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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-2001 Review

2002, No. B-26, pdf

Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la direction de recherche, Service Correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

Laurence L. Motiuk    Ben Vuong
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada
January, 2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Homicide
Offenders Homicide Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Homicide Offenders

SEX OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation Regional Distribution of Sex Offenders
Sex Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Sex Offenders

ROBBERY OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation Regional Distribution of Robbery Offenders
Robbery Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Robbery Offenders

DRUG OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation Regional Distribution of Drug Offenders
Drug Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Drug Offenders

SUMMARY TABLES

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for an eighth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-2001 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and B. Vuong, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-2000 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 2001).

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 2000, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.8 per 100,000.

The following is an end-of-2001 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,036 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises almost one-quarter (23.1%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 3,124 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-quarter (25%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 802 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,753 were in medium security institutions, and 569 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 18.2% of all homicide offenders;
    • Medium security: 56.1% of all homicide offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 25.7% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 1,912 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 19.8% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 275 or 14.4% were on day parole;
  • 1,453 or 76.0% were on full parole; and
  • 184 or 9.6% were on statutory release

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 6.9% of homicide offenders, and 8.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Quebec: 26.2% of homicide offenders, and 26.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Ontario: 28.2% of homicide offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Prairies: 19.3% of homicide offenders, and 23.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Pacific: 19.4% of homicide offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2001 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent seven-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2001) the total homicide offender population has increased by 14.6% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 7.9% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 27.7%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are men (95.8%). There were 210 (4.2%) cases of a woman offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2001, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 43 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 96 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.
  • The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 31 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 86 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2001, the majority of homicide offenders (73.0%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 73.0% of homicide offenders, and 72.7% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Native: 17.7% of homicide offenders, and 15.5% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 4.5% of homicide offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.2% of homicide offenders, and 1.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Other: 3.6% of homicide offenders, and 3.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders).

Nature of Offence

  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:
    • 848 cases of first degree murder, and 16.8% of all homicide offenders;
    • 2,901 cases of second degree murder, and 57.6% of all homicide offenders;
    • 1,287 cases of manslaughter, and 25.6% of all homicide offenders; and
    • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-2001 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,303 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (15.2%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 2001 there were actually 3,874 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 17.8% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 2,254 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise nearly one-fifth (18.6%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2001 there were actually 2,644 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 21.8% of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 482 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,432 were in medium security institutions, and 340 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 15.1% of all sex offenders;
    • Medium security: 63.5% of all sex offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 21.4% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 1,049 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 10.9% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2001 there were actually 1,230 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 12.8% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 138 or 13.2% were on day parole;
  • 348 or 33.2% were on full parole; and
  • 562 or 53.6% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 10.1% of sex offenders, and 8.9% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Quebec: 20.6% of sex offenders, and 26.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Ontario: 26.3% of sex offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Prairies: 27.6% of sex offenders, and 23.9% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 15.4% of sex offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2001 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent seven-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2001) the total sex offender population has decreased by 11.9%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 16.6% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 0.4%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are men (99.6%). There were 13 (0.4%) cases of a woman offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2001, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest sex offender was 100 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.
  • The average age of sex offenders at admission was 39 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 82 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2001, the majority of sex offenders (71.8%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 71.8% of sex offenders, and 72.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Native: 20.5% of sex offenders, and 15.5% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Black: 5.0% of sex offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.4% of sex offenders, and 1.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
    • Other: 2.3% of sex offenders, and 3.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-2001 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,810 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (31.3%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 4,322 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (35.7%) of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 1,218 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,621 were in medium security institutions, and 483 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 11.2% of all robbery offenders;
    • Medium security: 60.6% of all robbery offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 28.2% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 2,488 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 25.8% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 397 or 16.0% were on day parole;
  • 762 or 30.6% were on full parole; and
  • 1,329 or 53.4% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.1% of robbery offenders, and 8.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Quebec: 32.5% of robbery offenders, and 26.3% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.0% of robbery offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Prairies: 21.8% of robbery offenders, and 23.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
  • Pacific: 13.5% of robbery offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2001 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent seven-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2001) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 8.1%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 10.4% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has decreased by 3.7%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are men (97.9%). There were 144 (2.1%) cases of a woman offender for whom a
  • robbery offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2001, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 36 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 85 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.
  • The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 31 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 74 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2001, the majority of robbery offenders (75.2%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Caucasian and Black robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 75.2% of robbery offenders, and 72.7% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Native: 15.1% of robbery offenders, and 15.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Black: 7.3% of robbery offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.7% of robbery offenders, and 1.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Other: 1.8% of robbery offenders, and 3.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-2001 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,761 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (26.5%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 2,668 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (22.0%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 707 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,526 were in medium security institutions, and 435 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 16.3% of all drug offenders;
    • Medium security: 57.2% of all drug offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 26.5% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2001, there were 3,232 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 32.3% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 470 or 15.2% were on day parole;
  • 1,718 or 55.6% were on full parole; and
  • 903 or 29.2% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 7.9% of drug offenders, and 8.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Quebec: 34.4% of drug offenders, and 26.3% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.7% of drug offenders, and 27.0% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
  • Prairies: 23.2% of drug offenders, and 23.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Pacific: 10.0% of drug offenders, and 13.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2001 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent seven-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2001) the total drug offender population has increased by 12.6%, the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 5.0% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 20.0%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2001, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are men (94.1%). There were 342 (5.9%) cases of a woman offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2001, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 38 years old. The oldest drug offender was 83 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.
  • The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 74 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2001, the majority of drug offenders (73.1%) were Caucasian.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 73.1% of drug offenders, and 72.7% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Native: 9.6% of drug offenders, and 15.5% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 9.0% of drug offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 3.0% of drug offenders, and 1.6% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 5.3% of drug offenders, and 3.8% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

  YEAR # (%) CUSTODY
#   (%)
COMMUNITY
#   (%)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 4,393 (20.0) 2,896 (65.9) 1,497 (34.1)
  1995 4,318 (18.9) 2,784 (64.5) 1,534 (35.5)
  1996 4,553 (20.1) 3,002 (65.9) 1,551 (34.1)
  1997 4,771 (21.5) 3,122 (65.4) 1,649 (34.6)
  1998 4,695 (21.9) 2,992 (63.7) 1,703 (36.3)
  1999 4,814 (21.9) 2,998 (62.3) 1,816 (37.7)
  2000 4,881 (22.2) 3,025 (62.0) 1,856 (38.0)
 
  2001 5,036 (23.1) 3,124 (62.0) 1,912 (38.0)
 
SEX: 1994 3,748 (16.9) 2,703 (72.1) 1,045 (27.9)
  1995 3,875 (17.0) 2,766 (71.3) 1,109 (28.7)
  1996 4,041 (17.9) 2,974 (73.6) 1,067 (26.4)
  1997 3,914 (17.6) 2,771 (70.8) 1,143 (29.2)
  1998 3,676 (17.1) 2,433 (66.1) 1,243 (33.9)
  1999 3,564 (16.2) 2,307 (64.7) 1,257 (35.5)
  2000 3,428 (15.6) 2,269 (66.2) 1,159 (33.8)
 
  2001 3,303 (15.2) 2,254 (68.2) 1,049 (31.8)
 
ROBBERY: 1994 7,408 (33.5) 4,824 (65.1) 2,584 (34.9)
  1995 7,199 (31.6) 4,606 (63.9) 2,593 (36.1)
  1996 7,418 (32.8) 4,902 (66.1) 2,516 (33.9)
  1997 7,136 (32.1) 4,737 (66.4) 2,399 (33.6)
  1998 6,850 (31.9) 4,190 (61.2) 2,660 (38.8)
  1999 6,911 (31.4) 4,322 (62.5) 2,589 (37.5)
  2000 6,882 (31.3) 4,295 (62.4) 2,587 (37.6)
 
  2001 6,810 (31.3) 4,322 (63.5) 2,488 (36.5)
 
DRUG: 1994 5,117 (23.1) 2,540 (49.6) 2,577 (50.4)
  1995 5,310 (23.3) 2,590 (48.8) 2,720 (51.2)
  1996 5,615 (24.8) 2,899 (51.6) 2,716 (48.4)
  1997 5,515 (24.8) 2,659 (48.2) 2,856 (51.8)
  1998 5,437 (25.3) 2,398 (44.1) 3,039 (55.9)
  1999 5,760 (26.2) 2,574 (44.7) 3,186 (55.3)
  2000 5,779 (26.3) 2,548 (44.7) 3,231 (55.3)
 
  2001 5,761 (26.5) 2,668 (46.3) 3,093 (53.7)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  YEAR # MINIMUM % MEDIUM % MAXIMUM %
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 2,896 11.6 55.2 33.2
  1995 2,784 13.1 56.3 29.7
  1996 3,002 15.7 56.4 27.9
  1997 3,122 17.1 58.2 24.7
  1998 2,992 17.7 56.8 26.5
  1999 2,998 18.4 56.6 25.0
  2000 3,008 21.1 55.7 23.1
  2001 3,124 18.2 56.1 25.7
 
SEX: 1994 2,703 11.6 66.0 22.4
  1995 2,766 11.9 67.8 20.0
  1996 2,974 11.5 68.6 19.9
  1997 2,771 12.6 68.4 19.0
  1998 2,433 14.6 67.1 18.3
  1999 2,307 15.0 63.2 21.0
  2000 2,264 16.1 61.4 22.5
  2001 2,254 15.1 63.5 21.4
 
ROBBERY: 1994 4,824 8.1 63.4 28.5
  1995 4,606 8.8 62.4 27.7
  1996 4,902 9.3 63.9 26.8
  1997 4,737 11.5 63.1 25.4
  1998 4,190 12.7 62.2 25.1
  1999 4,322 12.6 60.5 26.9
  2000 4,261 13.5 59.5 27.0
  2001 4,322 11.2 60.6 28.1
 
DRUG: 1994 2,540 16.4 61.0 22.6
  1995 2,590 16.3 60.6 22.5
  1996 2,899 17.4 59.7 22.9
  1997 2,659 19.3 59.7 21.0
  1998 2,398 23.1 56.1 20.8
  1999 2,574 20.2 55.1 24.7
  2000 2,542 20.0 54.0 26.0
  2001 2,668 16.3 57.2 26.5

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

  YEAR # MINIMUM % MEDIUM % MAXIMUM %
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 1,497 14.4 79.7 5.9
  1995 1,534 13.8 79.1 7.0
  1996 1,551 12.8 79.1 8.1
  1997 1,649 15.7 74.3 10.1
  1998 1,703 16.0 74.3 9.7
  1999 1,816 15.1 74.0 11.0
  2000 1,856 14.9 74.8 10.3
  2001 1,912 14.4 76.0 9.6
 
SEX: 1994 1,045 15.2 42.0 42.7
  1995 1,109 12.3 38.1 49.4
  1996 1,007 12.3 35.6 52.1
  1997 1,143 14.0 31.5 54.5
  1998 1,243 12.7 33.2 54.1
  1999 1,257 15.8 33.4 50.8
  2000 1,159 13.0 32.8 54.2
  2001 1,048 13.2 33.2 53.6
 
ROBBERY: 1994 2,584 21.6 41.5 36.7
  1995 2,593 19.5 36.3 44.1
  1996 2,516 16.1 34.0 49.9
  1997 2,339 17.1 31.8 51.1
  1998 2,660 20.7 29.1 50.2
  1999 2,589 19.0 31.7 49.2
  2000 2,587 16.2 31.8 52.0
  2001 2,488 16.0 30.6 53.4
 
DRUG: 1994 2,577 14.9 64.9 20.2
  1995 2,720 12.1 63.4 24.5
  1996 2,716 10.2 63.4 26.4
  1997 2,856 15.9 59.4 24.7
  1998 3,039 17.0 56.7 26.3
  1999 3,186 18.7 57.3 24.0
  2000 3,232 15.4 58.0 26.6
  2001 3,091 15.2 55.6 29.2

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  END-OF YEAR ATLANTIC
%
QUEBEC
%
ONTARIO
%
PRAIRIES
%
PACIFIC
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 6.7 27.2 29.9 18.8 17.4
  1995 6.7 27.2 29.7 18.6 17.8
  1996 6.9 26.9 29.5 18.4 18.3
  1997 7.2 27.1 28.6 18.2 18.9
  1998 7.2 26.8 29.0 18.3 18.7
  1999 7.2 26.8 28.8 18.4 18.9
  2000 7.0 26.5 28.6 18.5 19.3
  2001 6.9 26.2 28.2 19.3 19.4
 
SEX: 1994 13.0 20.1 26.9 27.3 15.5
  1995 12.4 19.3 24.7 28.5 15.1
  1996 11.4 19.0 24.5 30.7 14.5
  1997 10.7 19.1 24.2 31.8 14.2
  1998 9.7 19.2 24.8 32.0 14.5
  1999 9.5 19.6 26.4 29.6 15.0
  2000 9.4 20.3 26.3 28.2 15.8
  2001 10.1 20.6 26.3 27.6 15.4
 
ROBBERY: 1994 6.7 37.6 24.6 18.0 13.1
  1995 6.5 38.0 23.7 18.2 13.6
  1996 7.3 36.9 23.7 19.0 13.0
  1997 7.4 36.0 23.7 19.9 13.0
  1998 7.4 35.1 24.4 20.0 13.1
  1999 7.6 34.1 24.3 21.0 13.1
  2000 7.8 33.7 23.6 21.4 13.7
  2001 8.1 32.5 24.0 21.8 13.5
 
DRUG: 1994 7.2 37.8 27.9 16.1 10.9
  1995 7.7 38.5 27.2 15.7 10.9
  1996 8.0 38.2 26.1 17.3 10.4
  1997 7.8 37.4 26.1 18.5 10.3
  1998 7.6 36.8 26.8 19.0 9.8
  1999 7.9 35.2 26.9 20.3 9.7
  2000 7.7 34.2 25.4 22.4 10.3
  2001 7.9 34.4 24.7 23.2 10.0
 
OVERALL: 1994 9.9 28.9 27.6 20.2 13.4
  1995 9.8 29.2 27.1 20.5 13.5
  1996 9.5 28.5 26.8 22.0 13.5
  1997 9.0 28.1 26.7 22.8 13.4
  1998 8.5 27.9 27.5 22.7 13.4
  1999 8.6 27.2 27.6 23.3 13.4
  2000 8.6 26.8 27.0 23.8 13.9
  2001 8.9 26.3 27.0 23.9 13.5

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  END-OF-YEAR #
% MEN
%
WOMEN
%
(#)
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 4,393 20.0 96.0 4.0 (176)
  1995 4,318 18.9 96.5 3.5 (152)
  1996 4,553 20.1 96.3 3.7 (167)
  1997 4,771 21.5 95.8 4.2 (199)
  1998 4,695 21.9 95.7 4.3 (203)
  1999 4,814 21.9 95.6 4.4 (211)
  2000 4,881 22.2 95.8 4.2 (206)
  2001 5,036 23.1 95.8 4.2 (219)
 
SEX: 1994 3,748 16.9 99.5 0.5 (17)
  1995 3,875 17.0 99.7 0.3 (10)
  1996 4,041 17.9 99.7 0.3 (14)
  1997 3,914 17.6 99.6 0.4 (15)
  1998 3,676 17.1 99.5 0.5 (17)
  1999 3,564 16.2 99.7 0.3 (12)
  2000 3,428 15.6 99.6 0.4 (14)
  2001 3,303 15.2 99.6 0.4 (13)
 
ROBBERY: 1994 7,408 33.5 99.0 1.0 (89)
  1995 7,199 31.6 98.9 1.1 (82)
  1996 7,418 32.8 98.8 1.2 (88)
  1997 7,136 32.1 98.4 1.6 (115)
  1998 6,850 31.9 98.3 1.7 (118)
  1999 6,911 31.4 98.3 1.7 (116)
  2000 6,882 31.3 98.2 1.8 (125)
  2001 6,810 31.3 97.9 2.1 (144)
 
DRUG: 1994 5,117 23.1 97.0 3.0 (163)
  1995 5,310 23.3 96.8 3.2 (172)
  1996 5,615 24.8 95.9 4.1 (228)
  1997 5,515 24.8 95.0 5.0 (273)
  1998 5,146 24.8 94.7 5.4 (291)
  1999 5,760 26.1 94.1 6.0 (343)
  2000 5,779 26.3 94.0 6.0 (346)
  2001 5,761 26.5 94.1 5.9 (342)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  END-OF-YEAR FEDERAL
JURISDICTION
AT ADMISSION
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 42 YEARS (18-89) 36 YEARS (16-87)
  1995 42 YEARS (20-89) 36 YEARS (18-84)
  1996 43 YEARS (20-93) 36 YEARS (18-84)
  1997 43 YEARS (20-91) 36 YEARS (18-84)
  1998 42 YEARS (18-92) 35 YEARS (14-92)
  1999 41 YEARS (17-92) 31 YEARS (14-87)
  2000 43 YEARS (18-95) 31 YEARS (15-87)
  2001 43 YEARS (18-96) 31 YEARS (15-86)
 
SEX: 1994 41 YEARS (19-86) 39 YEARS (15-85)
  1995 42 YEARS (20-85) 40 YEARS (18-82)
  1996 43 YEARS (19-89) 41 YEARS (18-81)
  1997 46 YEARS (20-89) 43 YEARS (19-83)
  1998 43 YEARS (18-97) 41 YEARS (14-82)
  1999 43 YEARS (17-97) 39 YEARS (14-81)
  2000 44 YEARS (19-99) 0 YEARS (15-80)
  2001 44 YEARS (18-100) 39 YEARS (15-82)
 
ROBBERY: 1994 34 YEARS (16-78) 31 YEARS (16-65)
  1995 35 YEARS (19-78) 33 YEARS (18-68)
  1996 35 YEARS (19-79) 33 YEARS (18-68)
  1997 35 YEARS (19-75) 33 YEARS (18-68)
  1998 36 YEARS (17-81) 33 YEARS (17-68)
  1999 35 YEARS (17-82) 31 YEARS (16-71)
  2000 35 YEARS (18-84) 31 YEARS (16-71)
  2001 36 YEARS (18-85) 31 YEARS (16-71)
 
DRUG: 1994 36 YEARS (18-81) 34 YEARS (17-74)
  1995 36 YEARS (20-73) 35 YEARS (18-71)
  1996 37 YEARS (19-76) 35 YEARS (18-73)
  1997 38 YEARS (20-75) 36 YEARS (19-69)
  1998 37 YEARS (18-79) 36 YEARS (18-78)
  1999 36 YEARS (18-80) 34 YEARS (17-82)
  2000 37 YEARS (19-82) 34 YEARS (17-73)
  2001 38 YEARS (19-83) 33 YEARS (16-74)

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  END-OF-YEAR CAUCASIAN
%
NATIVE
%
BLACK
%
ASIAN
%
OTHER
%
 
HOMICIDE: 1994 78.9 13.0 3.1 1.0 4.0
  1995 78.3 13.4 3.2 1.3 3.9
  1996 77.3 13.8 3.5 1.5 3.9
  1997 76.0 14.6 3.9 1.5 3.9
  1998 74.4 16.1 4.0 1.5 4.1
  1999 73.8 16.5 4.3 1.4 4.1
  2000 73.5 17.2 4.4 1.3 3.7
  2001 73.0 17.7 4.5 1.2 3.6
 
SEX: 1994 76.2 16.5 4.5 0.4 2.5
  1995 76.0 16.5 4.4 0.5 2.6
  1996 74.1 17.8 4.5 0.6 3.0
  1997 73.4 19.0 4.7 0.7 3.2
  1998 71.1 19.9 5.1 0.6 3.3
  1999 70.8 20.0 5.1 0.7 3.4
  2000 70.8 21.1 4.9 0.5 2.7
  2001 71.8 20.5 5.0 0.4 2.3
 
ROBBERY: 1994 82.4 9.3 5.4 1.1 1.8
  1995 81.5 9.9 5.8 1.2 1.7
  1996 79.7 10.9 6.4 1.2 1.8
  1997 78.1 12.0 6.5 1.3 2.1
  1998 77.0 12.9 6.8 1.3 2.0
  1999 76.1 13.6 7.2 1.2 2.0
  2000 75.7 14.3 7.4 0.9 1.7
  2001 75.2 15.1 7.3 0.7 1.8
 
DRUG: 1994 81.1 4.8 8.3 3.8 2.0
  1995 76.4 4.8 9.2 4.3 5.3
  1996 74.2 5.6 9.5 5.2 5.5
  1997 71.6 6.5 10.0 6.2 5.8
  1998 69.9 7.1 10.0 6.8 6.1
  1999 70.9 7.7 9.8 5.8 5.7
  2000 71.9 9.0 9.2 4.6 5.5
  2001 73.1 9.6 9.0 3.0 5.3
 
OVERALL: 1994 78.3 10.5 5.5 1.9 3.8
  1995 77.0 10.9 6.0 2.2 3.9
  1996 75.2 12.0 6.3 2.5 4.1
  1997 73.1 13.2 6.4 2.9 4.4
  1998 71.6 14.0 6.7 3.1 4.6
  1999 71.6 14.4 6.7 2.7 4.6
  2000 72.4 15.0 6.5 2.1 3.9
  2001 72.7 15.5 6.4 1.6 3.8