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Research Brief

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Research Briefs Selected Annotated Bibliography: Restorative Justice

2000, No. B-24, pdf

Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la direction de recherche, Service Correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

HOMICIDE, SEX, ROBBERY AND DRUG OFFENDERS IN FEDERAL CORRECTIONS: AN END-OF-1999 REVIEW

Laurence L. Motiuk and Mark Nafekh
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada
January, 2000

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I: INTRODUCTION

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

III: SEX OFFENDERS

IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

V: DRUG OFFENDERS

I: INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years. This report summarizes data gathered for a sixth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-1999 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and M. Nafekh, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An Endof-1998 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 1999).

II: HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included. Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 1998, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.8 per 100,000. The following is an end-of-1999 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,814 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises one-fifth (21.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 2,998 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-quarter (25%) of the federal incarcerated population. About 750 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,696 were in medium security institutions, and 552 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:

Minimum security: 18.4% of all homicide offenders;
Medium security: 56.6% of all homicide offenders; and
Maximum security: 25.0% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 1,816 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 18.1% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

275 or 15.1% were on day parole;
1,343 or 74.0% were on full parole; and
198 or 11.0% were on statutory release

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.2% of homicide offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Quebec: 26.8% of homicide offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Ontario: 28.8% of homicide offenders, and 27.6% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Prairies: 18.4% of homicide offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Pacific: 18.9% of homicide offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1999 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent five-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1999) the total homicide offender population has increased by 9.6% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 3.5% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 20.6%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are male (96.6%). There were 211 (4.4%) cases of a female offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1999, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 41 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 93 years old and the youngest was 17 years old. The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 31 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 87 years old and the youngest was 14 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1999, the majority of homicide offenders (73.4%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Caucasian: 73.8% of homicide offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Native: 16.5% of homicide offenders, and 14.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Black: 4.3% of homicide offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Asiatic: 1.4% of homicide offenders, and 2.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Other: 4.1% of homicide offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (proportionately the same homicide offenders).

NATURE OF OFFENCE

Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

776 cases of first degree murder, and 15.5% of all homicide offenders;
2,807 cases of second degree murder, and 56.0% of all homicide offenders;
1,427 cases of manslaughter, and 28.5% of all homicide offenders; and
0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

III: SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-1999 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,564 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (16.2%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 1999 there were actually 4,181 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 19% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 2,307 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (19.2%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1999 there were actually 2,706 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 22.6% of the total federal incarcerated population. About 503 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,457 were in medium security institutions, and 347 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:

Minimum security: 15.0% of all sex offenders;
Medium security: 63.2% of all sex offenders; and
Maximum security: 21.8% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 1,257 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 12.5% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 1999 there were actually 1,474 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 14.7% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

198 or 12.7% were on day parole;
421 or 33.4% were on full parole; and
638 or 50.8% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-third and one-fifth of the sex offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Atlantic: 9.7% of sex offenders, and 8.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Quebec: 19.2% of sex offenders, and 27.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Ontario: 24.8% of sex offenders, and 27.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Prairies: 31.7% of sex offenders, and 22.7% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
Pacific: 14.5% of sex offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders(proportionately more sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1999 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent five-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1999) the total sex offender population has decreased by 4.9%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 10.0% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 16.9%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are male (99.7%). There were 12 (0.3%) cases of a female offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1999, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest sex offender was 97 years old and the youngest was 17 years old. The average age of sex offenders at admission was 39 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 81 years old and the youngest was 14 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1999, the majority of sex offenders (73.8%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Caucasian: 73.8% of sex offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Native: 16.5% of sex offenders, and 14.4% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Black: 4.3% of sex offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Asiatic: 1.4% of sex offenders, and 2.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
Other: 4.6% of sex offenders, and 4.1% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

IV: ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included. Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses. The following is an end-of-1999 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,911 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (31.4%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 4,322 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (36%) of the total federal incarcerated population. About 1,161 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,616 were in medium security institutions, and 545 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:

Minimum security: 12.6% of all robbery offenders;
Medium security: 60.5% of all robbery offenders; and
Maximum security: 26.9% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 2,589 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 25.8% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

492 or 19.0% were on day parole;
822 or 31.7% were on full parole; and
1,275 or 49.2% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.6% of robbery offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Quebec: 34.1% of robbery offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Ontario: 24.3% of robbery offenders, and 27.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Prairies: 21.0% of robbery offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Pacific: 13.1% of robbery offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1999 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent five-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1999) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 6.7%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 10.4% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has increased by 0.1%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are male (98.3%). There were 116 (1.7%) cases of a female offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1999, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 35 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 82 years old and the youngest was 17 years old. The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 31 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 71 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1999, the majority of robbery offenders (76.1%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Caucasian: 76.1% of robbery offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Native: 13.6% of robbery offenders, and 14.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Black: 7.2% of robbery offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
Asiatic: 1.2% of robbery offenders, and 2.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Other: 2.0% of robbery offenders, and 4.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

V: DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA). The following is an end-of-1999 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,760 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (26.2%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 2,574 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (21.5%) of the federal incarcerated population. About 635 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,419 were in medium security institutions, and 520 were in minimum security institutions.

More specifically:

Minimum security: 20.2% of all drug offenders;
Medium security: 55.1% of all drug offenders; and
Maximum security: 24.7% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 1999, there were 3,126 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 31.7% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

595 or 18.7% were on day parole;
1,826 or 56.7% were on full parole; and
765 or 24.3% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.9% of drug offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Quebec: 35.2% of drug offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Ontario: 26.9% of drug offenders, and 27.6% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
Prairies: 20.3% of drug offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Pacific: 9.7% of drug offenders, and 13.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-1999 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent five-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 1999) the total drug offender population has increased by 12.6%, the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 1.3% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 23.6%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

On 31 December 1999, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are male (94.1%). There were 343 (6.0%) cases of a female offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 1999, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 36 years old. The oldest drug offender was 80 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 34 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 72 years old and the youngest was 17 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1999, the majority of drug offenders (70.9%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Caucasian: 70.9% of drug offenders, and 71.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Native: 7.7% of drug offenders, and 14.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Black: 9.8% of drug offenders, and 6.7% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Asiatic: 5.8% of drug offenders, and 2.7% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
Other: 5.7% of drug offenders, and 4.6% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

VI: SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

  YEAR # (%) CUSTODY
# (%)
COMMUNITY
# (%)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
4,814
(20.0)
(18.9)
(20.1)
(21.5)
(21.9)
(21.9)
2,896 (65.9)
2,784 (64.5)
3,002 (65.9)
3,122 (65.4)
2,992 (63.7)
2,998 (62.3)
1,497 (34.1)
1,534 (35.5)
1,551 (34.1)
1,649 (34.6)
1,703 (36.3)
1,816 (37.7)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
3,564
(16.9)
(17.0)
(17.9)
(17.6)
(17.1)
(16.2)
2,703 (72.1)
2,766 (71.3)
2,974 (73.6)
2,771 (70.8)
2,433 (66.1)
2,307 (64.7)
1,045 (27.9)
1,109 (28.7)
1,067 (26.4)
1,143 (29.2)
1,243 (33.9)
1,257 (35.5)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
6,911
(33.5)
(31.6)
(32.8)
(32.1)
(31.9)
(31.4)
4,824 (65.1)
4,606 (63.9)
4,902 (66.1)
4,737 (66.4)
4,190 (61.2)
4,322 (62.5)
2,584 (34.9)
2,593 (36.1)
2,516 (33.9)
2,399 (33.6)
2,660 (38.8)
2,589 (37.5)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,515
5,437
5,760
(23.1)
(23.3)
(24.8)
(24.8)
(25.3)
(26.2)
2,540 (49.6)
2,590 (48.8)
2,899 (51.6)
2,659 (48.2)
2,398 (44.1)
2,574 (44.7)
2,577 (50.4)
2,720 (51.2)
2,716 (48.4)
2,856 (51.8)
3,039 (55.9)
3,186 (55.3)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  YEAR # MINIMUM
%
MEDIUM
%
MAXIMUM
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,896
2,784
3,002
3,122
2,992
2,998
11.6
13.1
15.7
17.1
17.7
18.4
55.2
56.3
56.4
58.2
56.8
56.6
33.2
29.7
27.9
24.7
26.5
25.0
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,703
2,766
2,974
2,771
2,433
2,307
11.6
11.9
11.5
12.6
14.6
15.0
66.0
67.8
68.6
68.4
67.1
63.2
22.4
20.0
19.9
19.0
18.3
21.0
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
4,824
4,606
4,902
4,737
4,190
4,322
8.1
8.8
9.3
11.5
12.7
12.6
63.4
62.4
63.9
63.1
62.2
60.5
28.5
27.7
26.8
25.4
25.1
26.9
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,540
2,590
2,899
2,659
2,398
2,574
16.4
16.3
17.4
19.3
23.1
20.2
61.0
60.6
59.7
59.7
56.1
55.1
22.6
22.5
22.9
21.0
20.8
24.7

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

  YEAR # DAY PAROLE
%
FULL PAROLE
%
STATUTORY
RELEASE %
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,497
1,534
1,551
1,649
1,703
1,816
14.4
13.8
12.8
15.7
16.0
15.1
79.7
79.1
79.1
74.3
74.3
74.0
5.9
7.0
8.1
10.1
9.7
11.0
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,045
1,109
1,007
1,143
1,243
1,257
15.2
12.3
12.3
14.0
12.7
15.8
42.0
38.1
35.6
31.5
33.2
33.4
42.7
49.4
52.1
54.5
54.1
50.8
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,584
2,593
2,516
2,339
2,660
2,589
21.6
19.5
16.1
17.1
20.7
19.0
41.5
36.3
34.0
31.8
29.1
31.7
36.7
44.1
49.9
51.1
50.2
49.2
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,577
2,720
2,716
2,856
3,039
3,186
14.9
12.1
10.2
15.9
17.0
18.7
64.9
63.4
63.4
59.4
56.7
57.3
20.2
24.5
26.4
24.7
26.3
24.0

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  END-OFYEAR ATLANTIC
%
QUEBEC
%
ONTARIO
%
PRARIES
%
PACIFIC
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
6.7
6.7
6.9
7.2
7.2
7.2
27.2
27.2
26.9
27.1
26.8
26.8
29.9
29.7
29.5
28.6
29.0
28.8
18.8
18.6
18.4
18.2
18.3
18.4
17.4
17.8
18.3
18.9
18.7
18.9
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
13.0
12.4
11.4
10.7
9.7
9.5
20.1
19.3
19.0
19.1
19.2
19.6
26.9
24.7
24.5
24.2
24.8
26.4
27.3
28.5
30.7
31.8
32.0
29.6
15.5
15.1
14.5
14.2
14.5
15.0
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.6
37.6
38.0
36.9
36.0
35.1
34.1
24.6
23.7
23.7
23.7
24.4
24.3
18.0
18.2
19.0
19.9
20.0
21.0
13.1
13.6
13.0
13.0
13.1
13.1
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
7.2
7.7
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.9
37.8
38.5
38.2
37.4
36.8
35.2
27.9
27.2
26.1
26.1
26.8
26.9
16.1
15.7
17.3
18.5
19.0
20.3
10.9
10.9
10.4
10.3
9.8
9.7
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
9.9
9.8
9.5
9.0
8.5
8.6
28.9
29.2
28.5
28.1
27.9
27.2
27.6
27.1
26.8
26.7
27.5
27.6
20.2
20.5
22.0
22.8
22.7
23.3
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.4
13.4
13.4

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  END-OF-YEAR
# % MALES
%
FEMALES
% (#)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
4,814
20.0
18.9
20.1
21.5
21.9
21.9
96.0
96.5
96.3
95.8
95.7
95.6
4.0 (176)
3.5 (152)
3.7 (167)
4.2 (199)
4.3 (203)
4.4 (211)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
3,564
16.9
17.0
17.9
17.6
17.1
16.2
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.7
0.5 (17)
0.3 (10)
0.3 (14)
0.4 (15)
0.5 (17)
0.3 (12)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
6,911
33.5
31.6
32.8
32.1
31.9
31.4
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.4
98.3
98.3
1.0 (89)
1.1 (82)
1.2 (88)
1.6 (115)
1.7 (118)
1.7 (116)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,515
5,146
5,760
23.1
23.3
24.8
24.8
24.8
26.1
97.0
96.8
95.9
95.0
94.7
94.1
3.0 (163)
3.2 (172)
4.1 (228)
5.0 (273)
5.4 (291)
6.0 (343)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  END-OF-YEAR
FEDERAL
JURISDICTION
AT ADMISSION
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
42 YEARS (18-89)
42 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (20-93)
43 YEARS (20-91)
42 YEARS (18-92)
41 YEARS (17-92)
36 YEARS (16-87)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
35 YEARS (14-92)
31 YEARS (14-87)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
41 YEARS (19-86)
42 YEARS (20-85)
43 YEARS (19-89)
46 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (18-97)
43 YEARS (17-97)
39 YEARS (15-85)
40 YEARS (18-82)
41 YEARS (18-81)
43 YEARS (19-83)
41 YEARS (14-82)
39 YEARS (14-81)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
34 YEARS (16-78)
35 YEARS (19-78)
35 YEARS (19-79)
35 YEARS (19-75)
36 YEARS (17-81)
35 YEARS (17-82)
31 YEARS (16-65)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (17-68)
31 YEARS (16-71)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
36 YEARS (18-81)
36 YEARS (20-73)
37 YEARS (19-76)
38 YEARS (20-75)
37 YEARS (18-79)
36 YEARS (18-80)
34 YEARS (17-74)
35 YEARS (18-71)
35 YEARS (18-73)
36 YEARS (19-69)
36 YEARS (18-78)
34 YEARS (17-72)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  END-OF-YEAR
CAUCASIAN
%
NATIVE
%
BLACK
%
ASIAN
%
OTHER
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
78.9
78.3
77.3
76.0
74.4
73.8
13.0
13.4
13.8
14.6
16.1
16.5
3.1
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.0
4.3
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.1
4.1
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
76.2
76.0
74.1
73.4
71.1
70.8
16.5
16.5
17.8
19.0
19.9
20.0
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.7
5.1
5.1
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.7
2.5
2.6
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.4
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
82.4
81.5
79.7
78.1
77.0
76.1
9.3
9.9
10.9
12.0
12.9
13.6
5.4
5.8
6.4
6.5
6.8
7.2
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.8
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.0
2.0
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
81.1
76.4
74.2
71.6
69.9
70.9
4.8
4.8
5.6
6.5
7.1
7.7
8.3
9.2
9.5
10.0
10.0
9.8
3.8
4.3
5.2
6.2
6.8
5.8
2.0
5.3
5.5
5.8
6.1
5.7
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
78.3
77.0
75.2
73.1
71.6
71.6
10.5
10.9
12.0
13.2
14.0
14.4
5.5
6.0
6.3
6.4
6.7
6.7
1.9
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.1
2.7
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.6
4.6