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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders In Federal Corrections: An End-of-2002 Review

2003 No B-34,  PDF

This report is also available in French. Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la Direction de la recherche, Service correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

Laurence L. Motiuk
&
Ben Vuong

Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada

January, 2003

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Homicide Offenders
Homicide Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Homicide Offenders
Nature of Offence
SEX OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Sex Offenders
Sex Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Sex Offenders
ROBBERY OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Robbery Offenders
Robbery Offender Population Trends
Characteristics of Robbery Offenders
DRUG OFFENDERS
Background
The Current Situation
Regional Distribution of Drug Offenders
Drug Offenders Population Trends
Characteristics of Drug Offenders
SUMMARY TABLES
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Status
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Security Level
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Release Status
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Region
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Gender
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Average Age
Distribution of Federal Offenders By Ethnicity

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for an ninth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-2002 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and B. Vuong, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-2001 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 2002).

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 2001, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.7 per 100,000.

The following is an end-of-2002 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC’s offender management system yielded a total of 5,010 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises almost one-quarter (23.5%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 3,055 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-quarter (26.2%) of the federal incarcerated population.

  • About 822 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,681 were in medium security institutions, and 552 were in minimum security institutions.

    More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 18.1% of all homicide offenders;
    • Medium security: 55.0% of all homicide offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 26.9% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 1,955 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprise 20.3% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 304 or 15.6% were on day parole;
  • 1,453 or 74.3% were on full parole; and
  • 198 or 10.1% were on statutory release
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 6.7% of homicide offenders, and 8.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Quebec: 26.5% of homicide offenders, and 26.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Ontario: 27.9% of homicide offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Prairies: 19.6% of homicide offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Pacific: 19.3% of homicide offenders, and 14.1% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).
HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-2002 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent eight-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2002) the total homicide offender population has increased by 14% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 17.7% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 30.6%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are men (95.9%). There were 206 (4.1%) cases of a woman offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2002, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 97 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

  • The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 33 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 87 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2002, the majority of homicide offenders (71.9%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 71.9% of homicide offenders, and 72.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Native: 17.9% of homicide offenders, and 15.5% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 4.5% of homicide offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 2.0% of homicide offenders, and 3.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Other: 3.8% of homicide offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders).
Nature of Offence
  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

    • 855 cases of first degree murder, and 17.1% of all homicide offenders;
    • 2,916 cases of second degree murder, and 58.2% of all homicide offenders;
    • 1,239 cases of manslaughter, and 24.7% of all homicide offenders; and
    • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

 

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-2002 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,202 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (15.0%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 2002 there were actually 3,756 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 17.6% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 2,155 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise nearly one-fifth (18.6%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2002 there were actually 2,527 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 21.6% of the total federal incarcerated population.

  • About 490 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,362 were in medium security institutions, and 307 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 14.1% of all sex offenders;
    • Medium security: 63.2% of all sex offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 22.7% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 1,047 sex offenders on conditional release and comprise 10.9% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2002 there were actually 1,230 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 12.8% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 115 or 11.0% were on day parole;
  • 320 or 30.6% were on full parole; and
  • 612 or 58.5% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic, Prairies and Pacific regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 10.0% of sex offenders, and 8.8% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Quebec: 21.6% of sex offenders, and 26.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Ontario: 26.6% of sex offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Prairies: 27.5% of sex offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 14.4% of sex offenders, and 14.1% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders).
SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-2002 sex offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent eight-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2002) the total sex offender population has decreased by 14.6%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 20.3% and the sex offender population under community supervision has remained the same.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are men (99.7%). There were 9 (0.3%) cases of a woman offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2002, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest sex offender was 101 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

  • The average age of sex offenders at admission was 40 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 82 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2002, the majority of sex offenders (70.0%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 70.0% of sex offenders, and 70.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Native: 20.9% of sex offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Black: 5.1% of sex offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.3% of sex offenders, and 3.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
    • Other: 2.6% of sex offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

 

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-2002 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,590 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (37.3%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 4,133 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (35.4%) of the total federal incarcerated population.

  • About 1,185 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,529 were in medium security institutions, and 419 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 10.2% of all robbery offenders;
    • Medium security: 61.2% of all robbery offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 28.7% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 2,457 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprise 25.6% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 376 or 15.3% were on day parole;
  • 674 or 27.4% were on full parole; and
  • 1,407 or 57.3% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for more than one-third and slightly less than one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.4% of robbery offenders, and 8.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Quebec: 31.9% of robbery offenders, and 26.2% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.0% of robbery offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Prairies: 21.7% of robbery offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
  • Pacific: 14.0% of robbery offenders, and 14.1% of all offenders (about the same proportion).
ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-2002 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent eight-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2002) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 11.0%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 14.3% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has decreased by 4.9%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are men (97.8%). There were 144 (2.2%) cases of a woman offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2002, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 36 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 86 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

  • The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 32 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 75 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2002, the majority of robbery offenders (74.1%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Caucasian and Black robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 74.1% of robbery offenders, and 70.9% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Native: 15.3% of robbery offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Black: 7.4% of robbery offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.4% of robbery offenders, and 3.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Other: 1.9% of robbery offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

 

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-2002 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,569 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (26.2%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 2,512 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (21.5%) of the federal incarcerated population.

  • About 670 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,452 were in medium security institutions, and 390 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 15.5% of all drug offenders;
    • Medium security: 57.8% of all drug offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 26.7% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

On 31 December 2002, there were 3,057 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 31.8% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 473 or 15.5% were on day parole;
  • 1,592 or 52.1% were on full parole; and
  • 992 or 34.5% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.0% of drug offenders, and 8.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Quebec: 34.2% of drug offenders, and 26.2% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.6% of drug offenders, and 27.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Prairies: 23.2% of drug offenders, and 23.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Pacific: 10.0% of drug offenders, and 14.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).
DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

The end-of-2002 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent eight-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2002) the total drug offender population has increased by 8.8%, the drug offender population in institutions has decreased by 1.1% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 18.6%.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2002, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are men (94.3%). There were 317 (5.7%) cases of a woman offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2002, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 38 years old. The oldest drug offender was 84 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

  • The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 35 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 79 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2002, the majority of drug offenders (70.0%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 70.0% of drug offenders, and 70.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Native: 9.2% of drug offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 8.6% of drug offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 7.0% of drug offenders, and 3.4% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 5.1% of drug offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

 

SUMMARY TABLES

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS
 

YEAR

#

(%)

CUSTODY
#  (%)

COMMUNITY
#  (%)

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

(20.0)

(18.9)

(20.1)

(21.5)

(21.9)

(21.9)

(22.2)

(23.1)

(23.5)

2,896 (65.9)

2,784 (64.5)

3,002 (65.9)

3,122 (65.4)

2,992 (63.7)

2,998 (62.3)

3,025 (62.0)

3,124 (62.0)

3,055 (61.0)

1,497 (34.1)

1,534 (35.5)

1,551 (34.1)

1,649 (34.6)

1,703 (36.3)

1,816 (37.7)

1,856 (38.0)

1,912 (38.0)

1,955 (39.0)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

(16.9)

(17.0)

(17.9)

(17.6)

(17.1)

(16.2)

(15.6)

(15.2)

(15.0)

2,703 (72.1)

2,766 (71.3)

2,974 (73.6)

2,771 (70.8)

2,433 (66.1)

2,307 (64.7)

2,269 (66.2)

2,254 (68.2)

2,155 (67.3)

1,045 (27.9)

1,109 (28.7)

1,067 (26.4)

1,143 (29.2)

1,243 (33.9)

1,257 (35.5)

1,159 (33.8)

1,049 (31.8)

1,047 (32.7)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

(33.5)

(31.6)

(32.8)

(32.1)

(31.9)

(31.4)

(31.3)

(31.3)

(37.3)

4,824 (65.1)

4,606 (63.9)

4,902 (66.1)

4,737 (66.4)

4,190 (61.2)

4,322 (62.5)

4,295 (62.4)

4,322 (63.5)

4,133 (62.7)

2,584 (34.9)

2,593 (36.1)

2,516 (33.9)

2,399 (33.6)

2,660 (38.8)

2,589 (37.5)

2,587 (37.6)

2,488 (36.5)

2,457 (37.3)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,437

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

(23.1)

(23.3)

(24.8)

(24.8)

(25.3)

(26.2)

(26.3)

(26.5)

(26.2)

2,540 (49.6)

2,590 (48.8)

2,899 (51.6)

2,659 (48.2)

2,398 (44.1)

2,574 (44.7)

2,548 (44.7)

2,668 (46.3)

2,512 (45.1)

2,577 (50.4)

2,720 (51.2)

2,716 (48.4)

2,856 (51.8)

3,039 (55.9)

3,186 (55.3)

3,231 (55.3)

3,093 (53.7)

3,057 (54.9)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL
 

YEAR

#

MINIMUM
%

MEDIUM
%

MAXIMUM
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2,896

2,784

3,002

3,122

2,992

2,998

3,008

3,124

3,055

11.6

13.1

15.7

17.1

17.7

18.4

21.1

18.2

18.1

55.2

56.3

56.4

58.2

56.8

56.6

55.7

56.1

55.0

33.2

29.7

27.9

24.7

26.5

25.0

23.1

25.7

26.9

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2,703

2,766

2,974

2,771

2,433

2,307

2,264

2,254

2,155

11.6

11.9

11.5

12.6

14.6

15.0

16.1

15.1

14.1

66.0

67.8

68.6

68.4

67.1

63.2

61.4

63.5

63.2

22.4

20.0

19.9

19.0

18.3

21.0

22.5

21.4

22.7

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

4,824

4,606

4,902

4,737

4,190

4,322

4,261

4,322

4,133

8.1

8.8

9.3

11.5

12.7

12.6

13.5

11.2

10.2

63.4

62.4

63.9

63.1

62.2

60.5

59.5

60.6

61.2

28.5

27.7

26.8

25.4

25.1

26.9

27.0

28.1

28.7

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2,540

2,590

2,899

2,659

2,398

2,574

2,542

2,668

2,512

16.4

16.3

17.4

19.3

23.1

20.2

20.0

16.3

15.5

61.0

60.6

59.7

59.7

56.1

55.1

54.0

57.2

57.8

22.6

22.5

22.9

21.0

20.8

24.7

26.0

26.5

26.7

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS
 

YEAR

#

DAY
PAROLE
%

FULL
PAROLE
%

STATUTORY
RELEASE
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

1,497

1,534

1,551

1,649

1,703

1,816

1,856

1,912

1,955

14.4

13.8

12.8

15.7

16.0

15.1

14.9

14.4

15.6

79.7

79.1

79.1

74.3

74.3

74.0

74.8

76.0

74.3

5.9

7.0

8.1

10.1

9.7

11.0

10.3

9.6

10.1

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

1,045

1,109

1,007

1,143

1,243

1,257

1,159

1,048

1,047

15.2

12.3

12.3

14.0

12.7

15.8

13.0

13.2

11.0

42.0

38.1

35.6

31.5

33.2

33.4

32.8

33.2

30.6

42.7

49.4

52.1

54.5

54.1

50.8

54.2

53.6

58.5

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2,584

2,593

2,516

2,339

2,660

2,589

2,587

2,488

2,457

21.6

19.5

16.1

17.1

20.7

19.0

16.2

16.0

15.3

41.5

36.3

34.0

31.8

29.1

31.7

31.8

30.6

27.4

36.7

44.1

49.9

51.1

50.2

49.2

52.0

53.4

57.3

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2,577

2,720

2,716

2,856

3,039

3,186

3,232

3,091

3,057

14.9

12.1

10.2

15.9

17.0

18.7

15.4

15.2

15.2

64.9

63.4

63.4

59.4

56.7

57.3

58.0

55.6

52.1

20.2

24.5

26.4

24.7

26.3

24.0

26.6

29.2

34.5

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION
 

END-OF-
YEAR

ATLANTIC
%

QUEBEC
%

ONTARIO
%

PRAIRIES
%

PACIFIC
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.2

7.2

7.2

7.0

6.9

6.7

27.2

27.2

26.9

27.1

26.8

26.8

26.5

26.2

26.5

29.9

29.7

29.5

28.6

29.0

28.8

28.6

28.2

27.9

18.8

18.6

18.4

18.2

18.3

18.4

18.5

19.3

19.6

17.4

17.8

18.3

18.9

18.7

18.9

19.3

19.4

19.3

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

13.0

12.4

11.4

10.7

9.7

9.5

9.4

10.1

10.0

20.1

19.3

19.0

19.1

19.2

19.6

20.3

20.6

21.6

26.9

24.7

24.5

24.2

24.8

26.4

26.3

26.3

26.6

27.3

28.5

30.7

31.8

32.0

29.6

28.2

27.6

27.5

15.5

15.1

14.5

14.2

14.5

15.0

15.8

15.4

14.4

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

6.7

6.5

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.1

8.4

37.6

38.0

36.9

36.0

35.1

34.1

33.7

32.5

31.9

24.6

23.7

23.7

23.7

24.4

24.3

23.6

24.0

24.0

18.0

18.2

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.0

21.4

21.8

21.7

13.1

13.6

13.0

13.0

13.1

13.1

13.7

13.5

14.0

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

7.2

7.7

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.9

7.7

7.9

8.0

37.8

38.5

38.2

37.4

36.8

35.2

34.2

34.4

34.2

27.9

27.2

26.1

26.1

26.8

26.9

25.4

24.7

24.6

16.1

15.7

17.3

18.5

19.0

20.3

22.4

23.2

23.2

10.9

10.9

10.4

10.3

9.8

9.7

10.3

10.0

10.0

OVERALL:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

9.9

9.8

9.5

9.0

8.5

8.6

8.6

8.9

8.8

28.9

29.2

28.5

28.1

27.9

27.2

26.8

26.3

26.2

27.6

27.1

26.8

26.7

27.5

27.6

27.0

27.0

27.1

20.2

20.5

22.0

22.8

22.7

23.3

23.8

23.9

23.8

13.4

13.5

13.5

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.9

13.5

14.1

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER
 

END-OF-
YEAR

 # 

 % 

MEN
 % 

WOMEN
%  (#)

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

20.0

18.9

20.1

21.5

21.9

21.9

22.2

23.1

23.5

96.0

96.5

96.3

95.8

95.7

95.6

95.8

95.8

95.9

4.0 (176)

3.5 (152)

3.7 (167)

4.2 (199)

4.3 (203)

4.4 (211)

4.2 (206)

4.2 (219)

4.1 (206)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

16.9

17.0

17.9

17.6

17.1

16.2

15.6

15.2

15.0

99.5

99.7

99.7

99.6

99.5

99.7

99.6

99.6

99.7

0.5 (17)

0.3 (10)

0.3 (14)

0.4 (15)

0.5 (17)

0.3 (12)

0.4 (14)

0.4 (13)

0.3 (9)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

33.5

31.6

32.8

32.1

31.9

31.4

31.3

31.3

37.3

99.0

98.9

98.8

98.4

98.3

98.3

98.2

97.9

97.8

1.0 (89)

1.1 (82)

1.2 (88)

1.6 (115)

1.7 (118)

1.7 (116)

1.8 (125)

2.1 (144)

2.2 (144)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,146

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

23.1

23.3

24.8

24.8

24.8

26.1

26.3

26.5

26.2

97.0

96.8

95.9

95.0

94.7

94.1

94.0

94.1

94.3

3.0 (163)

3.2 (172)

4.1 (228)

5.0 (273)

5.4 (291)

6.0 (343)

6.0 (346)

5.9 (342)

5.7 (317)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

END-OF-
YEAR

FEDERAL
JURISDICTION

AT ADMISSION

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

42 YEARS (18-89)

42 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (20-93)

43 YEARS (20-91)

42 YEARS (18-92)

41 YEARS (17-92)

43 YEARS (18-95)

43 YEARS (18-96)

44 YEARS (19-97)

36 YEARS (16-87)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

35 YEARS (14-92)

31 YEARS (14-87)

31 YEARS (15-87)

31 YEARS (15-86)

33 YEARS (15-87)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

41 YEARS (19-86)

42 YEARS (20-85)

43 YEARS (19-89)

46 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (18-97)

43 YEARS (17-97)

44 YEARS (19-99)

44 YEARS (18-100)

44 YEARS (19-101)

39 YEARS (15-85)

40 YEARS (18-82)

41 YEARS (18-81)

43 YEARS (19-83)

41 YEARS (14-82)

39 YEARS (14-81)

40 YEARS (15-80)

39 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (15-82)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

34 YEARS (16-78)

35 YEARS (19-78)

35 YEARS (19-79)

35 YEARS (19-75)

36 YEARS (17-81)

35 YEARS (17-82)

35 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-85)

36 YEARS (18-86)

31 YEARS (16-65)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (17-68)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

32 YEARS (16-75)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

36 YEARS (18-81)

36 YEARS (20-73)

37 YEARS (19-76)

38 YEARS (20-75)

37 YEARS (18-79)

36 YEARS (18-80)

37 YEARS (19-82)

38 YEARS (19-83)

38 YEARS (19-84)

34 YEARS (17-74)

35 YEARS (18-71)

35 YEARS (18-73)

36 YEARS (19-69)

36 YEARS (18-78)

34 YEARS (17-82)

34 YEARS (17-73)

33 YEARS (16-74)

35 YEARS (18-79)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY
 

END-OF-
YEAR

CAUCASIAN
%

NATIVE
%

BLACK
%

ASIAN
%

OTHER
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

78.9

78.3

77.3

76.0

74.4

73.8

73.5

73.0

71.9

13.0

13.4

13.8

14.6

16.1

16.5

17.2

17.7

17.9

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.9

4.0

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.5

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

2.0

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.9

4.1

4.1

3.7

3.6

3.8

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

76.2

76.0

74.1

73.4

71.1

70.8

70.8

71.8

70.0

16.5

16.5

17.8

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.1

20.5

20.9

4.5

4.4

4.5

4.7

5.1

5.1

4.9

5.0

5.1

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.4

1.3

2.5

2.6

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.4

2.7

2.3

2.6

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

82.4

81.5

79.7

78.1

77.0

76.1

75.7

75.2

74.1

9.3

9.9

10.9

12.0

12.9

13.6

14.3

15.1

15.3

5.4

5.8

6.4

6.5

6.8

7.2

7.4

7.3

7.4

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.2

0.9

0.7

1.4

1.8

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.9

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

81.1

76.4

74.2

71.6

69.9

70.9

71.9

73.1

70.0

4.8

4.8

5.6

6.5

7.1

7.7

9.0

9.6

9.2

8.3

9.2

9.5

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.2

9.0

8.6

3.8

4.3

5.2

6.2

6.8

5.8

4.6

3.0

7.0

2.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

6.1

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

OVERALL:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

78.3

77.0

75.2

73.1

71.6

71.6

72.4

72.7

70.9

10.5

10.9

12.0

13.2

14.0

14.4

15.0

15.5

15.4

5.5

6.0

6.3

6.4

6.7

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.4

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.1

2.7

2.1

1.6

3.4

3.8

3.9

4.1

4.4

4.6

4.6

3.9

3.8

3.9