12.7
63.4
62.4
63.9
63.1
62.2
28.5
27.7
26.8
25.4
25.1
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2,540
2,590
2,899
2,659
2,398
16.4
16.3
17.4
19.3
23.1
61.0
60.6
59.7
59.7
56.1
22.6
22.5
22.9
21.0
20.8

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

  YEAR # DAY PAROLE
%
FULL PAROLE
%
STATUTORY
RELEASE %
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1,497
1,534
1,551
1,649
1,703
14.4
13.8
12.8
15.7
16.0
79.7
79.1
79.1
74.3
74.3
5.9
7.0
8.1
10.1
9.7
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1,045
1,109
1,007
1,143
1,243
15.2
12.3
12.3
14.0
12.7
42.0
38.1
35.6
31.5
33.2
42.7
49.4
52.1
54.5
54.1
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2,584
2,593
2,516
2,339
2,660
21.6
19.5
16.1
17.1
20.7
41.5
36.3
34.0
31.8
29.1
36.7
44.1
49.9
51.1
50.2
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
2,577
2,720
2,716
2,856
3,039
14.9
12.1
10.2
15.9
17.0
64.9
63.4
63.4
59.4
56.7
20.2
24.5
26.4
24.7
26.3

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  END-OFYEAR ATLANTIC
%
QUEBEC
%
ONTARIO
%
PRARIES
%
PACIFIC
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
6.7
6.7
6.9
7.2
7.2
27.2
27.2
26.9
27.1
26.8
29.9
29.7
29.5
28.6
29.0
18.8
18.6
18.4
18.2
18.3
17.4
17.8
18.3
18.9
18.7
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
13.0
12.4
11.4
10.7
9.7
20.1
19.3
19.0
19.1
19.2
26.9
24.7
24.5
24.2
24.8
27.3
28.5
30.7
31.8
32.0
15.5
15.1
14.5
14.2
14.5
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.4
7.4
37.6
38.0
36.9
36.0
35.1
24.6
23.7
23.7
23.7
24.4
18.0
18.2
19.0
19.9
20.0
13.1
13.6
13.0
13.0
13.1
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
7.2
7.7
8.0
7.8
7.6
37.8
38.5
38.2
37.4
36.8
27.9
27.2
26.1
26.1
26.8
16.1
15.7
17.3
18.5
19.0
10.9
10.9
10.4
10.3
9.8
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
9.9
9.8
9.5
9.0
8.5
28.9
29.2
28.5
28.1
27.9
27.6
27.1
26.8
26.7
27.5
20.2
20.5
22.0
22.8
22.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.4
13.4

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  END-OF-YEAR
# % MALES
%
FEMALES
% (#)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
20.0
18.9
20.1
21.5
21.9
96.0
96.5
96.3
95.8
95.7
4.0 (176)
3.5 (152)
3.7 (167)
4.2 (199)
4.3 (203)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
16.9
17.0
17.9
17.6
17.1
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.6
99.5
0.5 (17)
0.3 (10)
0.3 (14)
0.4 (15)
0.5 (17)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
33.5
31.6
32.8
32.1
31.9
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.4
98.3
1.0 (89)
1.1 (82)
1.2 (88)
1.6 (115)
1.7 (118)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,515
5,437
23.1
23.3
24.8
24.8
26.3
97.0
96.8
95.9
95.0
94.6
3.0 (163)
3.2 (172)
4.1 (228)
5.0 (273)
5.4 (291)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  END-OF-YEAR
FEDERAL
JURISDICTION
AT ADMISSION
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
42 YEARS (18-89)
42 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (20-93)
43 YEARS (20-91)
42 YEARS (18-92)
36 YEARS (16-87)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
35 YEARS (14-92)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
41 YEARS (19-86)
42 YEARS (20-85)
43 YEARS (19-89)
46 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (18-97)
39 YEARS (15-85)
40 YEARS (18-82)
41 YEARS (18-81)
43 YEARS (19-83)
41 YEARS (14-82)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
34 YEARS (16-78)
35 YEARS (19-78)
35 YEARS (19-79)
35 YEARS (19-75)
36 YEARS (17-81)
31 YEARS (16-65)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS(18 -68)
33 YEARS (17-81)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
36 YEARS (18-81)
36 YEARS (20-73)
37 YEARS (19-76)
38 YEARS (20-75)
37 YEARS (18-79)
34 YEARS (17-74)
35 YEARS (18-71)
35 YEARS (18-73)
36 YEARS (19-69)
36 YEARS (18-78)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  END-OF-YEAR
CAUCASIAN
%
NATIVE
%
BLACK
%
ASIAN
%
OTHER
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
78.9
78.3
77.3
76.0
74.4
13.0
13.4
13.8
14.6
16.1
3.1
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.0
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.1
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
76.2
76.0
74.1
73.4
71.1
16.5
16.5
17.8
19.0
19.9
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.7
5.1
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
2.5
2.6
3.0
3.2
3.3
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
82.4
81.5
79.7
78.1
77.0
9.3
9.9
10.9
12.0
12.9
5.4
5.8
6.4
6.5
6.8
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.8
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.0
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
81.1
76.4
74.2
71.6
69.9
4.8
4.8
5.6
6.5
7.1
8.3
9.2
9.5
10.0
10.0
3.8
4.3
5.2
6.2
6.8
2.0
5.3
5.5
5.8
6.1
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
78.3
77.0
75.2
73.1
71.6
10.5
10.9
12.0
13.2
14.0
5.5
6.0
6.3
6.4
6.7
1.9
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.1
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.6