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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders In Federal Corrections: An End-of-2003 Review

2004 No B-35,  PDF

This report is also available in French. Ce rapport est également disponible en français. Veuillez vous adresser à la Direction de la recherche, Service correctionnel du Canada, 340 avenue Laurier ouest, Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0P9. Should additional copies be required they can be obtained from the Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Ave., West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0P9.

Laurence L. Motiuk & Ben Vuong
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada

January, 2004

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for a tenth time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-2003 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and B. Vuong, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-2002 Review (Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada, 2003).

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 2002, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.8 per 100,000.

The following is an end-of-2003 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC’s offender management system yielded a total of 5,081 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises almost one-quarter (23.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 3,083 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-quarter (26.4%) of the federal incarcerated population.

  • About 832 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,688 were in medium security institutions, and 563 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 18.3% of all homicide offenders;
    • Medium security: 54.8% of all homicide offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 27.0% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 1,998 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprises 20.9% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 303 or 15.2% were on day parole;
  • 1,503 or 75.2% were on full parole; and
  • 192 or 9.6% were on statutory release
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Pacific region has more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 6.8% of homicide offenders, and 9.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Quebec: 26.2% of homicide offenders, and 26.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Ontario: 27.6% of homicide offenders, and 27.2% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Prairies: 19.7% of homicide offenders, and 23.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Pacific: 19.7% of homicide offenders, and 14.6% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).
HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
  • The end-of-2003 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent nine-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2003) the total homicide offender population has increased by 15.7% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 6.4% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 33.5%.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are men (96.0%). There were 201 (4.0%) cases of a woman offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2003, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest homicide offender was 90 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

  • The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 33 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 81 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2003, the majority of homicide offenders (70.2%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Caucasian and Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 70.2% of homicide offenders, and 69.0% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Native: 18.4% of homicide offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 4.8% of homicide offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.9% of homicide offenders, and 2.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Other: 4.7% of homicide offenders, and 7.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders).

NATURE OF OFFENCE

  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:

    • 888 cases of first degree murder, and 17.5% of all homicide offenders;
    • 2,980 cases of second degree murder, and 58.7% of all homicide offenders;
    • 1,213 cases of manslaughter, and 23.8% of all homicide offenders; and
    • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

 

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-2003 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 3,073 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (14.5%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 2003 there were actually 3,605 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 17% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 2,043 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise nearly one-sixth (17.5%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2003 there were actually 2,396 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 21.0% of the total federal incarcerated population.

  • About 443 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,314 were in medium security institutions, and 286 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 14.1% of all sex offenders;
    • Medium security: 64.5% of all sex offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 21.4% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 1,029 sex offenders on conditional release and comprises 10.8% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2003 there were actually 1,207 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 12.6% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 129 or 12.5% were on day parole;
  • 302 or 29.4% were on full parole; and
  • 599 or 58.1% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Prairies and Ontario regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic and Prairies regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

  • More specifically:

    • Atlantic: 10.1% of sex offenders, and 9.1% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Quebec: 21.6% of sex offenders, and 26.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Ontario: 26.8% of sex offenders, and 27.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Prairies: 27.2% of sex offenders, and 23.1% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 14.3% of sex offenders, and 14.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).
SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
  • The end-of-2003 sex offender population has decreased relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent nine-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2003) the total sex offender population has decreased by 18.0%, the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 24.0% and the sex offender population under community supervision has increased by 1.4%.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are men (99.7%). There were 10 (0.3%) cases of a woman offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2003, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old. The oldest sex offender was 102 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

  • The average age of sex offenders at admission was 40 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 82 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2003, the majority of sex offenders (68.1%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 68.1% of sex offenders, and 69.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Native: 21.6% of sex offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Black: 5.0% of sex offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.1% of sex offenders, and 2.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
    • Other: 4.1% of sex offenders, and 7.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

 

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-2003 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,575 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (31.0%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 4,141 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (35.5%) of the total federal incarcerated population.

  • About 1,061 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,646 were in medium security institutions, and 434 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:

    • Minimum security: 10.5% of all robbery offenders;
    • Medium security: 63.9% of all robbery offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 25.6% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 2,434 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprises 25.5% of the total federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 373 or 15.3% were on day parole;
  • 613 or 25.2% were on full parole; and
  • 1,448 or 59.5% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for slightly less than one-third and one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.8% of robbery offenders, and 9.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Quebec: 31.9% of robbery offenders, and 26.0% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
  • Ontario: 23.2% of robbery offenders, and 27.2% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
  • Prairies: 21.8% of robbery offenders, and 23.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
  • Pacific: 14.3% of robbery offenders, and 14.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).
ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
  • The end-of-2003 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent nine-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2003) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 14.2%, the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 11.2% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has decreased by 5.8%.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are men (97.7%). There were 149 (2.3%) cases of a woman offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2003, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 37 years old. The oldest robbery offender was 87 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

  • The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 75 years old and the youngest was 16 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2003, the majority of robbery offenders (71.9%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there were a larger proportion of Caucasian, Native and Black robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 71.9% of robbery offenders, and 69.0% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Native: 15.8% of robbery offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Black: 6.7% of robbery offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.8% of robbery offenders, and 2.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Other: 4.8% of robbery offenders, and 7.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

 

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-2003 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,504 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (25.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 2,539 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (21.8%) of the federal incarcerated population.

  • About 653 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,474 were in medium security institutions, and 412 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 16.2% of all drug offenders;
    • Medium security: 58.1% of all drug offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 25.7% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2003, there were 2,965 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 31.0% of the federal conditional release population.

More specifically:

  • 406 or 13.7% were on day parole;
  • 1,495 or 50.4% were on full parole; and
  • 1,064 or 35.9% were on statutory release.
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS
  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.

More specifically:

  • Atlantic: 8.7% of drug offenders, and 9.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Quebec: 34.9% of drug offenders, and 26.0% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
  • Ontario: 24.3% of drug offenders, and 27.2% of all offenders (about the same proportion);
  • Prairies: 21.6% of drug offenders, and 23.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
  • Pacific: 10.5% of drug offenders, and 14.6% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).
DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS
  • The end-of-2003 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent nine-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2003) the total drug offender population has increased by 7.6%, the drug offender population in institutions has remained the same and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 15.0%.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2003, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are men (94.6%). There were 294 (5.3%) cases of a woman offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2003, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 38 years old. The oldest drug offender was 85 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.

  • The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 35 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 80 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2003, the majority of drug offenders (68.7%) were Caucasian.

  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:

    • Caucasian: 68.7% of drug offenders, and 69.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Native: 8.8% of drug offenders, and 15.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 8.9% of drug offenders, and 6.3% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 3.2% of drug offenders, and 2.0% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 10.4% of drug offenders, and 7.3% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

 

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS
 

YEAR

#

(%)

CUSTODY
#    (%)

COMMUNITY
#    (%)

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

5,081

(20.0)

(18.9)

(20.1)

(21.5)

(21.9)

(21.9)

(22.2)

(23.1)

(23.5)

(23.9)

2,896 (65.9)

2,784 (64.5)

3,002 (65.9)

3,122 (65.4)

2,992 (63.7)

2,998 (62.3)

3,025 (62.0)

3,124 (62.0)

3,055 (61.0)

3,083 (60.7)

1,497 (34.1)

1,534 (35.5)

1,551 (34.1)

1,649 (34.6)

1,703 (36.3)

1,816 (37.7)

1,856 (38.0)

1,912 (38.0)

1,955 (39.0)

1,998 (39.3)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

3,073

(16.9)

(17.0)

(17.9)

(17.6)

(17.1)

(16.2)

(15.6)

(15.2)

(15.0)

(14.5)

2,703 (72.1)

2,766 (71.3)

2,974 (73.6)

2,771 (70.8)

2,433 (66.1)

2,307 (64.7)

2,269 (66.2)

2,254 (68.2)

2,155 (67.3)

2,043 (66.5)

1,045 (27.9)

1,109 (28.7)

1,067 (26.4)

1,143 (29.2)

1,243 (33.9)

1,257 (35.5)

1,159 (33.8)

1,049 (31.8)

1,047 (32.7)

1,030 (33.5)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

6,575

(33.5)

(31.6)

(32.8)

(32.1)

(31.9)

(31.4)

(31.3)

(31.3)

(37.3)

(31.0)

4,824 (65.1)

4,606 (63.9)

4,902 (66.1)

4,737 (66.4)

4,190 (61.2)

4,322 (62.5)

4,295 (62.4)

4,322 (63.5)

4,133 (62.7)

4,141 (63.0)

2,584 (34.9)

2,593 (36.1)

2,516 (33.9)

2,399 (33.6)

2,660 (38.8)

2,589 (37.5)

2,587 (37.6)

2,488 (36.5)

2,457 (37.3)

2,434 (37.0)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,437

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

5,504

(23.1)

(23.3)

(24.8)

(24.8)

(25.3)

(26.2)

(26.3)

(26.5)

(26.2)

(25.9)

2,540 (49.6)

2,590 (48.8)

2,899 (51.6)

2,659 (48.2)

2,398 (44.1)

2,574 (44.7)

2,548 (44.7)

2,668 (46.3)

2,512 (45.1)

2,539 (46.1)

2,577 (50.4)

2,720 (51.2)

2,716 (48.4)

2,856 (51.8)

3,039 (55.9)

3,186 (55.3)

3,231 (55.3)

3,093 (53.7)

3,057 (54.9)

2,965 (53.7)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL
 

YEAR

#

MINIMUM
%

MEDIUM
%

MAXIMUM
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

2,896

2,784

3,002

3,122

2,992

2,998

3,008

3,124

3,055

3,083

11.6

13.1

15.7

17.1

17.7

18.4

21.1

18.2

18.1

18.3

55.2

56.3

56.4

58.2

56.8

56.6

55.7

56.1

55.0

54.9

33.2

29.7

27.9

24.7

26.5

25.0

23.1

25.7

26.9

26.8

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

2,703

2,766

2,974

2,771

2,433

2,307

2,264

2,254

2,155

2,036

11.6

11.9

11.5

12.6

14.6

15.0

16.1

15.1

14.1

14.1

66.0

67.8

68.6

68.4

67.1

63.2

61.4

63.5

63.2

64.5

22.4

20.0

19.9

19.0

18.3

21.0

22.5

21.4

22.7

21.4

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

4,824

4,606

4,902

4,737

4,190

4,322

4,261

4,322

4,133

4,130

8.1

8.8

9.3

11.5

12.7

12.6

13.5

11.2

10.2

10.5

63.4

62.4

63.9

63.1

62.2

60.5

59.5

60.6

61.2

64.1

28.5

27.7

26.8

25.4

25.1

26.9

27.0

28.1

28.7

25.4

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

2,540

2,590

2,899

2,659

2,398

2,574

2,542

2,668

2,512

2,536

16.4

16.3

17.4

19.3

23.1

20.2

20.0

16.3

15.5

16.3

61.0

60.6

59.7

59.7

56.1

55.1

54.0

57.2

57.8

58.1

22.6

22.5

22.9

21.0

20.8

24.7

26.0

26.5

26.7

25.6

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS
 

YEAR

#

DAY
PAROLE
%

FULL
PAROLE
%

STATUTORY
RELEASE
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

1,497

1,534

1,551

1,649

1,703

1,816

1,856

1,912

1,955

1,998

14.4

13.8

12.8

15.7

16.0

15.1

14.9

14.4

15.6

15.2

79.7

79.1

79.1

74.3

74.3

74.0

74.8

76.0

74.3

75.2

5.9

7.0

8.1

10.1

9.7

11.0

10.3

9.6

10.1

9.6

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

1,045

1,109

1,007

1,143

1,243

1,257

1,159

1,048

1,047

1,029

15.2

12.3

12.3

14.0

12.7

15.8

13.0

13.2

11.0

12.5

42.0

38.1

35.6

31.5

33.2

33.4

32.8

33.2

30.6

29.4

42.7

49.4

52.1

54.5

54.1

50.8

54.2

53.6

58.5

58.1

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

2,584

2,593

2,516

2,339

2,660

2,589

2,587

2,488

2,457

2,434

21.6

19.5

16.1

17.1

20.7

19.0

16.2

16.0

15.3

15.3

41.5

36.3

34.0

31.8

29.1

31.7

31.8

30.6

27.4

25.2

36.7

44.1

49.9

51.1

50.2

49.2

52.0

53.4

57.3

59.5

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

2,577

2,720

2,716

2,856

3,039

3,186

3,232

3,091

3,057

2,963

14.9

12.1

10.2

15.9

17.0

18.7

15.4

15.2

15.2

13.7

64.9

63.4

63.4

59.4

56.7

57.3

58.0

55.6

52.1

50.5

20.2

24.5

26.4

24.7

26.3

24.0

26.6

29.2

34.5

35.9

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION
 

END-OF-
YEAR

ATLANTIC
%

QUEBEC
%

ONTARIO
%

PRAIRIES
%

PACIFIC
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.2

7.2

7.2

7.0

6.9

6.7

6.8

27.2

27.2

26.9

27.1

26.8

26.8

26.5

26.2

26.5

26.2

29.9

29.7

29.5

28.6

29.0

28.8

28.6

28.2

27.9

27.6

18.8

18.6

18.4

18.2

18.3

18.4

18.5

19.3

19.6

19.7

17.4

17.8

18.3

18.9

18.7

18.9

19.3

19.4

19.3

19.7

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

13.0

12.4

11.4

10.7

9.7

9.5

9.4

10.1

10.0

10.1

20.1

19.3

19.0

19.1

19.2

19.6

20.3

20.6

21.6

21.6

26.9

24.7

24.5

24.2

24.8

26.4

26.3

26.3

26.6

26.8

27.3

28.5

30.7

31.8

32.0

29.6

28.2

27.6

27.5

27.2

15.5

15.1

14.5

14.2

14.5

15.0

15.8

15.4

14.4

14.3

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

6.7

6.5

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.1

8.4

8.8

37.6

38.0

36.9

36.0

35.1

34.1

33.7

32.5

31.9

31.9

24.6

23.7

23.7

23.7

24.4

24.3

23.6

24.0

24.0

23.2

18.0

18.2

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.0

21.4

21.8

21.7

21.8

13.1

13.6

13.0

13.0

13.1

13.1

13.7

13.5

14.0

14.3

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

7.2

7.7

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.9

7.7

7.9

8.0

8.7

37.8

38.5

38.2

37.4

36.8

35.2

34.2

34.4

34.2

34.9

27.9

27.2

26.1

26.1

26.8

26.9

25.4

24.7

24.6

24.3

16.1

15.7

17.3

18.5

19.0

20.3

22.4

23.2

23.2

21.6

10.9

10.9

10.4

10.3

9.8

9.7

10.3

10.0

10.0

10.5

OVERALL:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

9.9

9.8

9.5

9.0

8.5

8.6

8.6

8.9

8.8

9.1

28.9

29.2

28.5

28.1

27.9

27.2

26.8

26.3

26.2

26.0

27.6

27.1

26.8

26.7

27.5

27.6

27.0

27.0

27.1

27.2

20.2

20.5

22.0

22.8

22.7

23.3

23.8

23.9

23.8

23.1

13.4

13.5

13.5

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.9

13.5

14.1

14.6

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER
 

END-OF-
YEAR

 # 

 % 

MEN
 % 

WOMEN
%   (#)

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

5,081

20.0

18.9

20.1

21.5

21.9

21.9

22.2

23.1

23.5

23.9

96.0

96.5

96.3

95.8

95.7

95.6

95.8

95.8

95.9

96.0

4.0 (176)

3.5 (152)

3.7 (167)

4.2 (199)

4.3 (203)

4.4 (211)

4.2 (206)

4.2 (219)

4.1 (206)

4.0 (201)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

3,073

16.9

17.0

17.9

17.6

17.1

16.2

15.6

15.2

15.0

14.5

99.5

99.7

99.7

99.6

99.5

99.7

99.6

99.6

99.7

99.7

0.5 (17)

0.3 (10)

0.3 (14)

0.4 (15)

0.5 (17)

0.3 (12)

0.4 (14)

0.4 (13)

0.3 (9)

0.3 (10)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

6,575

33.5

31.6

32.8

32.1

31.9

31.4

31.3

31.3

37.3

31.0

99.0

98.9

98.8

98.4

98.3

98.3

98.2

97.9

97.8

97.7

1.0 (89)

1.1 (82)

1.2 (88)

1.6 (115)

1.7 (118)

1.7 (116)

1.8 (125)

2.1 (144)

2.2 (144)

2.3 (149)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,146

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

5,209

23.1

23.3

24.8

24.8

24.8

26.1

26.3

26.5

26.2

25.9

97.0

96.8

95.9

95.0

94.7

94.1

94.0

94.1

94.3

94.7

3.0 (163)

3.2 (172)

4.1 (228)

5.0 (273)

5.4 (291)

6.0 (343)

6.0 (346)

5.9 (342)

5.7 (317)

5.3 (294)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE
 

END-OF-
YEAR

FEDERAL
JURISDICTION

AT ADMISSION

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

42 YEARS (18-89)

42 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (20-93)

43 YEARS (20-91)

42 YEARS (18-92)

41 YEARS (17-92)

43 YEARS (18-95)

43 YEARS (18-96)

44 YEARS (19-97)

44 YEARS (18-90)

36 YEARS (16-87)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

35 YEARS (14-92)

31 YEARS (14-87)

31 YEARS (15-87)

31 YEARS (15-86)

33 YEARS (15-87)

33 YEARS (15-81)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

41 YEARS (19-86)

42 YEARS (20-85)

43 YEARS (19-89)

46 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (18-97)

43 YEARS (17-97)

44 YEARS (19-99)

44 YEARS (18-100)

44 YEARS (19-101)

44 YEARS (19-102)

39 YEARS (15-85)

40 YEARS (18-82)

41 YEARS (18-81)

43 YEARS (19-83)

41 YEARS (14-82)

39 YEARS (14-81)

40 YEARS (15-80)

39 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (15-82)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

34 YEARS (16-78)

35 YEARS (19-78)

35 YEARS (19-79)

35 YEARS (19-75)

36 YEARS (17-81)

35 YEARS (17-82)

35 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-85)

36 YEARS (18-86)

37 YEARS (18-87)

31 YEARS (16-65)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (17-68)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

32 YEARS (16-75)

33 YEARS (16-75)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

36 YEARS (18-81)

36 YEARS (20-73)

37 YEARS (19-76)

38 YEARS (20-75)

37 YEARS (18-79)

36 YEARS (18-80)

37 YEARS (19-82)

38 YEARS (19-83)

38 YEARS (19-84)

38 YEARS (19-85)

34 YEARS (17-74)

35 YEARS (18-71)

35 YEARS (18-73)

36 YEARS (19-69)

36 YEARS (18-78)

34 YEARS (17-82)

34 YEARS (17-73)

33 YEARS (16-74)

35 YEARS (18-79)

35 YEARS (19-80)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY
 

END-OF-
YEAR

CAUCASIAN
%

NATIVE
%

BLACK
%

ASIAN
%

OTHER
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

78.9

78.3

77.3

76.0

74.4

73.8

73.5

73.0

71.9

70.2

13.0

13.4

13.8

14.6

16.1

16.5

17.2

17.7

17.9

18.4

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.9

4.0

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.5

4.8

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

2.0

1.9

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.9

4.1

4.1

3.7

3.6

3.8

4.7

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

76.2

76.0

74.1

73.4

71.1

70.8

70.8

71.8

70.0

68.9

16.5

16.5

17.8

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.1

20.5

20.9

21.9

4.5

4.4

4.5

4.7

5.1

5.1

4.9

5.0

5.1

5.1

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.4

1.3

0.3

2.5

2.6

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.4

2.7

2.3

2.6

4.5

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

82.4

81.5

79.7

78.1

77.0

76.1

75.7

75.2

74.1

72.2

9.3

9.9

10.9

12.0

12.9

13.6

14.3

15.1

15.3

15.9

5.4

5.8

6.4

6.5

6.8

7.2

7.4

7.3

7.4

6.7

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.2

0.9

0.7

1.4

0.3

1.8

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.9

4.8

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

81.1

76.4

74.2

71.6

69.9

70.9

71.9

73.1

70.0

68.7

4.8

4.8

5.6

6.5

7.1

7.7

9.0

9.6

9.2

8.8

8.3

9.2

9.5

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.2

9.0

8.6

8.9

3.8

4.3

5.2

6.2

6.8

5.8

4.6

3.0

7.0

3.2

2.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

6.1

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

10.4

OVERALL:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

 

78.3

77.0

75.2

73.1

71.6

71.6

72.4

72.7

70.9

69.8

10.5

10.9

12.0

13.2

14.0

14.4

15.0

15.5

15.4

15.6

5.5

6.0

6.3

6.4

6.7

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.4

6.3

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.1

2.7

2.1

1.6

3.4

2.1

3.8

3.9

4.1

4.4

4.6

4.6

3.9

3.8

3.9

7.2