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Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections:
An End-of-2004 Review

2005 No B-37     PDF

By

Laurence L. Motiuk & Ben Vuong
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada

January, 2005

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. HOMICIDE OFFENDERS
    1. Background
    2. The Current Situation
    3. Regional Distribution of Homicide Offenders
    4. Homicide Offender Population Trends
    5. Characteristics of Homicide Offenders
    6. Nature of Offence
  3. SEX OFFENDERS
    1. Background
    2. The Current Situation
    3. Regional Distribution of Sex Offenders
    4. Sex Offender Population Trends
    5. Characteristics of Sex Offenders
  4. ROBBERY OFFENDERS
    1. Background
    2. The Current Situation
    3. Regional Distribution of Robbery Offenders
    4. Robbery Offender Population Trends
    5. Characteristics of Robbery Offenders
  5. DRUG OFFENDERS
    1. Background
    2. The Current Situation
    3. Regional Distribution of Drug Offenders
    4. Drug Offenders Population Trends
    5. Characteristics of Drug Offenders
  6. SUMMARY TABLES

 

INTRODUCTION

Sentence administration and demographic information on offenders under federal jurisdiction (those serving sentences of two years or longer) is routinely collected by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). In 1993, the CSC converted from the Offender Information System (O.I.S.) to the Offender Management System (O.M.S.). The Service had historically reported offender population statistics through quarterly publications and monthly snapshots using the Offender Population Profile System. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing data derived from O.M.S. to data from previous years.

This report summarizes data gathered for an eleventh time1 on homicide, sex, robbery and drug offenders in federal corrections. These end-of-2004 numbers reflect the prevalence or the number of offenders who have these types of crimes under federal jurisdiction. While the total number of offenders with these crimes is likely to be an underestimate, the statistical profiles generated in this report may be seen to provide general indicators of the extent and nature of these types of offenders. More specifically, distributions with respect to security level and release status as well as region are given. Comparisons are made with end-of-1994 figures to establish trends. Further, descriptive statistics in relation to gender, age, ethnicity and nature of offence are also provided.

Note: Selection criteria used to define the current federal offender population excluded the following O.M.S. Offender Current Status Table codes: deceased, on bail, sentence completed, suspended unlawfully at large, and suspended temporary detained.

1 L.L. Motiuk and B. Vuong, Statistical Profiles of Homicide, Sex, Robbery and Drug Offenders in Federal Corrections: An End-of-2003 Review ( Ottawa : Correctional Service Canada , 2004).

 

HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada , the crimes classified as homicide include first degree murder, second-degree murder, manslaughter and infanticide. Deaths caused by criminal negligence, suicide, accidental or justifiable homicides are not included.

Although homicides represent less than 1% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies have been collecting homicide statistics since 1961 to closely monitor the extent and trends of such offenses. In 2003, the homicide rate in Canada was 1.7 per 100,000.

The following is an end-of-2004 review of statistical information available on homicide offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2004 , a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,130 homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprises almost one-quarter (24.1%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2004 , there were 3,086 homicide offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-quarter (26.9%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 880 of these federally incarcerated homicide offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,621 were in medium security institutions, and 585 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security:    19.0% of all homicide offenders;
    • Medium security:      52.5% of all homicide offenders; and
    • Maximum security:   28.5% of all homicide offenders.

Conditional Release Homicide Population

  • On 31 December 2004 , there were 2,044 homicide offenders on conditional release and comprises 20.8% of the federal conditional release population.
  • More specifically:
    • 307 or 15.0% were on day parole;
    • 1,523 or 74.5% were on full parole; and
    • 214 or 10.5% were on statutory release

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Ontario and Quebec regions have the most homicide offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one quarter of the homicide offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec, Ontario and Pacific regions have more homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 6.8% of homicide offenders, and 9.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Quebec: 26.2% of homicide offenders, and 25.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Ontario: 27.6% of homicide offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Prairies: 19.1% of homicide offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders); and
    • Pacific: 20.2% of homicide offenders, and 14.9% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

HOMICIDE OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2004 homicide offender population has increased relative to the end-of-1994 homicide offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent ten-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2004) the total homicide offender population has increased by 16.8% the homicide offender population in institutions has increased by 6.6% and the homicide offender population under community supervision has increased by 36.5% .

CHARACTERISTICS OF HOMICIDE OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of homicide offenders listed to date are men (95.5%) . There were 231 (4.5%) cases of a woman offender for whom a homicide offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2004, the average age of homicide offenders under federal jurisdiction was 45 years old . The oldest homicide offender was 93 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.
  • The average age of homicide offenders at admission was 33 years old. The oldest homicide offender admitted was 85 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2004, the majority of homicide offenders (70.8%) were Caucasian .
  • In a comparison of the proportion of homicide offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was a larger proportion of Native homicide offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 70.8% of homicide offenders, and 72.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Native: 19.3% of homicide offenders, and 16.7% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders);
    • Black: 5.1% of homicide offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer homicide offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.1% of homicide offenders, and 1.0% of all offenders (about the same proportion); and
    • Other: 3.8% of homicide offenders, and 3.4% of all offenders (proportionately more homicide offenders).

NATURE OF OFFENCE

  • Categorizing homicide offenders by actual conviction, one finds the following:
    • 916 cases of first degree murder, and 17.9% of all homicide offenders;
    • 3,001 cases of second degree murder, and 58.5% of all homicide offenders;
    • 1,213 cases of manslaughter, and 23.6% of all homicide offenders; and
    • 0 cases of infanticide, and 0.0% of all homicide offenders.

 

SEX OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

The following is an end-of-2004 review of statistical information available on sex offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 2,947 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise (13.8%) of the total federal offender population. However, these figures understate the actual number of sex offenders because current computer systems do not identify all previous convictions for a sex offence (e.g., provincial sentences); anyone who has committed a sexually-related offence; and anyone who has previously committed a sex offence but was never convicted. A National Sex Offender Census which was conducted in March 1991, identified all sex offenders. The census found about 85% of the sex offender population could be accounted for by the computer systems. Therefore, using a correction factor (1.173), it is estimated that on 31 December 2004 there were actually 3,457 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. This adjusted number comprises about 16% of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 1,963 sex offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise nearly one-sixth (17.1%) of the federal incarcerated population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2004 there were actually 2,303 sex offenders in federal institutions. This adjusted number comprises 20.0% of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 436 of these federally incarcerated sex offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1240 were in medium security institutions, and 287 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 14.6% of all sex offenders;
    • Medium security: 63.2% of all sex offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 22.2% of all sex offenders.

Conditional Release Sex Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 984 sex offenders on conditional release and comprises 10.0% of the federal conditional release population. Using a correction factor, it is estimated that on 31 December 2004 there were actually 1,154 sex offenders under community supervision. This adjusted number comprises about 11.8% of the total federal conditional release population.
  • More specifically:
    • 115 or 11.7% were on day parole;
    • 306 or 31.1% were on full parole; and
    • 563 or 57.2% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEX OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Ontario and Prairies regions have the most sex offenders, each being responsible for roughly one-quarter of the sex offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each region with the proportion of all federal offenders, the Atlantic and Prairies regions have more sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 10.3% of sex offenders, and 9.7% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Quebec: 22.1% of sex offenders, and 25.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Ontario: 26.7% of sex offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately the same );
    • Prairies: 26.7% of sex offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders); and
    • Pacific: 14.2% of sex offenders, and 14.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

SEX OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2004 sex offender population has decreased relative to the end-of-1994 sex offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent ten-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2004) the total sex offender population has decreased by 21.4% , the sex offender population in institutions has decreased by 27.0% and the sex offender population under community supervision has decreased by 6% .

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEX OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of sex offenders listed to date are men (99.6%) . There were 12 (0.4%) cases of a woman offender for whom a sex offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2004, the average age of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction was 44 years old . The oldest sex offender was 102 years old and the youngest was 19 years old.
  • The average age of sex offenders at admission was 40 years old. The oldest sex offender admitted was 83 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2004, the majority of sex offenders (69.1%) were Caucasian .
  • In a comparison of the proportion of sex offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Native sex offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 69.1% of sex offenders, and 72.1% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Native: 22.9% of sex offenders, and 16.7% of all offenders (proportionately more sex offenders);
    • Black: 5.4% of sex offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.2% of sex offenders, and 1.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders); and
    • Other: 2.4% of sex offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer sex offenders).

 

ROBBERY OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as robbery include: armed robbery and robbery with violence, threats or use of a weapon. Break and enter with intent to commit robbery is not included.

Although robberies represent less than 10% of all violent crimes, criminal justice agencies regularly collect robbery statistics to monitor the extent and trends of these offenses.

The following is an end-of-2004 review of the statistical information available on robbery offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 6,483 robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise almost one-third (30.5%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 3,932 robbery offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise more than one-third (34.3%) of the total federal incarcerated population.
  • About 1,130 of these federally incarcerated robbery offenders were in maximum security institutions, 2,360 were in medium security institutions, and 442 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 11.2% of all robbery offenders;
    • Medium security: 60.0% of all robbery offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 28.7% of all robbery offenders.

Conditional Release Robbery Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 2,551 robbery offenders on conditional release and comprises 26.0% of the total federal conditional release population.
  • More specifically:
    • 425 or 16.7% were on day parole;
    • 582 or 22.8% were on full parole; and
    • 1,544 or 60.5% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most robbery offenders, each being responsible for slightly less than one-third and one-quarter of the robbery offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 9.2% of robbery offenders, and 9.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Quebec: 31.0% of robbery offenders, and 25.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Ontario: 22.8% of robbery offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders);
    • Prairies: 22.2% of robbery offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Pacific: 14.7% of robbery offenders, and 14.9% of all offenders (about the same proportion).

ROBBERY OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2004 robbery offender population has declined relative to the end-of-1994 robbery offender population - particularly in federal institutions. Over a recent ten-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2004) the total robbery offender population has decreased by 8% , the robbery offender population in institutions has decreased by 18.5% and the robbery offender population under community supervision has decreased by 1.3% .

CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBBERY OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of robbery offenders listed to date are men (97.5%) . There were 161 (2.5%) cases of a woman offender for whom a robbery offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2004, the average age of robbery offenders under federal jurisdiction was 37 years old . The oldest robbery offender was 88 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.
  • The average age of robbery offenders at admission was about 33 years old. The oldest robbery offender admitted was 70 years old and the youngest was 15 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2004, the majority of robbery offenders (74.1%) were Caucasian .
  • In a comparison of the proportion of robbery offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there were a larger proportion of Caucasian, Native and Black robbery offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 74.1% of robbery offenders, and 72.0% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Native: 16.9% of robbery offenders, and 16.7% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Black: 6.7% of robbery offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more robbery offenders);
    • Asiatic: 0.4% of robbery offenders, and 1.0% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders); and
    • Other: 1.9% of robbery offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer robbery offenders).

 

DRUG OFFENDERS

BACKGROUND

In Canada, the crimes classified as drug offenses include those under the Food and Drug Act (FDA) and the Narcotics Control Act (NCA).

The following is an end-of-2004 review of statistical information available on drug offenders then under federal jurisdiction.

THE CURRENT SITUATION

Total Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system yielded a total of 5,516 drug offenders under federal jurisdiction and comprise one-quarter (25.9%) of the total federal offender population.

Incarcerated Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 2,622 drug offenders incarcerated in federal institutions and comprise one-fifth (22.8%) of the federal incarcerated population.
  • About 736 of these federally incarcerated drug offenders were in maximum security institutions, 1,439 were in medium security institutions, and 447 were in minimum security institutions. More specifically:
    • Minimum security: 17.1% of all drug offenders;
    • Medium security: 54.9% of all drug offenders; and
    • Maximum security: 28.0% of all drug offenders.

Conditional Release Drug Offender Population

  • On 31 December 2004, there were 2,894 drug offenders on conditional release and comprise 29.5% of the federal conditional release population.
  • More specifically:
    • 456 or 15.8% were on day parole;
    • 1,403 or 48.5% were on full parole; and
    • 1,035 or 35.8% were on statutory release.

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG OFFENDERS

  • Regionally, the Quebec and Ontario regions have the most drug offenders, each being responsible for slightly more than one-third and one-quarter of the drug offender population, respectively.
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each region with the proportion of general offenders, the Quebec region has more drug offenders relative to their proportion of all federal offenders.
  • More specifically:
    • Atlantic: 9.5% of drug offenders, and 9.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Quebec: 34.8% of drug offenders, and 25.4% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Ontario: 23.3% of drug offenders, and 26.8% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Prairies: 21.5% of drug offenders, and 23.3% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Pacific: 10.8% of drug offenders, and 14.9% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders).

DRUG OFFENDER POPULATION TRENDS

  • The end-of-2004 drug offender population has grown relative to the end-of-1994 drug offender population - particularly on conditional release. Over a recent ten-year period (31 December 1994 to 31 December 2004) the total drug offender population has increased by 7.8% , the drug offender population in institutions has increased by 3.2% and the drug offender population under community supervision has increased by 12.3% .

CHARACTERISTICS OF DRUG OFFENDERS

Gender

  • On 31 December 2004, a review of CSC's offender management system revealed that the majority of drug offenders listed to date are men (94.3%) There were 313 (5.7%) cases of a woman offender for whom a drug offence was listed.

Age

  • On 31 December 2004, the average age of drug offenders under federal jurisdiction was 38 years old . The oldest drug offender was 85 years old and the youngest was 18 years old.
  • The average age of drug offenders at admission was about 35 years old. The oldest drug offender admitted was 73 years old and the youngest was 17 years old.

Ethnicity

  • On 31 December 2004, the majority of drug offenders (74.7%) were Caucasian .
  • In a comparison of the proportion of drug offenders in each ethnic group with the proportion of general offenders, there was somewhat of a larger proportion of Caucasian , Black and Asiatic drug offenders relative to their proportions of all federal offenders. More specifically:
    • Caucasian: 74.7% of drug offenders, and 72.1% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Native: 9.7% of drug offenders, and 16.7% of all offenders (proportionately fewer drug offenders);
    • Black: 9.0% of drug offenders, and 6.4% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders);
    • Asiatic: 1.5% of drug offenders, and 1.0% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders); and
    • Other: 5.1% of drug offenders, and 3.9% of all offenders (proportionately more drug offenders).

 

 

SUMMARY TABLES

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY STATUS

 

YEAR # (%) CUSTODY
#      (%)
COMMUNITY
#      (%)

HOMICIDE:

 

 

 

 

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

5,081

5,130

(20.0)

(18.9)

(20.1)

(21.5)

(21.9)

(21.9)

(22.2)

(23.1)

(23.5)

(23.9)

(24.1)

2,896 (65.9)

2,784 (64.5)

3,002 (65.9)

3,122 (65.4)

2,992 (63.7)

2,998 (62.3)

3,025 (62.0)

3,124 (62.0)

3,055 (61.0)

3,083 (60.7)

3,086 (60.2)

1,497 (34.1)

1,534 (35.5)

1,551 (34.1)

1,649 (34.6)

1,703 (36.3)

1,816 (37.7)

1,856 (38.0)

1,912 (38.0)

1,955 (39.0)

1,998 (39.3)

2,044 (39;8)

SEX:

 

 

 

 

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

3,073

2,947

(16.9)

(17.0)

(17.9)

(17.6)

(17.1)

(16.2)

(15.6)

(15.2)

(15.0)

(14.5)

(13.8)

2,703 (72.1)

2,766 (71.3)

2,974 (73.6)

2,771 (70.8)

2,433 (66.1)

2,307 (64.7)

2,269 (66.2)

2,254 (68.2)

2,155 (67.3)

2,043 (66.5)

1,963 (66.6)

1,045 (27.9)

1,109 (28.7)

1,067 (26.4)

1,143 (29.2)

1,243 (33.9)

1,257 (35.5)

1,159 (33.8)

1,049 (31.8)

1,047 (32.7)

1,030 (33.5)

984 (33.4)

ROBBERY:

 

 

 

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

6,575

6,483

(33.5)

(31.6)

(32.8)

(32.1)

(31.9)

(31.4)

(31.3)

(31.3)

(37.3)

(31.0)

(30.5)

4,824 (65.1)

4,606 (63.9)

4,902 (66.1)

4,737 (66.4)

4,190 (61.2)

4,322 (62.5)

4,295 (62.4)

4,322 (63.5)

4,133 (62.7)

4,141 (63.0)

3,932 (60.7)

2,584 (34.9)

2,593 (36.1)

2,516 (33.9)

2,399 (33.6)

2,660 (38.8)

2,589 (37.5)

2,587 (37.6)

2,488 (36.5)

2,457 (37.3)

2,434 (37.0)

2,551 (39.3)

DRUG:

 

 

 

 

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,437

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

5,504

5,516

(23.1)

(23.3)

(24.8)

(24.8)

(25.3)

(26.2)

(26.3)

(26.5)

(26.2)

(25.9)

(25.9)

2,540 (49.6)

2,590 (48.8)

2,899 (51.6)

2,659 (48.2)

2,398 (44.1)

2,574 (44.7)

2,548 (44.7)

2,668 (46.3)

2,512 (45.1)

2,539 (46.1)

2,622 (47.5)

2,577 (50.4)

2,720 (51.2)

2,716 (48.4)

2,856 (51.8)

3,039 (55.9)

3,186 (55.3)

3,231 (55.3)

3,093 (53.7)

3,057 (54.9)

2,965 (53.7)

2,884 (52.5)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY SECURITY LEVEL

  YEAR # MINIMUM
%
MEDIUM
%
MAXIMUM
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,896

2,784

3,002

3,122

2,992

2,998

3,008

3,124

3,055

3,083

3,086

11.6

13.1

15.7

17.1

17.7

18.4

21.1

18.2

18.1

18.3

19.0

55.2

56.3

56.4

58.2

56.8

56.6

55.7

56.1

55.0

54.9

52.5

33.2

29.7

27.9

24.7

26.5

25.0

23.1

25.7

26.9

26.8

28.5

SEX:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,703

2,766

2,974

2,771

2,433

2,307

2,264

2,254

2,155

2,036

1,963

11.6

11.9

11.5

12.6

14.6

15.0

16.1

15.1

14.1

14.1

14.6

66.0

67.8

68.6

68.4

67.1

63.2

61.4

63.5

63.2

64.5

63.2

22.4

20.0

19.9

19.0

18.3

21.0

22.5

21.4

22.7

21.4

22.2

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,824

4,606

4,902

4,737

4,190

4,322

4,261

4,322

4,133

4,130

3,932

8.1

8.8

9.3

11.5

12.7

12.6

13.5

11.2

10.2

10.5

11.2

63.4

62.4

63.9

63.1

62.2

60.5

59.5

60.6

61.2

64.1

60.0

28.5

27.7

26.8

25.4

25.1

26.9

27.0

28.1

28.7

25.4

28.7

DRUG:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,540

2,590

2,899

2,659

2,398

2,574

2,542

2,668

2,512

2,536

2,622

16.4

16.3

17.4

19.3

23.1

20.2

20.0

16.3

15.5

16.3

17.1

61.0

60.6

59.7

59.7

56.1

55.1

54.0

57.2

57.8

58.1

54.9

22.6

22.5

22.9

21.0

20.8

24.7

26.0

26.5

26.7

25.6

28.1

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY RELEASE STATUS

    YEAR   # DAY
PAROLE
%
FULL PAROLE
%
STATUTORY RELEASE
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,497

1,534

1,551

1,649

1,703

1,816

1,856

1,912

1,955

1,998

2,044

14.4

13.8

12.8

15.7

16.0

15.1

14.9

14.4

15.6

15.2

15.0

79.7

79.1

79.1

74.3

74.3

74.0

74.8

76.0

74.3

75.2

74.5

5.9

7.0

8.1

10.1

9.7

11.0

10.3

9.6

10.1

9.6

10.5

SEX:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,045

1,109

1,007

1,143

1,243

1,257

1,159

1,048

1,047

1,029

984

15.2

12.3

12.3

14.0

12.7

15.8

13.0

13.2

11.0

12.5

11.7

42.0

38.1

35.6

31.5

33.2

33.4

32.8

33.2

30.6

29.4

31.1

42.7

49.4

52.1

54.5

54.1

50.8

54.2

53.6

58.5

58.1

57.2

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,584

2,593

2,516

2,339

2,660

2,589

2,587

2,488

2,457

2,434

2,551

21.6

19.5

16.1

17.1

20.7

19.0

16.2

16.0

15.3

15.3

16.7

41.5

36.3

34.0

31.8

29.1

31.7

31.8

30.6

27.4

25.2

22.8

36.7

44.1

49.9

51.1

50.2

49.2

52.0

53.4

57.3

59.5

60.5

DRUG:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,577

2,720

2,716

2,856

3,039

3,186

3,232

3,091

3,057

2,963

2,894

14.9

12.1

10.2

15.9

17.0

18.7

15.4

15.2

15.2

13.7

15.8

64.9

63.4

63.4

59.4

56.7

57.3

58.0

55.6

52.1

50.5

48.5

20.2

24.5

26.4

24.7

26.3

24.0

26.6

29.2

34.5

35.8

35.8

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY REGION

  END-OF-YEAR ATLANTIC
%
QUEBEC
%
ONTARIO
%
PRAIRIES
%
PACIFIC
%

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.2

7.2

7.2

7.0

6.9

6.7

6.8

6.8

27.2

27.2

26.9

27.1

26.8

26.8

26.5

26.2

26.5

26.2

26.2

29.9

29.7

29.5

28.6

29.0

28.8

28.6

28.2

27.9

27.6

27.6

18.8

18.6

18.4

18.2

18.3

18.4

18.5

19.3

19.6

19.7

19.8

17.4

17.8

18.3

18.9

18.7

18.9

19.3

19.4

19.3

19.7

20.1

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

13.0

12.4

11.4

10.7

9.7

9.5

9.4

10.1

10.0

10.1

10.3

20.1

19.3

19.0

19.1

19.2

19.6

20.3

20.6

21.6

21.6

22.1

26.9

24.7

24.5

24.2

24.8

26.4

26.3

26.3

26.6

26.8

26.7

27.3

28.5

30.7

31.8

32.0

29.6

28.2

27.6

27.5

27.2

26.7

15.5

15.1

14.5

14.2

14.5

15.0

15.8

15.4

14.4

14.3

14.2

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

6.7

6.5

7.3

7.4

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.1

8.4

8.8

9.2

37.6

38.0

36.9

36.0

35.1

34.1

33.7

32.5

31.9

31.9

31.0

24.6

23.7

23.7

23.7

24.4

24.3

23.6

24.0

24.0

23.2

22.8

18.0

18.2

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.0

21.4

21.8

21.7

21.8

22.2

13.1

13.6

13.0

13.0

13.1

13.1

13.7

13.5

14.0

14.3

14.7

DRUG:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

7.2

7.7

8.0

7.8

7.6

7.9

7.7

7.9

8.0

8.7

9.5

37.8

38.5

38.2

37.4

36.8

35.2

34.2

34.4

34.2

34.9

34.8

27.9

27.2

26.1

26.1

26.8

26.9

25.4

24.7

24.6

24.3

23.3

16.1

15.7

17.3

18.5

19.0

20.3

22.4

23.2

23.2

21.6

21.5

10.9

10.9

10.4

10.3

9.8

9.7

10.3

10.0

10.0

10.5

10.8

OVERALL:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

9.9

9.8

9.5

9.0

8.5

8.6

8.6

8.9

8.8

9.1

9.7

28.9

29.2

28.5

28.1

27.9

27.2

26.8

26.3

26.2

26.0

25.4

27.6

27.1

26.8

26.7

27.5

27.6

27.0

27.0

27.1

27.2

26.8

20.2

20.5

22.0

22.8

22.7

23.3

23.8

23.9

23.8

23.1

23.3

13.4

13.5

13.5

13.4

13.4

13.4

13.9

13.5

14.1

14.6

14.9

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY GENDER

  END-OF-YEAR # % MEN
%
WOMEN
%       (#)

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,393

4,318

4,553

4,771

4,695

4,814

4,881

5,036

5,010

5,081

5,130

20.0

18.9

20.1

21.5

21.9

21.9

22.2

23.1

23.5

23.9

24.1

96.0

96.5

96.3

95.8

95.7

95.6

95.8

95.8

95.9

96.0

95.5

4.0 (176)

3.5 (152)

3.7 (167)

4.2 (199)

4.3 (203)

4.4 (211)

4.2 (206)

4.2 (219)

4.1 (206)

4.0 (201)

4.5 (231)

SEX:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

3,748

3,875

4,041

3,914

3,676

3,564

3,428

3,303

3,202

3,073

2,947

16.9

17.0

17.9

17.6

17.1

16.2

15.6

15.2

15.0

14.5

13.8

99.5

99.7

99.7

99.6

99.5

99.7

99.6

99.6

99.7

99.7

99.6

0.5 (17)

0.3 (10)

0.3 (14)

0.4 (15)

0.5 (17)

0.3 (12)

0.4 (14)

0.4 (13)

0.3 (9)

0.3 (10)

0.4 (12)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

7,408

7,199

7,418

7,136

6,850

6,911

6,882

6,810

6,590

6,575

6,483

33.5

31.6

32.8

32.1

31.9

31.4

31.3

31.3

37.3

31.0

30.5

99.0

98.9

98.8

98.4

98.3

98.3

98.2

97.9

97.8

97.7

97.5

1.0 (89)

1.1 (82)

1.2 (88)

1.6 (115)

1.7 (118)

1.7 (116)

1.8 (125)

2.1 (144)

2.2 (144)

2.3 (149)

2.5 (161)

DRUG:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

5,117

5,310

5,615

5,515

5,146

5,760

5,779

5,761

5,569

5,209

5,516

23.1

23.3

24.8

24.8

24.8

26.1

26.3

26.5

26.2

25.9

25.9

97.0

96.8

95.9

95.0

94.7

94.1

94.0

94.1

94.3

94.7

94.3

3.0 (163)

3.2 (172)

4.1 (228)

5.0 (273)

5.4 (291)

6.0 (343)

6.0 (346)

5.9 (342)

5.7 (317)

5.3 (294)

5.7 (313)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY AVERAGE AGE

  END-OF-YEAR FEDERAL JURISDICTION AT ADMISSION

HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

42 YEARS (18-89)

42 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (20-93)

43 YEARS (20-91)

42 YEARS (18-92)

41 YEARS (17-92)

43 YEARS (18-95)

43 YEARS (18-96)

44 YEARS (19-97)

44 YEARS (18-90)

45 YEARS (19-93)

36 YEARS (16-87)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-84)

35 YEARS (14-92)

31 YEARS (14-87)

31 YEARS (15-87)

31 YEARS (15-86)

33 YEARS (15-87)

33 YEARS (15-81)

33 YEARS (15-85)

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

41 YEARS (19-86)

42 YEARS (20-85)

43 YEARS (19-89)

46 YEARS (20-89)

43 YEARS (18-97)

43 YEARS (17-97)

44 YEARS (19-99)

44 YEARS (18-100)

44 YEARS (19-101)

44 YEARS (19-102)

45 YEARS (19-102)

39 YEARS (15-85)

40 YEARS (18-82)

41 YEARS (18-81)

43 YEARS (19-83)

41 YEARS (14-82)

39 YEARS (14-81)

40 YEARS (15-80)

39 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (15-82)

40 YEARS (18-83)

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

34 YEARS (16-78)

35 YEARS (19-78)

35 YEARS (19-79)

35 YEARS (19-75)

36 YEARS (17-81)

35 YEARS (17-82)

35 YEARS (18-84)

36 YEARS (18-85)

36 YEARS (18-86)

37 YEARS (18-87)

37 YEARS (18-88)

31 YEARS (16-65)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (18-68)

33 YEARS (17-68)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

31 YEARS (16-71)

32 YEARS (16-75)

33 YEARS (16-75)

33 YEARS (15-70)

DRUG:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

36 YEARS (18-81)

36 YEARS (20-73)

37 YEARS (19-76)

38 YEARS (20-75)

37 YEARS (18-79)

36 YEARS (18-80)

37 YEARS (19-82)

38 YEARS (19-83)

38 YEARS (19-84)

38 YEARS (19-85)

38 YEARS (18-85)

34 YEARS (17-74)

35 YEARS (18-71)

35 YEARS (18-73)

36 YEARS (19-69)

36 YEARS (18-78)

34 YEARS (17-82)

34 YEARS (17-73)

33 YEARS (16-74)

35 YEARS (18-79)

35 YEARS (19-80)

35 YEARS (17-73)

 

DISTRIBUTION OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS BY ETHNICITY

  END-OF-YEAR CAUCASIAN
%
NATIVE
%
BLACK
%
ASIAN
%
OTHER
%
HOMICIDE:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

78.9

78.3

77.3

76.0

74.4

73.8

73.5

73.0

71.9

70.2

70.8

13.0

13.4

13.8

14.6

16.1

16.5

17.2

17.7

17.9

18.4

19.3

3.1

3.2

3.5

3.9

4.0

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.5

4.8

5.1

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

2.0

1.9

1.1

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.9

4.1

4.1

3.7

3.6

3.8

4.7

3.8

SEX:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

76.2

76.0

74.1

73.4

71.1

70.8

70.8

71.8

70.0

68.9

69.1

16.5

16.5

17.8

19.0

19.9

20.0

21.1

20.5

20.9

21.9

22.0

4.5

4.4

4.5

4.7

5.1

5.1

4.9

5.0

5.1

5.1

5.4

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.4

1.3

0.3

0.2

2.5

2.6

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.4

2.7

2.3

2.6

4.5

2.4

ROBBERY:

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

82.4

81.5

79.7

78.1

77.0

76.1

75.7

75.2

74.1

72.2

74.1

9.3

9.9

10.9

12.0

12.9

13.6

14.3

15.1

15.3

15.9

16.9

5.4

5.8

6.4

6.5

6.8

7.2

7.4

7.3

7.4

6.7

6.7

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.2

0.9

0.7

1.4

0.3

0.4

1.8

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.0

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.9

4.8

1.9

DRUG:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

81.1

76.4

74.2

71.6

69.9

70.9

71.9

73.1

70.0

68.7

74.7

4.8

4.8

5.6

6.5

7.1

7.7

9.0

9.6

9.2

8.8

9.7

8.3

9.2

9.5

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.2

9.0

8.6

8.9

9.0

3.8

4.3

5.2

6.2

6.8

5.8

4.6

3.0

7.0

3.2

1.5

2.0

5.3

5.5

5.8

6.1

5.7

5.5

5.3

5.1

10.4

5.1

OVERALL:

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

78.3

77.0

75.2

73.1

71.6

71.6

72.4

72.7

70.9

69.8

72.1

10.5

10.9

12.0

13.2

14.0

14.4

15.0

15.5

15.4

15.6

16.7

5.5

6.0

6.3

6.4

6.7

6.7

6.5

6.4

6.4

6.4

6.4

1.9

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.1

2.7

2.1

1.6

3.4

1.0

1.0

3.8

3.9

4.1

4.4

4.6

4.6

3.9

3.8

3.9

7.2

3.9