Correctional Service Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Research Brief

Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Selected Annotated Bibliography: Restorative Justice

2001, No. B-25, pdf

Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la direction de recherche, Service Correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

HOMICIDE, SEX, ROBBERY AND DRUG OFFENDERS IN FEDERAL CORRECTIONS: AN END-OF-2000 REVIEW

Laurence L. Motiuk       Ben Vuong
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada
January, 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Homicide Offenders
Homicide Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Homicide Offenders
Nature of Offence

SEX OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Sex Offenders
Sex Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Sex Offenders

ROBBERY OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Robbery Offenders
Robbery Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Robbery Offenders

DRUG OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Drug Offenders
Drug Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Drug Offenders

SUMMARY TABLES

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years. This report summarizes data gathered for a seventh time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-2000 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and M. Nafekh, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in FederalCorrections: An End-of-1999 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 2000).

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Background

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, seconddegree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included. Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offences. In 1999, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.8 per 100,000. The following is an end-of-2000 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

The Current Situation

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 4,881 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises one-fifth (22.2%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 3,025 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-quarter (25%) of the federal incarcerated population. About 713 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,676 were in medium security institutions, and 636 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

Minimum security: 21.1% of all homicide offenders;
Medium security: 55.4% of all homicide offenders; and
Maximum security: 23.6% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 1,856 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 18.1% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

276 or 14.9% were on day parole;
1,388 or 74.8% were on full parole; and
192 or 10.3% were on statutory release

Regional Distribution of Homicide Offenders

Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.0% of homicide offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Quebec: 26.5% of homicide offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Ontario: 28.6% of homicide offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Prairies: 18.5% of homicide offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Pacific: 19.3% of homicide offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

Homicide Offender Population Trends

The end-of-1999 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent six-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2000) the total homicide offender population has increased by 11.1% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 4.5% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 21.3%.

Characteristics of Homicide Offenders

Gender

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are male (95.8%). There were 206 (4.2%) cases of a female offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 2000, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 42 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 95 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 31 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 87 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 2000, the majority of homicide offenders (73.5%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Caucasian: 73.5% of homicide offenders, and 72.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Native: 17.2% of homicide offenders, and 15.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
Black: 4.4% of homicide offenders, and 6.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
Asiatic: 1.3% of homicide offenders, and 2.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
Other: 3.7% of homicide offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders).

Nature of Offence

Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

804 cases of first degree murder, and 16.5% of all homicide offenders;
2,880 cases of second degree murder, and 59.0% of all homicide offenders;
1,197 cases of manslaughter, and 24.5% of all homicide offenders; and
0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

SEX OFFENDERS

Background

The following is an end-of-2000 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

The Current Situation

Total Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,428 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (15.6%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 2000 there were actually 4,021 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 18% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 2,269 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (19.0%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2000 there were actually 2,661 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 22.3% of the total federal incarcerated population. About 514 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,391 were in medium security institutions, and 364 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

Minimum security: 16.0% of all sex offenders;
Medium security: 61.3% of all sex offenders; and
Maximum security: 22.7% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 1,159 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 11.6% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2000 there were actually 1,360 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 13.6% of the total federal conditional release population.
More specifically:

151 or 13.0% were on day parole;
380 or 32.8% were on full parole; and
628 or 54.2% were on statutory release.

Regional Distribution of Sex Offenders

Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population,respectively.

In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
More specifically:

Atlantic: 9.4% of sex offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Quebec: 20.3% of sex offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Ontario: 26.3% of sex offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Prairies: 28.2% of sex offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
Pacific: 15.8% of sex offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

Sex Offender Population Trends

The end-of-2000 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent six year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2000) the total sex offender population has decreased by 8.5%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 16.0% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 24.0%.

Characteristics of Sex Offenders

Gender

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are male (99.6%). There were 14 (0.4%) cases of a female offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 2000, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest sex offender was 99 years old and the youngest was 19 years old. The average age of sex offenders at admission was 39 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 80 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 2000, the majority of sex offenders (70.8%) were Caucasian.

In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Caucasian: 70.8% of sex offenders, and 72.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Native: 21.0% of sex offenders, and 15.0% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
Black: 4.9% of sex offenders, and 6.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
Asiatic: 0.5% of sex offenders, and 2.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
Other: 2.7% of sex offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Background

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included. Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offences. The following is an end-of-2000 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

The Current Situation

Total Robbery Population

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,882 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (31.3%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 4,295 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (35.8%) of the total federal incarcerated population. About 1,184 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,535 were in medium security institutions, and 576 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

Minimum security: 13.4% of all robbery offenders;
Medium security: 59.0% of all robbery offenders; and
Maximum security: 27.6% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 2,587 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 25.9% of the total federal conditional release population.More specifically:

420 or 16.2% were on day parole;
822 or 31.8% were on full parole; and
1,345 or 52.0% were on statutory release.

Regional Distribution of Robbery Offenders

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.8% of robbery offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Quebec: 33.7% of robbery offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Ontario: 23.6% of robbery offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Prairies: 21.4% of robbery offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Pacific: 13.6% of robbery offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

Robbery Offender Population Trends

The end-of-2000 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent six-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2000) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 7.1%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 11.0% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has increased by 0.1%.

Characteristics of Robbery Offenders

Gender

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are male (98.2%). There were 125 (1.8%) cases of a female offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 2000, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 35 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 84 years old and the youngest was 18 years old. The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 71 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 2000, the majority of robbery offenders (75.7%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Caucasian and Black robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Caucasian: 75.7% of robbery offenders, and 72.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Native: 14.3% of robbery offenders, and 15.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
Black: 7.4% of robbery offenders, and 6.5% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
Asiatic: 0.9% of robbery offenders, and 2.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
Other: 1.7% of robbery offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

DRUG OFFENDERS

Background

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offences include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA). The following is an end-of-2000 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

The Current Situation

Total Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,779 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (26.3%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 2,548 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (21.3%) of the federal incarcerated population. About 666 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,373 were in medium security institutions, and 509 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

Minimum security: 20.0% of all drug offenders;
Medium security: 54.0% of all drug offenders; and
Maximum security: 26.0% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2000, there were 3,231 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 32.3% of the federal conditional release population. More specifically:

498 or 15.4% were on day parole;
1,872 or 58.0% were on full parole; and
861 or 26.6% were on statutory release.

Regional Distribution of Drug Offenders

Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
More specifically:

Atlantic: 7.7% of drug offenders, and 8.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Quebec: 34.2% of drug offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Ontario: 25.4% of drug offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Prairies: 22.4% of drug offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Pacific: 10.3% of drug offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

Drug Offender Population Trends

The end-of-2000 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent six year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2000) the total drug offender population has increased by 12.9%, the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 0.3% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 25.4%.

Characteristics of Drug Offenders

Gender

On 31 December 2000, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are male (94.0%). There were 346 (6.0%) cases of a female offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

On 31 December 2000, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 37 years old. The oldest drug offender was 82 years old and the youngest was 19 years old. The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 34 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 73 years old and the youngest was 17 years old.

Ethnicity

On 31 December 1999, the majority of drug offenders (70.9%) were Caucasian. In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:

Caucasian: 71.9% of drug offenders, and 72.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Native: 9.0% of drug offenders, and 15.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
Black: 9.2% of drug offenders, and 6.5% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
Asiatic: 4.6% of drug offenders, and 2.1% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
Other: 5.5% of drug offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

  YEAR # (%) CUSTODY
# (%)
COMMUNITY
# (%)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
4,814
4,881
(20.0)
(18.9)
(20.1)
(21.5)
(21.9)
(21.9)
(22.2)
2,896 (65.9)
2,784 (64.5)
3,002 (65.9)
3,122 (65.4)
2,992 (63.7)
2,998 (62.3)
3,025 (62.0)
1,497 (34.1)
1,534 (35.5)
1,551 (34.1)
1,649 (34.6)
1,703 (36.3)
1,816 (37.7)
1,856 (38.0)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
3,564
3,428
(16.9)
(17.0)
(17.9)
(17.6)
(17.1)
(16.2)
(15.6)
2,703 (72.1)
2,766 (71.3)
2,974 (73.6)
2,771 (70.8)
2,433 (66.1)
2,307 (64.7)
2,269 (66.2)
1,045 (27.9)
1,109 (28.7)
1,067 (26.4)
1,143 (29.2)
1,243 (33.9)
1,257 (35.5)
1,159 (33.8)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
6,911
6,882
(33.5)
(31.6)
(32.8)
(32.1)
(31.9)
(31.4)
(31.3)
4,824 (65.1)
4,606 (63.9)
4,902 (66.1)
4,737 (66.4)
4,190 (61.2)
4,322 (62.5)
4,295 (62.4)
2,584 (34.9)
2,593 (36.1)
2,516 (33.9)
2,399 (33.6)
2,660 (38.8)
2,589 (37.5)
2,587 (37.6)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,515
5,437
5,760
5,779
(23.1)
(23.3)
(24.8)
(24.8)
(25.3)
(26.2)
(26.3)
2,540 (49.6)
2,590 (48.8)
2,899 (51.6)
2,659 (48.2)
2,398 (44.1)
2,574 (44.7)
2,548 (44.7)
2,577 (50.4)
2,720 (51.2)
2,716 (48.4)
2,856 (51.8)
3,039 (55.9)
3,186 (55.3)
3,231 (55.3)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  YEAR # MINIMUM
%
MEDIUM
%
MAXIMUM
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,896
2,784
3,002
3,122
2,992
2,998
3,025
11.6
13.1
15.7
17.1
17.7
18.4
21.1
55.2
56.3
56.4
58.2
56.8
56.6
55.4
33.2
29.7
27.9
24.7
26.5
25.0
23.6
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,703
2,766
2,974
2,771
2,433
2,307
2,269
11.6
11.9
11.5
12.6
14.6
15.0
16.0
66.0
67.8
68.6
68.4
67.1
63.2
61.3
22.4
20.0
19.9
19.0
18.3
21.0
22.7
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
4,824
4,606
4,902
4,737
4,190
4,322
4,295
8.1
8.8
9.3
11.5
12.7
12.6
13.4
63.4
62.4
63.9
63.1
62.2
60.5
59.0
28.5
27.7
26.8
25.4
25.1
26.9
27.6
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,540
2,590
2,899
2,659
2,398
2,574
2,548
16.4
16.3
17.4
19.3
23.1
20.2
20.0
61.0
60.6
59.7
59.7
56.1
55.1
54.0
22.6
22.5
22.9
21.0
20.8
24.7
26.0

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

  YEAR # DAY PAROLE
%
FULL PAROLE
%
STATUTORY
RELEASE %
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,497
1,534
1,551
1,649
1,703
1,816
1,856
14.4
13.8
12.8
15.7
16.0
15.1
14.9
79.7
79.1
79.1
74.3
74.3
74.0
74.8
5.9
7.0
8.1
10.1
9.7
11.0
10.3
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,045
1,109
1,007
1,143
1,243
1,257
1,159
15.2
12.3
12.3
14.0
12.7
15.8
13.0
42.0
38.1
35.6
31.5
33.2
33.4
32.8
42.7
49.4
52.1
54.5
54.1
50.8
54.2
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,584
2,593
2,516
2,339
2,660
2,589
2,587
21.6
19.5
16.1
17.1
20.7
19.0
16.2
41.5
36.3
34.0
31.8
29.1
31.7
31.8
36.7
44.1
49.9
51.1
50.2
49.2
52.0
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,577
2,720
2,716
2,856
3,039
3,186
3,231
14.9
12.1
10.2
15.9
17.0
18.7
15.4
64.9
63.4
63.4
59.4
56.7
57.3
58.0
20.2
24.5
26.4
24.7
26.3
24.0
26.6

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  END-OFYEAR ATLANTIC
%
QUEBEC
%
ONTARIO
%
PRARIES
%
PACIFIC
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
6.7
6.7
6.9
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.0
27.2
27.2
26.9
27.1
26.8
26.8
26.5
29.9
29.7
29.5
28.6
29.0
28.8
28.6
18.8
18.6
18.4
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
17.4
17.8
18.3
18.9
18.7
18.9
19.3
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
13.0
12.4
11.4
10.7
9.7
9.5
9.4
20.1
19.3
19.0
19.1
19.2
19.6
20.3
26.9
24.7
24.5
24.2
24.8
26.4
26.3
27.3
28.5
30.7
31.8
32.0
29.6
28.2
15.5
15.1
14.5
14.2
14.5
15.0
15.8
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.6
7.8
37.6
38.0
36.9
36.0
35.1
34.1
33.7
24.6
23.7
23.7
23.7
24.4
24.3
23.6
18.0
18.2
19.0
19.9
20.0
21.0
21.4
13.1
13.6
13.0
13.0
13.1
13.1
13.7
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
7.2
7.7
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.9
7.7
37.8
38.5
38.2
37.4
36.8
35.2
34.2
27.9
27.2
26.1
26.1
26.8
26.9
25.4
16.1
15.7
17.3
18.5
19.0
20.3
22.4
10.9
10.9
10.4
10.3
9.8
9.7
10.3
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
9.9
9.8
9.5
9.0
8.5
8.6
8.6
28.9
29.2
28.5
28.1
27.9
27.2
26.8
27.6
27.1
26.8
26.7
27.5
27.6
27.0
20.2
20.5
22.0
22.8
22.7
23.3
23.8
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.4
13.4
13.4
13.9

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  END-OF-YEAR
# % MALES
%
FEMALES
% (#)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
4,393
4,318
4,553
4,771
4,695
4,814
4,881
20.0
18.9
20.1
21.5
21.9
21.9
22.2
96.0
96.5
96.3
95.8
95.7
95.6
95.8
4.0 (176)
3.5 (152)
3.7 (167)
4.2 (199)
4.3 (203)
4.4 (211)
4.2 (206)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
3,748
3,875
4,041
3,914
3,676
3,564
3,428
16.9
17.0
17.9
17.6
17.1
16.2
15.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.7
99.6
0.5 (17)
0.3 (10)
0.3 (14)
0.4 (15)
0.5 (17)
0.3 (12)
0.4 (14)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
7,408
7,199
7,418
7,136
6,850
6,911
6,882
33.5
31.6
32.8
32.1
31.9
31.4
31.3
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.4
98.3
98.3
98.2
1.0 (89)
1.1 (82)
1.2 (88)
1.6 (115)
1.7 (118)
1.7 (116)
1.8 (125)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
5,117
5,310
5,615
5,515
5,146
5,760
5,779
23.1
23.3
24.8
24.8
24.8
26.1
26.3
97.0
96.8
95.9
95.0
94.7
94.1
94.0
3.0 (163)
3.2 (172)
4.1 (228)
5.0 (273)
5.4 (291)
6.0 (343)
6.0 (346)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  END-OF-YEAR
FEDERAL
JURISDICTION
AT ADMISSION
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
42 YEARS (18-89)
42 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (20-93)
43 YEARS (20-91)
42 YEARS (18-92)
41 YEARS (17-92)
43 YEARS (18-95)
36 YEARS (16-87)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
36 YEARS (18-84)
35 YEARS (14-92)
31 YEARS (14-87)
31 YEARS (15-87)
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
41 YEARS (19-86)
42 YEARS (20-85)
43 YEARS (19-89)
46 YEARS (20-89)
43 YEARS (18-97)
43 YEARS (17-97)
44 YEARS (19-99)
39 YEARS (15-85)
40 YEARS (18-82)
41 YEARS (18-81)
43 YEARS (19-83)
41 YEARS (14-82)
39 YEARS (14-81)
40 YEARS (15-80)
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
34 YEARS (16-78)
35 YEARS (19-78)
35 YEARS (19-79)
35 YEARS (19-75)
36 YEARS (17-81)
35 YEARS (17-82)
35 YEARS (18-84)
31 YEARS (16-65)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (18-68)
33 YEARS (17-68)
31 YEARS (16-71)
31 YEARS (16-71)
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
36 YEARS (18-81)
36 YEARS (20-73)
37 YEARS (19-76)
38 YEARS (20-75)
37 YEARS (18-79)
36 YEARS (18-80)
37 YEARS (19-82)
34 YEARS (17-74)
35 YEARS (18-71)
35 YEARS (18-73)
36 YEARS (19-69)
36 YEARS (18-78)
34 YEARS (17-82)
34 YEARS (17-73)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  END-OF-YEAR
CAUCASIAN
%
NATIVE
%
BLACK
%
ASIAN
%
OTHER
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
78.9
78.3
77.3
76.0
74.4
73.8
73.5
13.0
13.4
13.8
14.6
16.1
16.5
17.2
3.1
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.0
4.3
4.4
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
4.0
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.1
4.1
3.7
SEX: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
76.2
76.0
74.1
73.4
71.1
70.8
70.8
16.5
16.5
17.8
19.0
19.9
20.0
21.1
4.5
4.4
4.5
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5
2.5
2.6
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.4
2.7
ROBBERY: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
82.4
81.5
79.7
78.1
77.0
76.1
75.7
9.3
9.9
10.9
12.0
12.9
13.6
14.3
5.4
5.8
6.4
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.4
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.8
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.7
DRUG: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
81.1
76.4
74.2
71.6
69.9
70.9
71.9
4.8
4.8
5.6
6.5
7.1
7.7
9.0
8.3
9.2
9.5
10.0
10.0
9.8
9.2
3.8
4.3
5.2
6.2
6.8
5.8
4.6
2.0
5.3
5.5
5.8
6.1
5.7
5.5
OVERALL: 1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
78.3
77.0
75.2
73.1
71.6
71.6
72.4
10.5
10.9
12.0
13.2
14.0
14.4
15.0
5.5
6.0
6.3
6.4
6.7
6.7
6.5
1.9
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.1
2.7
2.1
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.4
4.6
4.6
3.9