Correctional Service Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Research Reports

Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Study Materials for the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey

2010 No R-212

Dianne Zakaria

Jennie Mae Thompson

&

Frederic Borgatta

Correctional Service of Canada

March 2010

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey Working Group (Jacqueline Arthur, Neil Burke, Yogesh Choudhri, Katherine Dinner, Tracey Donaldson, Marie-Line Gilbert, Gayatri Jayaraman, Rhonda Kropp, Tammy Maheral, Marissa McGuire, Mary Beth Pongrac, Jonathan Smith, Jill Tarasuk, and Tom Wong), the National Senior Project Manager (Heather Lockwood), the Regional Survey Coordinators (Kimberley Andreassen, Michelle Beyko, Teresa Garrahan, David Lewis, and Hélène Racicot) and the inmates who participated in focus groups for their guidance and insightful feedback during the development of the survey materials.

Table of Contents

List of Appendices

Introduction

In 2007, the Correctional Service of Canada conducted the National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey, a self-administered paper questionnaire focussing on issues relevant to blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. A random sample of men and all women were invited to complete the questionnaire and 3,370 inmates across Canada voluntarily participated. The primary objectives of the survey were to obtain information regarding inmates’:

  1. health risk-behaviours such as illicit drug use, unprotected sex, tattooing and body piercing;
  2. awareness and accessing of harm-reduction items and methadone maintenance treatment;
  3. participation in health education programs;
  4. knowledge of HIV and HCV; and,
  5. testing and treatment for HIV and HCV infections.

Important components of the study included: promoting awareness of the survey within federal penitentiaries; ensuring free and informed consent; a comprehensive questionnaire to meet the study objectives; and, informing inmates about HIV and HCV. For reference purposes, this publication provides the key study materials used to achieve these goals. A comprehensive presentation of the methods and findings of the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey is provided by Zakaria, Thompson, Jarvis, and Borgatta (2010).

Promoting Awareness of the Survey

To help promote awareness of the survey within federal penitentiaries, posters announcing the survey were displayed in all institutions (see Appendix A). The poster emphasized the voluntary nature of the survey; guaranteed participants anonymity and confidentiality; and, reinforced that the overall purpose of the survey was to improve inmate health. A small version (13.9 cm by 21.6 cm) of the survey poster was left with each inmate approached for participation in the survey.

Free and Informed Consent

To ensure free and informed consent, the institutional survey coordinators reviewed the content of the consent form with eligible inmates, and invited inmates to participate in the study and to sign the consent form if they agreed (see Appendix B). For efficiency, group information sessions were organized with eligible inmates to describe the survey and review the consent form. Consent, however, was not obtained in a group setting but privately from each inmate. Inmates in segregation were recruited individually.

Development of the Questionnaire

A project team drawn from several federal government departments1 developed the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey (see Appendix C). Questionnaire development included focus groups with inmates in five different penitentiaries, including a women’s facility and an Aboriginal inmate group. To maximize comprehension, the questions did not exceed a Grade 8 literacy level. Further, inmates could choose between the English or French version of the questionnaire (Zakaria, Thompson, & Borgatta, 2010).

The final questionnaire was 50 pages long and took inmates approximately 45 to 55 minutes to complete. The questionnaire captured information on risk-behaviours associated with the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in both the community and prison; inmate awareness and use of health education and harm-reduction programs; inmate testing and treatment for HIV and HCV infections; and, inmate knowledge of HIV and HCV. To optimize recall accuracy, only inmates admitted within the past three years reported on their risk-behaviours during the last six months in the community prior to their current incarceration.

From May 22 to July 6, 2007, an external private firm administered the questionnaire in each institution to those inmates with a signed consent form. The survey coordinator was responsible for organizing inmates for the day and time the survey contractor arrived to distribute questionnaires. Since the contractor did not have the sample list and inmates were specifically instructed not to put their name or the name of anyone else on the questionnaire, it was impossible to link the consent form with the completed questionnaire. In this manner, inmates could be assured of their anonymity and confidentiality.

Each inmate completed the self-administered questionnaire: behind a privacy screen when completed in a group setting; in his/her cell if in segregation; or through private one-on-one interviews if an inmate requested assistance.

The survey contractor retained all completed questionnaires and provided a database of anonymous survey records to the Correctional Service of Canada in August 2007. Preliminary analyses to test the integrity of the data were conducted by the Correctional Service of Canada in the fall and winter of 2007/08. The contractor destroyed all completed questionnaires in June 2008 after all data integrity issues were resolved.

Informing Inmates about Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus

To obtain information about inmates’ knowledge of HIV and HCV, the survey included questions about HIV and HCV. All participating inmates received the answers to the questions after data collection was complete within their institution (see Appendix D). Hence, the survey provided a learning opportunity for all participants.

References

Zakaria, D., Thompson, J., Jarvis, A., & Borgatta, F. (2010). Summary of emerging findings from the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk-Behaviours Survey. Research Report R-211. Ottawa: Correctional Service Canada.

Zakaria, D., J. Thompson et F. Borgatta (2010). Les Matériels d’étude pour le Sondage national de 2007 auprès des détenu(e)s sur les maladies infectieuses et les comportements à risque, Rapport de recherche R-212. Ottawa, Service correctionnel du Canada.

Appendix A: Poster for the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey

Poster for the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey

Appendix B: Consent Form for the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey

Government of Canada

RESEARCH CONSENT FORM

Invitation to be part of the Survey

The Public Health Agency of Canada and Correctional Service Canada are doing a survey. The survey is with inmates. You are invited to be in this survey.

Title of the Survey

The survey is called the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey.

What the Survey is About

Here’s what the survey is about. The purpose of the survey is to understand better the health needs of inmates. To do this, about 5,000 inmates are being asked to fill in the survey. They come from every federal prison in Canada. Your answers are important to us. This survey will help us understand which programs and services are needed. We will also know what we need to do to improve the programs that are already there.

The survey will ask you about infectious diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV. It also asks you about how these diseases can be spread from one person to another.

A private company has been hired to give you the survey to fill in. The company will take all the survey answers and put them into a computer. The company will not know who filled in the surveys. No one at Correctional Service Canada will be able to identify anyone from the CONFIDENTIAL questionnaires.

It should take about 45-60 minutes to do the study. If you’d like to participate, you need to know that nothing from the study can be used to identify you. Your answers are STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and nothing will ever appear in your files. You will not be required to put your name on the survey form.

How were you selected?

The names of all inmates are in a computer called the Offender Management System. Every inmate has a number. The computer chose a person’s number to take part in the study. This means than names were chosen without knowing a person’s health status. All those chosen by the computer can decide whether they want to join the study.

What the questionnaire is about

We will ask you about diseases that can be spread from one person to another. The diseases we will ask about are HIV, hepatitis C and other sexually transmitted infections. We will ask about things that could spread disease in prison and in the community. These things include doing drugs and sharing rigs and works. It also includes sex with men and women. We will also ask if you’ve had testing or treatment in the community and since you were at CSC.

Voluntary Participation

No one can make you take part in the survey. Whether you decide to take part or not is entirely up to you.

You don’t have to answer any of the questions. You can stop at any time. If you decide to stop, put the survey in the envelope. Seal the envelope and give it to the person you got it from. You won’t gain any extra privileges if you do the survey. You won’t lose any privileges if you don’t do the survey.

Confidentiality

Don’t put your name on the survey. Don’t put anyone else’s name on it either. IMPORTANT: this means no one will know who filled in the survey. Other than signing this consent form showing that you agree to do the survey, no information, not even your name, will be collected. This consent form cannot be linked to the survey you fill in.

When you fill in the survey, you will be given a cardboard screen. This screen will stop anyone else from seeing your answers when you fill in the survey.

Disposal of Consent Forms and Questionnaires

The Director, Special Projects, Research Branch at Correctional Service Canada is responsible for the survey. He will keep the consent forms under lock and key. By law, Correctional Service Canada must keep these signed consent forms for two years. After that, the consent forms will be destroyed.

The company looking after the surveys will keep the surveys in a safe place. When the report is ready, they will destroy the survey forms. This will likely happen in the spring of 2008.

Potential Harms, Injuries, Discomforts or Inconvenience

We don’t expect you will be upset by any question. If, however, you are upset or feel uncomfortable at any time, please tell the person who gave the survey to you. If you don’t want to talk about it, you are free to leave the room at any time. You can ask to see an Elder, a psychologist, a nurse or your case management officer.

Potential Benefits

Your help with this survey will greatly help make our programs and services better.

No link with Correctional Service Canada Security

We will not share your personal information with security at Correctional Service Canada.

Sharing of Data

We hired a private company to put all the answers into a computer. They can’t identify you because there won’t be your name on the survey form. When the answers are in the computer, the company will give them to the Director, Special Projects in charge of the survey. Under his supervision, health experts at Correctional Service Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada will look at all the answers. With these answers, they will write a report. If the report is made public, copies will be put in the prison library.

Reimbursement

You will continue to be paid according to your salary scale while you are taking part in the study.

Waiver of Rights

The researchers doing this study cannot take away any of your legal rights. If you agree to do this survey, you are not giving up any legal rights.

Sponsorship

This research is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada in partnership with Correctional Service Canada

Contact

If you have any questions about this consent form or about the survey, please speak with your institutional survey coordinator.

Sir or Madame:

If you have any questions about your rights as a research participant, you may contact:

The Research Ethics Board Secretariat
Office of the Chief Scientist
Holland Cross, Tower B, Suite 410
1600 Scott St.,
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0K9
Phone: (613) 941-5199 (Collect calls will be accepted.)
Fax: (613) 948-6781

Consent

By checking all the boxes below, Yes or No, I state that:

  Yes No
The survey has been explained to me. box box
All my questions about the survey were answered. box box
I am participating in the study of my own free will. box box
The possible harms and discomforts and the possible benefits of doing the survey have been explained to me. box box
I understand that I have the right not to do the survey and the right to stop at any time. box box
I understand that I may refuse to do the survey and will not be in trouble. box box
I have a choice of not answering any specific questions. box box
I am free now, and in the future, to ask any questions about the survey. box box
I have been told that my personal information will be kept strictly confidential. box box
I was told that to do the study, my answers will be put into a computer and shared with Research Branch, Correctional Service Canada. box box
I have been told that that my answers cannot be used to identify me. box box
I understand that under no circumstances will information be shared with Public Health Agency of Canada and Correctional Service Canada that could identify me in any way. box box
I consent to allow my answers to be used by Research Branch, Correctional Service Canada under the conditions written above. box box
I hereby consent to do the survey called “2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey”. box box

Name: _____________________ Signature: _________________________

Date: _____________________

Consent Form Errata

Table B1:
Consent Form Errata
Section Issue Rectification
How were you selected? Typographical error:

“This means than names were chosen without knowing a person’s health status.”
Should read:

“This means that names were chosen without knowing a person’s health status.”
Consent Typographical error:

“I have been told that that my answers cannot be used to identify me.”
Should read:

“I have been told that my answers cannot be used to identify me.”

Appendix C: Questionnaire for the 2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases and Risk Behaviours Survey

N.B. To preserve the accuracy of skip patterns that include page numbers, the original page numbering for the questionnaire has been retained.

2007 National Inmate Infectious Diseases & Risk Behaviours Survey
A Joint Study of the Public Health Agency of Canada and Correctional Service Canada

Funding provided by the Public Health Agency of Canada and Correctional Service Canada

 

Purpose of the survey

The purpose of this survey is to help Correctional Service Canada develop new health programs and services for inmates and / or improve existing ones. To do this, we are asking you to fill in this survey; it should take about 45 minutes to 55 minutes of your time to complete.

Questionnaire is confidential when completed

Your answers will always remain anonymous and strictly confidential.

DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME OR ANYONE ELSE’S NAME ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE OR ON THE RETURN ENVELOPE.

To ensure that your answers and your identity are protected, we are taking the following precautions:

  1. There is nothing on the return envelope and questionnaire that could be used to identify you; all who take part in this survey get exactly the same questionnaire.
  2. The survey information will be used to describe infectious diseases and risk practices in federal institutions in general.
  3. Your sealed questionnaire will be opened only by staff of the company hired to do the survey and will NOT be opened by staff of Correctional Service Canada.

Your participation is voluntary

You may refuse to answer any or all questions in this questionnaire.

The information you and other inmates provide is essential to ensure that the Public Health Agency of Canada and Correctional Service Canada have an accurate understanding of the health needs of inmates. It is important that you try to answer all the questions.

How to answer the survey questions

Using a pencil mark your answer to each question with a check-mark(check) in a box. Check in a box

Returning your completed questionnaire

After you complete the questionnaire, place it in the accompanying envelope, seal it and return it to the person administering the survey.

Information

If you have questions or need other help

For questions about this survey or if you need help filling it in, please speak to the person who gave you the questionnaire or the survey coordinator in your institution.

Symbol of the Government of Canada

 

A. Your life experiences

1. In which institution are you currently serving time? _______________________

2. Are you currently at the reception centre?

  • Yes box 1
  • No  box 0

3. Are you currently a temporary detainee?

  • Yes box 1
  • No  box 0

4. In which year and month did you arrive at this institution? (Please specify the year and month)

Year boxboxboxbox

Month boxboxboxboxboxboxboxboxbox

5. Which language are you most comfortable speaking?

  • English box0
  • French box1
  • Both English and French box2
  • Other box3

6. How old are you?  Age box

7. Are you …

  • Male?   box 0
  • Female? box 1
  • Transgendered / transsexual? box 2

8. Are you …

  • Single (never married)? box0
  • Living with a common-law partner (when you’re on the outside you live together as a couple but not married)? box1
  • Married (and not separated)? box2
  • Separated? box3
  • Divorced? box4
  • Widowed? box5

9. What is your highest level of schooling?

  • Never went to school  box0
  • Kindergarten  box1
  • Some elementary school (please specify which level you completed)box2  ____________________________
  • Completed elementary school box3
  • Some high school, but no diploma (please specify which level you completed)box4  ____________________________
  • Completed high school or G.E.D. box5
  • Some trade school, CEGEP, vocational school, community college, etc. box6
  • Completed trade school, CEGEP, vocational school, community college, etc. box7
  • Some university  box8
  • Completed university  box9

10. What country were you born in?

  • Canada  box 0 → Go to question 11, next page
  • Outside Canada  box 1 ↓
    • Please specify your country of birth _____________________
    • When did you immigrate to Canada? boxboxboxbox Year immigrated

11. Are you an Aboriginal person? (Please check one response only)

  • No  box0 → Go to question 12 below
  • Inuit box1 → Go to question 13 below
  • Métis box2 → Go to question 13 below

First Nations

  • Non Treaty / Non Status box3 → Go to question 13 below
  • Treaty / Status box4 → Go to question 13 below

12. What is your ethnic group or race? (Please check one response only)

  • White /Caucasian box0
  • South Asian (for example: East Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, etc.) box1
  • Latin American box2
  • Black box3
  • East Asian (for example: Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Laotian, Vietnamese, etc.) box4
  • Arab / West Asian (Afghan, Algerian, Iraqi, Iranian, Lebanese, Syrian, etc.) box5
  • Mixed race (mother and father of different races) box6
  • Not sure box7

13. Do you have any children and / or step-children of school-age still living at home?

  • Doesn’t apply, I don’t have children  box3
  • Don’t know  box2
  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. Before you went to prison were you the person who mainly took care of your children and / or step-children? By children we mean those of school-age still living at home.
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1

14. Do you have friends and / or family outside prison with whom you can keep in touch?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. How often do you try to stay in touch with friends and / or family?
      • Never   box0
      • Rarely   box1
      • Often  box2
      • Always box3
Time in federal prison

15. Including all the times you’ve been in prison so far, how many years in total have you spent in federal prison?

  • Less than 1 year box0
  • 1 year or longer  box1
     ↓
    1. If you have been in federal prison for 1 year or longer, how many years and months has it been exactly?
      • Years boxbox  Months boxbox

Time in provincial / territorial jail

16. Including all the times you’ve been in prison so far, how many years in total did you spend in provincial / territorial jail?

  • Never been in provincial / territorial jail  box0
  • Less than 1 year box1
  • 1 year or longer  box2
     ↓
    1. If you have been in provincial or territorial jails for 1 year or longer, how many years and months was it exactly?
      • Years boxbox  Months boxbox

17. Since last November, were you in the community outside federal prison on conditional release?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. Which type of release was it?
      (Please check all that apply if you were out more than once.)
      • Escorted temporary absence    box0
      • Unescorted temporary absence  box1
      • Work release           box2
      • Other (for example: day parole, statutory release, full parole)  box3

18. Have you ever had dental surgery or any other surgery in your mouth?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know  box2

19. Have you ever been diagnosed with haemophilia?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know  box2

20. Have you ever received a blood transfusion or received other blood products?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know  box2

21. Have you ever shared personal hygiene items (e.g. your toothbrush, razor) with someone else?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. Did you know if anyone you shared personal items with was infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1
      • Don’t know  box2

22. Did you ever clean up blood spills while incarcerated in CSC?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. Did you always have access to protective gloves to clean up the blood spill?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1
         ↓
        1. Did you always wear protective gloves to clean up the blood spill?
          • No  box0
          • Yes box1

23. Have you ever been in a fight where you came into contact with someone else’s blood?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
    1. Do you know if they had hepatitis B or hepatitis C?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1
      • Don’t know  box2

24. Have you ever been tattooed?

No  box0 Go to question 25, next page

Yes box1
 ↓

  1. Where did you get your tattoo(s) done? (Please check all that apply)
    • Outside prison or in provincial/territorial jail  box0 Go to question 25, next page
    • CSC Prison Tattoo Shop box1 Go to question 25, next page
    • CSC Prison “range” box2
  2. Did you use someone else’s ink for your tattoo(s)?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  3. Was the ink that was used for your tattoo(s) used again by someone else?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t know box2
  4. Did you ever pass tattoo equipment on to someone else?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  5. Did you use someone else’s tattoo equipment for your tattoos?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  6. Was the tattoo equipment cleaned each time you used it?
    • No box0→ Go to question 25, next page
    • Don’t know box1→Go to question 25, next page
    • Yes box2
  7. How was the tattoo equipment cleaned?
    • With bleach    box0
    • Some other way box1
    • Don’t know   box2

25. Do you have or have you had any body piercing(s) including piercing(s) for earrings?

No  box0→ Go to question 26, next page

Yes box1

  1. Where did you get your piercing(s) done? (Please check all that apply)
    • Outside prison or in provincial/ territorial jail  box0 → Go to question 26, next page
    • CSC Prison “range”  box1
       ↓
  2. Did you use someone else’s piercing equipment for your piercing(s)?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  3. Did you ever pass piercing equipment on to someone else?
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  4. Was the piercing equipment cleaned each time you used it?
    • No       box0 → Go to question 26, next page
    • Don’t know  box1 → Go to question 26, next page
    • Yes      box2
  5. How was the piercing equipment cleaned?
    • With bleach     box0
    • Some other way  box1
    • Don’t know    box2
Doing drugs and / or chemicals
Doing drugs / chemicals means you did or do illegal, illicit drugs or drugs that were not prescribed to you (including steroids) or chemicals (like glue or gasoline).

26. Have you ever done drugs and / or chemicals?

  • No  box0Go to question 50, page 18
  • Yes box1→   ↓

27. Have you ever injected drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  1. How old were you when you first started injecting drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?  boxboxAge
  2. Where did you first start injecting drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?
    • In the community (before starting current sentence) box0
    • Inside provincial / territorial jail  box1
    • Inside federal prison  box2
  3. How many years have you injected drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?
    • 1 year or less  box1
    • More than 1 year (please specify the number of years  boxboxYears

28. Have you ever done drugs (e.g. pot or coke) or chemicals (e.g. glue or gasoline) by snorting, smoking, sniffing or swallowing?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  1. How old were you when you first did drugs by snorting, smoking, sniffing or swallowing? 
    • boxboxAge
  2. Where did you first do drugs by snorting, smoking, sniffing or swallowing?
    • In the community (before starting current sentence) box0
    • Inside provincial / territorial jail box1
    • Inside federal prison box2
  3. How many years have you done drugs by snorting, smoking, sniffing or swallowing?
    • 1 year or less box1
    • More than 1 year (please specify the number of years)  boxboxYears

29. Are you currently on methadone treatment?

  • No  box0
     ↓
  • Did you ever try to get methadone treatment at CSC?
    • Yes box0Go to question 30 next page
    • No  box1Go to Section B next page

  • Yes box1 Go to Section B, next page

  • I no longer need to be treated with methadone box2 Go to Section B, next page

30. Why are you not currently on methadone treatment in CSC? (Please check one response only)

  • The last time I tried I was told I didn’t meet the requirements for treatment box0
  • I started treatment and then was taken off because I was selling and / or giving my methadone to someone else box1
  • I took myself off  box2
  • I was taken off methadone treatment for some other reason box3

B. Your experiences in prison in CSC between November 2006 and now

(If you were admitted after November 2006, please answer thinking about your prison experience in CSC since you were admitted.)

31. Since last November in prison, have you done drugs and / or chemicals?

  • No  box0Go to question 49, page 18
  • Yes box1

32. Since last November in prison, have you injected drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?

  • No  box0 Go to question 47, page 17
  • Yes box1 Go to question 33, next page

33. Since last November in prison, how often did you inject drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?

  • Daily           box0
  • Once or twice a week   box1
  • Once or twice a month  box2
  • Every couple of months box3
  • Every now and then    box4
  • One time only       box5

34. Since last November in prison, how often did you inject drugs “on a binge” (i.e., many times over a short period)?

  • Never  box0
  • Rarely  box1
  • Often   box2
  • Always box3

35. Since last November in prison, did you pass a rig on to someone else after you had used it?

No  box0 Go to question 36, next page

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Who did you pass the rig on to? (Check all that apply)
    • Other inmate(s) I know well box0
    • Other inmate(s) I don’t know well at all box1
    • Family           box2
    • Regular sex partner(s)  box3
    • Other(s)        box4

36. Since last November in prison, did you use someone else’s rig after they had used it?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Who passed the rig to you? (Check all that apply)
    • Other inmate(s) I know well box0
    • Other inmate(s) I don’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

37. The last time you used a rig since last November in prison, was it cleaned before you used it?

No  box0

Don’t know box1

Yes box2
  ↓

  1. How was the rig cleaned?
    • With bleach    box0
    • Some other way box1
    • Don’t know    box2

38. Since last November in prison, which drugs and / or chemicals did you inject most often? (Please specify no more than three.)

  1. ____________________________
  2. ____________________________
  3. ____________________________

39. Since last November in prison have you shared a rig with anyone who you knew was infected with HIV or hepatitis C?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Didn’t know if they were infected or not box2

40. If you wanted to get a rig in prison, how difficult would it be?

  • Not difficult     box0
  • Somewhat difficult box1
  • Quite difficult    box2
  • Impossible       box3

41. Since last November in prison, have you used works (water, filter, cooker / spoon)?

  • Yes box1
  • No  box0  →Go to question 47, page 17

42. Since last November in prison how often did you use works (water, filter, cooker / spoon)?

  • Daily             box0
  • Once or twice a week   box1
  • Once or twice a month  box2
  • Every couple of months box3
  • Every now and then    box4
  • One time only       box5

43. Since last November in prison, did you pass works on to someone else after you had used them?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Who did you pass the works to? (Check all that apply)
    • Other inmate(s) I know well box0
    • Other inmate(s) I don’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

 

44. Since last November in prison, did you use someone else’s works after they had used them?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Who passed the works to you? (Check all that apply)
    • Other inmate(s) I know well box0
    • Other inmate(s) I don’t know well at all box1
    • Family  box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s) box4

45. Since last November in prison, which drugs and / or chemicals did you use works with most often? (Please specify no more than three.)

  1. _________________________
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________

46. Since last November in prison have you ever shared works with anyone who you knew was infected with HIV or hepatitis C?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Didn’t know if they were infected or not box2

47. Since last November in prison, did you do drugs (e.g. pot or cocaine) or chemicals (e.g. glue, gasoline) by snorting, sniffing, smoking or swallowing (i.e., without using a rig)?

No  box0 → Go to question 48, next page

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Since last November in prison how often did you do drugs and / or chemicals without using a rig?  (Please check one response only)
    • Daily box0
    • Once or twice a week  box1
    • Once or twice a month   box2
    • Every couple of months  box3
    • Every now and then    box4
    • One time only       box5
  2. Since last November in prison which drugs and / or chemicals did you do most often without using a rig? (Please specify no more than three)
    1. ________________________
    2. ________________________
    3. ________________________

48. Since last November in prison…

  1. Did you think your use of drugs was out of control?
    • Never   box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always  box3
  2. Did the prospect of missing a fix (or dose) make you anxious or worried?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  3. Did you worry about your use of drugs?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  4. Did you wish you could stop?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  5. How difficult would you find it to stop or go without drugs?
    • Not difficult     box0
    • Somewhat difficult box1
    • Quite difficult     box2
    • Impossible     box3

49. Do the following statements apply to you?

  1. I won’t do drugs in prison for fear of being caught
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t know   box2
    • Doesn’t apply box3
  2. I switched to drugs that are harder to catch in the urinalysis
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t know   box2
    • Doesn’t apply box3

Sexual health
Sex with a woman

50. Have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with a woman?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. How many women have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with?
    • 1        box1
    • 2 to 5       box2
    • 6 to 10       box3
    • 11 to 25     box4
    • More than 25   box5

Sex with a man

51. Have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with a man?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. How many men have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with?
    • 1         box1
    • 2 to 5      box2
    • 6 to 10      box3
    • 11 to 25      box4
    • More than 25  box5

52. Have you ever been a sex trade worker (e.g. male or female prostitute / escort)?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Who were your clients? (please check all that apply)
    • Male clients   box0
    • Female clients  box1

53. Have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with a sex trade worker (e.g. male or female prostitute / escort)?

No  box0

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Which sex trade worker(s) did you have sex with? (please check all that apply)
    • Male sex trade worker(s)   box0
    • Female sex trade worker(s)  box1

54. Have you ever had oral, anal or vaginal sex with someone who injected drugs?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know box2

Sex in prison since November 2006
Note: If you were admitted to CSC after November 2006, please answer the questions below thinking about your prison experience in CSC since then.

55. Since last November in prison, did you have oral, vaginal or anal sex with anyone?

No  box0 → Go to question 69, page 22

Yes box1
  ↓

  1. Since last November in prison, how many men and / or women did you have sex with? (Please check all that apply)
    1. Men
      • None     box0
      • 1        box1
      • 2 to 5     box2
      • 6 to 10     box3
      • 11 or more box4
    2. Women
      • None     box0
      • 1        box1
      • 2 to 5     box2
      • 6 to 10     box3
      • 11 or more box4

Sex with one or more women

56. Since last November in prison how often did you use …

  1. A condom while having vaginal sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4
  2. A condom or dental dam while having oral sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4
  3. A condom while having anal sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4

Sex with one or more men

57. Since last November in prison how often did you use …

  1. A condom while having vaginal sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4
  2. A condom or dental dam while having oral sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4
  3. A condom while having anal sex?
    • Doesn’t apply box0
    • Never      box1
    • Rarely      box2
    • Often       box3
    • Always      box4

58. Since last November in prison, did you ever use any object for sex or a sex toy that had been used by someone else?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
59. Since last November in prison, did you have unprotected sex with a regular sex partner?
  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

60. Since last November in prison, did you have unprotected sex with a casual sex partner (i.e. someone you didn’t know well)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

61. Since last November in prison, have you had sex with anyone who had HIV, hepatitis C or sexually transmitted infections?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know box2

Private family visits in prison since November 2006
If you were admitted after November 2006, please answer thinking about your prison experience in CSC since you were admitted.

62. Since last November in prison, did you participate in any private family visits?

  • No  box0 Go to question 65 next page
  • Yes box1

63. If you had sex during private family visits, how often did you use a condom or a barrier (dental dam, plastic wrap, cut condom)?

  • Didn’t have sex box0 Go to question 65 below
  • Always box1 Go to question 65 below
  • Often   box2
  • Rarely  box3
  • Never  box4

64. What were the reasons why you didn’t always use a condom and / or a dental dam during private family visits? (please check all that apply)

  • There weren’t any when you needed them box0
  • One or both were past their “best before” date when you needed them box1
  • It was for some other reason box2

65. Since last November in prison, did you ever pay for sex with money, works, rigs, drugs or goods (e.g., tobacco or cigarettes)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

66. Since last November in prison, did someone ever pay you for sex with money, works, rigs, drugs or goods (e.g., tobacco or cigarettes)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

67. Since last November in prison, did you ever pay for drugs with sex?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

68. Since last November in prison, did someone ever pay you for drugs with sex?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

69. Since last November in prison, did you have sex (oral, vaginal or anal) forced on you when you didn’t want it?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

70. In which year did you start your current sentence?

Year started current sentence  boxboxboxbox

  1. Did your current sentence start BEFORE November 1, 2004?
    • No  box0 Go to Section C, below
    • Yes box1 Go to Section D, page 32

C. Your life experiences during the last 6 months you were free in the community

Doing drugs and / or chemicals during the last 6 months you were free in the community
Doing drugs means you did illegal, illicit drugs or drugs that were not prescribed to you (including steroids) or chemicals (like glue or gasoline).

71. Did you ever do drugs and / or chemicals during the last 6 months you were free in the community?

  • No  box0 Go to question 89, page 29
  • Yes box1

72. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you ever inject drugs and / or chemicals?

  • No  box0 Go to question 80, page 26
  • Yes box1 Go to question 73, next page

73. During the last six months you were free in the community, how often did you inject drugs (or anything else such as alcohol or chemicals)?

  • Daily           box0
  • Once or twice a week   box1
  • Once or twice a month  box2
  • Every couple of months box3
  • Every now and then    box4
  • One time only       box5

74. During the last six months you were free in the community, how often did you inject drugs “on a binge” (i.e., many times over a short period)?

  • Never   box0
  • Rarely   box1
  • Often  box2
  • Always box3

75. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you pass a rig on to someone else after you had used it?

No  box0

Yes box1
 ↓

  1. Who did you pass the rig on to? (Check all that apply)
    • Other people I knew well box0
    • Other people I didn’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

76. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you use someone else’s rig after they had used it?

No  box0

Yes box1
 ↓

  1. Who passed the rig to you? (Check all that apply)
    • Other people I knew well box0
    • Other people I didn’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

77. The last time you used a rig during the last six months you were free in the community, was it cleaned before you used it?

No  box0

Don’t know box1

Yes box2
 ↓

  1. How was the rig cleaned?
    • With bleach    box0
    • Some other way box1
    • Don’t know     box2

78. During the last six months you were free in the community, which drugs and / or chemicals did you inject most often? (Please specify no more than three.)

  1. _____________________________
  2. _____________________________
  3. _____________________________

79. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you ever share a rig with anyone who you knew was infected with HIV or hepatitis C?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Didn’t know if they were infected or not box2

80. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you ever use works (water, filter, cooker / spoon)?

  • No  box0 → Go to question 85, page 28
  • Yes box1 → Go to question 81, next question

81. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you pass works on to someone else after you had used them?

No  box0

Yes box1
 ↓

  1. Who did you pass the works to? (Check all that apply)
    • Other people I knew well box0
    • Other people I didn’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

82. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you use someone else’s works after they had used them?

No  box0

Yes box1
 ↓

  1. Who passed the works to you? (Check all that apply)
    • Other people I knew well box0
    • Other people I didn’t know well at all box1
    • Family          box2
    • Regular sex partner(s) box3
    • Other(s)         box4

83. During the last six months you were free in the community, which drugs and / or chemicals did you use works with most often? (Please specify no more than three.)

  1. __________________________
  2. __________________________
  3. __________________________

84. During the last six months you were free in the community did you ever share works with anyone who you knew was infected with HIV or hepatitis C?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Didn’t know if they were infected or not box2

85. During the last six months you were free in the community, did you do drugs (e.g. pot or cocaine) or chemicals (e.g. glue, gasoline) by snorting, sniffing, smoking or swallowing?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. During the last six months you were free in the community, how often did you do drugs and / or chemicals by snorting, sniffing, smoking or swallowing?  (Please check one response only)
    • Daily           box0
    • Once or twice a week   box1
    • Once or twice a month  box2
    • Every couple of months box3
    • Every now and then    box4
    • One time only       box5
  2. During the last six months you were free in the community, which drugs and / or chemicals did you do most often by snorting, sniffing, smoking or swallowing? (Please specify no more than three)
    1. ________________________
    2. ________________________
    3. ________________________

86. During the last 6 months you were free in the community …

  1. Did you think your use of drugs was out of control?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  2. Did the prospect of missing a fix (or dose) make you anxious or worried?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  3. Did you worry about your use of drugs?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  4. Did you wish you could stop?
    • Never  box0
    • Rarely  box1
    • Often   box2
    • Always box3
  5. How difficult would you have found it to stop or go without drugs?
    • Not difficult     box0
    • Somewhat difficult box1
    • Quite difficult     box2
    • Impossible      box3

Last 6 months you were free in the community

87. Did you ever pay for drugs with sex?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

88. Did someone ever pay you for drugs with sex?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

Sex during the last 6 months you were free in the community

89. During the last 6 months you were free in the community, did you have oral, anal or vaginal sex with anyone?

  • Yes box0
  • No  box1Go to question 98, page 31

Sex with one or more women during the last 6 months you were free in the community

90. Did you have oral, anal or vaginal sex with a woman?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. How many women did you have oral, anal or vaginal sex with?
    • 1        box1
    • 2 to 5       box2
    • 6 to 10     box3
    • 11 to 25     box4
    • More than 25 box5

Sex with one or more men during the last 6 months you were free in the community

91. Did you have oral, anal or vaginal sex with a man?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. How many men did you have oral, anal or vaginal sex with?
    • 1        box1
    • 2 to 5       box2
    • 6 to 10     box3
    • 11 to 25     box4
    • More than 25 box5
Last 6 months you were free in the community

92. Considering all the people you had sex with, how often did you use a condom and / or barrier (dental dam, plastic wrap, cut condom) with them?

  • Never  box0
  • Rarely  box1
  • Often   box2
  • Always box3

93. Did you have unprotected sex with your regular sex partner(s)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

94. Did you have unprotected sex with casual sex partner(s) (i.e. someone or people you didn’t know well)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

95. Did you ever have sex with anyone who you knew was infected with HIV or hepatitis C?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1
  • Don’t know if they were infected or not box2
Last 6 months you were free in the community

96. Did you ever pay for sex with money, works, rigs, drugs or goods (e.g., tobacco or cigarettes)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

97. Did someone ever pay you for sex with money, works, rigs, drugs or goods (e.g., tobacco or cigarettes)?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

98. During the last 6 months you were free in the community, did you ever have sex (oral, vaginal or anal) forced on you when you didn’t want it?

  • No  box0
  • Yes box1

D. Infectious Disease Information and Support for Prevention

The Reception Awareness Program (RAP) is a program. It would have been offered to you when you were first admitted. It is mainly about infectious diseases and health services offered in prison.

99. Did you ever take the Reception Awareness Program (RAP)?

  • Yes box2
  • Don’t know box1
  • No  box0
     ↓
  1. Why didn’t you take the RAP program? (Please check one response only)
    • I wasn’t interested box0
    • I wasn’t aware CSC had such a program box1
    • I plan to take it sometime soon box2
    • The program did not exist when I was first admitted box3
    • Other box4

The Choosing Health in Prisons (CHIPs) is about healthy living, nutrition and stress. The course is also about how diseases such as can be spread. Diseases that can be spread include HIV, hepatitis and tuberculosis. It is usually offered early in someone’s sentence.

100. Did you ever take the Choosing Health in Prisons (CHIPs) program?

  • Yes box2
  • Don’t know box1
  • No  box0
     ↓
  1. Why didn’t you take the CHIPs program? (Please check one response only)
    • I wasn’t interested box0
    • I wasn’t aware CSC had such a program box1
    • I plan to take it sometime soon box2
    • Other box3

CSC offers a program called The National HIV/AIDS Peer Education and Counselling Program; PEC for short. The PEC provides information on HIV/AIDS. It also offers information on other infectious diseases. It is a program for inmates to become “peer educators”. Peer educators provide peer support to other inmates. There is a “Women’s Component” of this program. For Aboriginal inmates the program is called Circles of Knowledge Keepers or Chee Mamuk.

101. Did you ever take the Peer Education and Counselling Program (the PEC program)?

  • Yes box2
  • Don’t know box1
  • No  box0
     ↓
  1. Why didn’t you take the PEC program? (Please check one response only)
    • I wasn’t interested box0
    • I wasn’t chosen box1
    • I wasn’t aware CSC had such a program box2
    • I plan to take it sometime soon box3
    • Other box4

102. Have you talked to a PEC counsellor about infectious diseases in prison?

  • Yes box0
  • No  box1
  • I’m a PEC counsellor box2

103. Are you aware that CSC has a policy to ensure inmates have easy access to the items listed below? (Please check all that apply)

  1. Condoms
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  2. Lubricant
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  3. Dental dams
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
  4. Bleach (for cleaning injecting, piercing and / or tattooing equipment)
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1

104. Since November 2006 did you have any problems getting condoms in CSC?

  • I haven’t tried to get condoms box0
  • No, I didn’t have any problems getting condoms box1
  • Yes, I had a problem getting condoms box2
     ↓
  1. Why did you have a problem getting condoms?
    (Please check all that apply.)
    • Dispensers were empty box0
    • Dispensers were broken box1
    • People could see me take condoms from the dispenser box2
    • Other inmates hoarded them  box3
    • Other inmates limited my access to them box4
    • The condoms were damaged box5
    • I had to ask staff to get them box6
    • Other box7

105. Since November 2006 did you have any problems getting dental dams in CSC?

  • I haven’t tried to get dental dams box0
  • No, I didn’t have any problems getting dental dams box1
  • Yes, I had a problem getting dental dams box2
     ↓
  1. Why did you have a problem getting dental dams? (Please check all that apply.)
    • Dispensers were empty box0
    • Dispensers were broken box1
    • People could see me take dental dams from the dispenser box2
    • Other inmates hoarded them  box3
    • Other inmates limited my access to them box4
    • The dental dams were damaged box5
    • I had to ask staff to get them box6
    • Other box7

106. Since November 2006 did you have any problems getting lubricant in CSC?

  • I haven’t tried to get lubricant box0
  • No, I didn’t have any problems getting lubricant box1
  • Yes, I had a problem getting lubricant box2
     ↓
  1. Why did you have a problem getting lubricant? (Please check all that apply)
    • Dispensers were empty box0
    • Dispensers were broken box1
    • People could see me take lubricant from the dispenser box2
    • Other inmates hoarded it  box3
    • Other inmates limited my access to it box4
    • The tube of lubricant was damaged box5
    • I had to ask staff to get it box6
    • Other box7

107. Since November 2006 did you have any problems getting bleach in CSC?

  • I haven’t tried to get bleach box0
  • No, I didn’t have any problems getting bleach box1
  • Yes, I had a problem getting bleach box2
     ↓
  1. Why did you have a problem getting bleach? (Please check all that apply)
    • Dispensers were empty box0
    • Dispensers were broken box1
    • People could see me take bleach from the dispenser box2
    • Other inmates hoarded it  box3
    • Other inmates limited my access to it box4
    • The bleach was diluted box5
    • I had to ask staff to get it box6
    • Other box7

108. Please indicate the extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.

  1. Getting sterile needles and syringes in prison is difficult for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  2. Getting sterile tattooing equipment in prison is difficult for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  3. Accessing substance abuse programs in prison is difficult for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  4. Getting “female” condoms in prison is difficult for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  5. Having to ask prison health care staff for condoms, dental dams, or lubricant is a problem for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  6. Having to ask prison health care staff for bleach is a problem for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  7. Having other inmates see me take condoms, dental dams, or lubricant from the dispenser is a problem for me.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5
  8. I need to know more about how to protect myself from infectious diseases.
    • Strongly Agree   box1
    • Agree        box2
    • Disagree      box3
    • Strongly Disagree box4
    • Doesn’t apply    box5

E. Testing and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

Testing for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) when you were in the community, in provincial / territorial jail or in federal prison for a previous sentence

109. Before being sent to federal prison for your current sentence, were you ever tested for HIV when you were in the community, in provincial / territorial jail or in federal prison for a previous sentence?

  • No, I was never tested box0
  • Don’t know       box1
  • Yes, I was tested     box2
     ↓
  1. Where were you tested? (Please check all that apply)
    • Tested in the community box0
    • Tested in provincial / territorial jail box1
    • Tested in federal prison box2
  2. In which year was your last HIV test before being sent to federal prison for your current sentence? 
    • Year boxboxboxbox
    • Don’t know box0
  3. Where was your last HIV test taken before being sent to federal prison for your current sentence?
    • In the community box0
    • In provincial / territorial jail box1
    • In federal prison box2
  4. What was the result of your last HIV test before being sent to federal prison for your current sentence?
    • I was told I didn’t have HIV  box0
    • I was told I have HIV  box1
    • I don’t know box2

Testing for HIV at admission to CSC

If you have been through intake assessment on more than one occasion, please think now about your most recent admission.

110. At admission to CSC, were you tested for HIV?

  • Yes, I got tested at admission to CSC  box1
     ↓
  1. What was the result of your HIV test at admission?
    • I was told I didn’t have HIV  box0
    • I found out I have HIV  box1
    • The test confirmed I have HIV box2
    • I don’t know box3
  • Don’t Know  box2 → Go to question 111, next page

  • No, I didn’t get tested at admission to CSC  box0
     ↓
  1. Why didn’t you get tested for HIV at admission to CSC? (Please check all that apply.)
    • It wasn’t offered to me box0
    • I didn’t think I was at risk box1
    • I was at risk, but I didn’t want to know box2
    • I was afraid of having my name reported at CSC if I went for testing box3
    • I was afraid of being discriminated against at CSC  if I went for testing box4
    • I have HIV box5
    • I was already tested and was negative box6
    • I was tested before being admitted to CSC box7
Testing for HIV since admission to CSC

111. Since admission to CSC, did you get a blood test for HIV? (If you have had more than one HIV test at CSC, think about the last HIV test you had.)

  • Yes, I’ve been tested since admission  box1
     ↓
  1. When was your last test for HIV?
    boxboxYear of last HIV test
    • What was the result of your last HIV test?
      • I was told I didn’t have HIV  box0
      • I found out I have HIV  box1
      • The test confirmed I have HIV box2
      • I don’t know box3
  • Don’t Know  box2→ Go to question 112 below

  • No, I haven’t been tested since admission to CSC  box0
     ↓
  1. Why haven’t you been tested for HIV since admission to CSC? (Please check all that apply.)
    1. It wasn’t offered to me box0
    2. I don’t think I’m at risk  box1
    3. I am at risk, but I don’t want to know  box2
    4. I‘m afraid of having my name reported at CSC if I were to go for testing  box3
    5. I’m afraid of being discriminated against at CSC if I were to go for testing  box4
    6. I have HIV box5
    7. I don’t have HIV box6
Treatment for HIV

112. Have you ever been told you have HIV?

  • No box0→ Go to question 117, page 41
  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. Have you seen a doctor or nurse about how the HIV could be treated?
    • Yes box1Go to question 113, next page
    • No box0 Go to question 116, page 41

113. Has the doctor started you on treatment for HIV (with anti-retroviral medication)?

  • Yes, the doctor started treatment box1
     ↓
  1. Where did you start your treatment for HIV?
    • In the community box0
    • In provincial / territorial jail box1
    • In federal  prison box2
  • No, the doctor hasn’t started me on treatment  box0
     ↓
  1. Why hasn’t the doctor started you on medication for HIV?
    • The doctor said I shouldn’t start medication yet box0 Go to question 116, next page
    • I didn’t want to go on medication box1 Go to question 116, next page
    • I don’t know box2 Go to question 116, next page

114. Are you currently taking medication for HIV?

  • No, I’m not currently taking HIV medication box1
     ↓
  1. Why are you currently not on medication for HIV? (Please check one response only)
    • I’ve just transferred from another institution and my medication is temporarily unavailable  box0
    • My medication is temporarily unavailable because the pharmacy doesn’t have any box1
    • I took myself off treatment for HIV for the time being box2
    • My medication ran out before I asked for a new prescription box3
    • The medication is temporarily unavailable for some other reason  box4
    • My doctor took me off treatment for HIV for the time being box5
       ↓
  2. Do you know why the doctor took you off treatment?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  • Yes, I’m still taking my HIV medication box1 Go to question 115, next page

115. Has there ever been a previous occasion in CSC when you were off your HIV medication for at least a day?

  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. Why was there an interruption in your treatment for HIV? (Please check all that apply)
    • I transferred from another institution and my medication was temporarily unavailable  box0 Go to question 116 below
    • My medication was temporarily unavailable because the pharmacy didn’t have any box1 Go to question 116 below
    • I took myself off treatment for HIV  box2 Go to question 116 below
    • My medication ran out before I asked for a new prescription box3 Go to question 116 below
    • The medication was temporarily unavailable for some other reason  box4 Go to question 116 below
    • My doctor took me off treatment for HIV  box5
       ↓
  2. Do you know why the doctor took you off treatment?
    • Yes box1
    • No box0
  • No box0 Go to question 116 below

116. Do the statements below apply to you? (Please check all that apply)

  1. I am worried about being discriminated against in CSC because I have HIV.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  2. I am afraid of having my name reported in CSC because I have HIV.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0

  Go to question 118, page 42

117. Do the statements below apply to you? (Please check all that apply)

  1. I am worried about being discriminated against in CSC if I test positive for HIV.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  2. I am afraid of having my name reported in CSC if I test positive for HIV.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  3. I am not willing to be tested in CSC because I’m afraid of the result of the HIV test.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  4. I’m now more willing to get tested for HIV than when I went through the admission process to CSC.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  5. I’m now more willing in CSC to have an HIV test than when I was in the community.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
Testing for Hepatitis C

Testing for hepatitis C when you were in the community, in provincial / territorial jail or in federal prison for a previous sentence

118. Before serving your current sentence, were you ever tested for Hepatitis C while you were in the community or provincial / territorial jail or in federal prison for a previous sentence?

  • No, I was never tested box0
  • Don’t know       box1
  • Yes, I was tested     box2
     ↓
  1. Where were you tested? (Please check all that apply)
    • Tested in the community       box0
    • Tested in provincial / territorial jail box1
    • Tested in federal prison       box2
  2. In which year was your last hepatitis C test before being sent to prison for your current sentence? 
    • Year  boxboxboxbox
    • Don’t know box0
  3. Where was your last hepatitis C test taken before being sent to federal prison for your current sentence?
    • In the community       box0
    • In provincial / territorial jail box1
    • In federal prison       box2
  4. What was the result of your last hepatitis C test before being sent to prison for your current sentence?
    • I was told I didn’t have hepatitis C box0
    • I was told I had hepatitis C       box1
    • I don’t know              box2
Testing for hepatitis C at admission to CSC

If you went through intake assessment more than once, please think about your most recent admission.

119. At admission to CSC, did you get tested for hepatitis C?

  • Yes, I got tested at admission to CSC box1
     ↓
  1. What was the result of the hepatitis C test at admission to CSC?
    • I was told I didn’t have hepatitis C box0
    • I found out I have hepatitis C box1
    • The test confirmed I have hepatitis C box2
    • I don’t know box3
  • Don’t know box2→ Go to question 120, next page

  • No, I didn’t get tested at admission to CSC box0
     ↓
  1. Why didn’t you get tested for hepatitis C at admission to CSC? (Please check all that apply.)
    • It wasn’t offered to me box0
    • I didn’t think I was at risk box1
    • I was at risk, but I didn’t want to know box2
    • I was afraid of having my name reported at CSC if I went for testing box3
    • I was afraid of being discriminated against at CSC if I went for testing box4
    • I knew I had hepatitis C box5
    • I knew I didn’t have hepatitis C box6
    • I was tested before I was admitted to CSC box7

Testing for hepatitis C since admission to CSC

120. Since admission to CSC, did you get tested for hepatitis C? (If you had more than one hepatitis C test in CSC, think about the last time you were tested for hepatitis C.)

  • Yes, I’ve been tested since admission box1
     ↓
  1. In which year was your last test for hepatitis C?
    • boxboxboxboxYear
  2. What was the result of your last hepatitis C test?
    • I was told I didn’t have hepatitis C box0
    • I found out I had hepatitis C box1
    • The test confirmed I had hepatitis C box2
    • I don’t know box3
  • Don't know box2→ Go to question 121 below

  • No, I haven’t been tested since admission box0
     ↓
  1. Why haven’t you been tested for hepatitis C since admission to CSC? (Please check all that apply)
    • It wasn’t offered to me box0
    • I don’t think I’m at risk box1
    • I am at risk, but I don’t want to know box2
    • I am afraid of having my name reported in CSC if I go for testing box3
    • I am afraid of being discriminated against in CSC if I go for testing box4
    • I have hepatitis C box5
    • I don’t have hepatitis C box6

121. Have you ever been told you had hepatitis C?

  • No  box0 → Go to question 124, page 46
  • Yes box1
     ↓
  1. Have you seen the CSC doctor or nurse about how the hepatitis C could be treated?
    • Yes box1 → Go to question 122, next page
    • No  box0 → Go to question 123, next page
Treatment for hepatitis C

122. Did you take the medication for hepatitis C?

  • Yes, I took the medication for hepatitis C box1
     ↓
  1. If you did take hepatitis C medication during your current incarceration, can you tell us what happened? (Please check all that apply)
    • I’m still taking the hepatitis C medication  box0
    • The medication worked and I was told that hepatitis C could no longer be detected in my blood  box1
    • I finished my medication, but it didn’t work  box2
    • The doctor took me off the medication because of the side effects I was having  box3
    • I took myself off the medication because of the side effects I was having  box4
    • My blood test results showed that the medication wasn’t working so treatment stopped  box5
    • I was taken off treatment because I was doing drugs box6
    • Treatment stopped for some other reason box7
  • No, I did not take the hepatitis C medication box0
     ↓
  1. If you didn’t take your hepatitis C medication why not? (Please check all that apply)
    • I felt fine  box0
    • I wasn’t interested in taking any hepatitis C medication  box1
    • I heard that hepatitis C medication made you sick  box2
    • I was told that I was not eligible  box3
    • I was told that medication wouldn’t work for me  box4
    • I didn’t want people in CSC to find out/know about my hepatitis C box5
    • I didn’t feel safe about taking hepatitis C medication here in prison  box6
    • I’m in the process of starting hepatitis C medication box7
    • I’m on the waiting list for hepatitis C medication box8
    • Some other reason box9

123. Do the statements below apply to you? (Please check all that apply)

  1. I am worried about being discriminated against at CSC because I have hepatitis C.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  2. I am afraid of having my name reported at CSC because I have hepatitis C.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0

Go to question 125, next page

124. Do any of the statements below apply to you? Please check all that apply.

  1. I am worried about being discriminated against at CSC if I tested positive for hepatitis C.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  2. I am afraid of having my name reported at CSC if I tested positive for hepatitis C.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  3. I am not willing to be tested at CSC because I’m afraid of the result of the hepatitis C test.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  4. I’m now more willing to have a hepatitis C test than when I was first admitted to CSC.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
  5. I’m now more likely to get tested for hepatitis C at CSC than when I was in the community.
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

125. Have you ever been told you had any of the infections in the list below? Please check all that apply.

  1. Chlamydia
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  2. Gonorrhoea
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  3. Syphilis
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  4. Genital Herpes (HSV – herpes simplex virus)
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  5. Genital warts (HPV – human papillomavirus)
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  6. Other sexually transmitted infections
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2

126. Since your admission to CSC for your current sentence, have you ever been told you had any of the infections in the list below? Please check all that apply.

  1. Chlamydia
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  2. Gonorrhoea
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  3. Syphilis
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  4. Genital Herpes (HSV – herpes simplex virus)
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  5. Genital warts (HPV – human papillomavirus)
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
  6. Other sexually transmitted infections
    • No  box0
    • Yes box1
    • Don’t Know  box2
Testing and vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B

127. Have you ever been vaccinated for hepatitis A?

  • No, I have never been vaccinated box0
      ↓
    1. Were you ever told you had hepatitis A?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1

  • Don’t know box1  → Go to question 128 below

  • Yes, I have been vaccinated box2
      ↓
    1. Did you get your vaccination in CSC?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1

128. Have you ever been vaccinated for hepatitis B?

  • No, I have never been vaccinated box0
      ↓
    1. Were you ever told you had hepatitis B?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1

  • Don’t know box1  → Go to Section F, next page

  • Yes, I have been vaccinated box2
      ↓
    1. Did you get your vaccination in CSC?
      • No  box0
      • Yes box1

F. Your knowledge of infectious diseases and risk behaviours

Questions about HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus)

129. Please answer Yes or No to each question below.  If you aren’t sure or don’t know the answer, check Don’t Know.

  1. Is HIV spread by coughing or sneezing?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  2. Can a woman protect herself from getting HIV during sexual intercourse if the man pulls out his penis before he climaxes / cums?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  3. Is there a risk of getting HIV if a person has unprotected anal sex?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  4. If a person washes their genitals/private parts after sex, can they protect themselves from getting HIV?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  5. Is there such a thing as a female condom that can be used by women to protect themselves from getting HIV during sexual intercourse?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  6. Is HIV spread from one person to another if they share a drink?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  7. If a person is taking antibiotics, are they protected from getting HIV?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  8. Is HIV spread in swimming pools and hot tubs?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  9. Is it possible to get HIV from oral sex?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  10. If a person uses Vaseline or baby oil with a condom, does this lower their chance of getting HIV?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  11. Is there a risk of getting HIV if a person shoots up with a needle used by someone else?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  12. Is HIV spread through food?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  13. Is there medication a person can take that will cure HIV?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  14. Is plastic wrap (Saran wrap) as effective as a condom in protecting a person from getting HIV during sexual intercourse?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2

The answers to question 129 will be given to you when you’ve finished the survey.

Questions about hepatitis C

130. Please answer Yes or No to each question below.  If you aren’t sure or don’t know the answer, check Don’t Know.

  1. Is it possible for someone to get hepatitis C if they borrow straws and / or crack pipes to snort or smoke cocaine?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  2. Is it possible for a person to get hepatitis C if they have unprotected sexual intercourse?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  3. Is there a risk of getting infected with hepatitis C while getting a tattoo or piercing?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  4. Is hepatitis C spread through food?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  5. Is there a vaccine that can prevent people from getting hepatitis C?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  6. Is there a risk of getting hepatitis C if a person injects with a needle used by someone else?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  7. Is hepatitis C spread in hot tubs and swimming pools?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  8. Is it true that some people live for many years with hepatitis C without feeling sick?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  9. Is it possible, with the use of medication, to no longer be able to detect hepatitis C in a person’s blood?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  10. Is hepatitis C spread by coughing or sneezing?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  11. Once a person’s hepatitis C has been treated and the virus can’t be detected in their blood, is it possible for them to get re-infected with hepatitis C?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  12. If a person is taking antibiotics, are they safe from getting hepatitis C?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  13. Is hepatitis C spread from one person to another if they share a drink?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2
  14. Is it possible for a person to get hepatitis C if they borrow a razor or toothbrush from someone?
    • Yes box1
    • No  box0
    • Don’t Know box2

The answers to question 130 will be given to you when you’ve finished the survey.

131. How at risk are you of getting infected with HIV while in prison?

  • No risk        box0
  • Low risk        box1
  • Medium risk     box2
  • High risk        box3
  • I’m already infected box4

132. How at risk are you of getting infected with hepatitis C while in prison?

  • No risk        box0
  • Low risk        box1
  • Medium risk      box2
  • High risk        box3
  • I’m already infected box4

133. How at risk are you of getting a sexually transmitted infection while in prison?

  • No risk        box0
  • Low risk        box1
  • Medium risk      box2
  • High risk        box3
  • I’m already infected box4

Place your completed questionnaire in the envelope, seal it well and hand it to the survey administrator.

DO NOT PUT YOUR NAME (OR ANYONE ELSE’S NAME) ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE OR THE ENVELOPE.

Your health is very important!

For more information, the survey administrator will give you the answers to questions 129 and 130 on HIV and hepatitis C.

If you think you may be at risk or think you’ve been exposed to HIV, hepatitis C, or other infectious diseases, see the health care staff as soon as possible.

Thank you very much for your time and participation!

 

Questionnaire Errata

Table C1:
Questionnaire Errata
Section/
Question
Issue Rectification
Transition statement, section B, p.12 Inconsistent wording between English and French.

English:
If you were admitted after November 2006, please answer thinking about your prison experience in CSC since you were admitted.

French:
If you were admitted after November 1, 2006, please answer for the period since your admission until today.
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q39 Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = No
1 = Yes
2 = Didn’t know if they were infected or not

French:
0 = No
1 = Yes, I knew this person was infected
2 = Yes, I thought or I suspected this person to be infected
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q48a to Q48d Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = Never
1 = Rarely
2 = Often
3 = Always

French:
0 = Never
1 = Sometimes
2 = Often
3 = Always
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q49a
Q49b
Inconsistent coding of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = No
1 = Yes
2 = Don’t know
3 = Doesn’t apply

French:
0 = Yes
1 = No
2 = I don’t know
3 = Doesn’t apply
Make French version consistent with English version.
Transition statement, section B, p.20 Inconsistent wording between English and French.

English:
Note: If you were admitted to CSC after November 2006, please answer the questions below thinking about your prison experience in CSC since then.

French:
If you were admitted after November 1, 2006, please answer for the period since your admission until today.
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q61 Inconsistent wording of question across English and French versions.

English:
Since last November in prison, have you had sex with anyone who had HIV, hepatitis C or sexually transmitted infections?

French:
Since last November in the institution, have you had unprotected sexual relations with a person with HIV, hepatitis C or with a sexually transmitted infection?
Make French version consistent with English version.
Transition statement, section B, p.21 Inconsistent wording between English and French.

English:
If you were admitted after November 2006, please answer thinking about your prison experience in CSC since you were admitted.

French:
If you were admitted after November 1, 2006, please answer for the period since your admission until today.
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q74 Inconsistent coding of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = Never
1 = Rarely
2 = Often
3 = Always

French:
0 = Never
1 = Rarely
1 = Often
1 = Always
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q79 Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = No
1 = Yes
2 = Didn’t know if they were infected or not

French:
0 = No
1 = Yes, I knew this person was infected
2 = I didn’t know if the person was infected
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q84 Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = No
1 = Yes
2 = Didn’t know if they were infected or not

French:
0 = No
1 = Yes, I knew this person was infected
2 = I didn’t know if the person was infected
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q86a to Q86d Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = Never
1 = Rarely
2 = Often
3 = Always

French:
0 = Never
1 = Sometimes
2 = Often
3 = Always
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q100 In the English version, the program description has a typographical error in the following sentence: “The course is also about how diseases such as can be spread.” The sentence should read as follows: “The course is also about how diseases can be spread.”
Q102 Inconsistent coding of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = Yes
1 = No
2 = I’m a PEC counsellor

French:
0 = No
1 = Yes
2 = I’m a PEC counsellor
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q109 Inconsistent coding of response options in English and French.

English:
0 = No, I was never tested
1 = Don’t know
2 = Yes, I was tested

French:
0 = No, I was never tested
1 = Yes, I was tested
2 = I don’t know
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q110, No, a Inconsistent wording of response options in English and French.

English:
5 = I have HIV
6 = I was already tested and was negative

French:
5 = I already knew I had HIV
6 = I already knew I didn’t have HIV
Make French version consistent with English version.
Q114 Error in coding of English question. 1 = No, I’m not currently taking HIV medication
1 = Yes, I’m still taking my HIV medication
Code as follows: 0 = No, I’m not currently taking HIV medication
1 = Yes, I’m still taking my HIV medication
Q120,Yes, b Inconsistent wording of question across English and French versions.

English:
What was the result of your last hepatitis C test?

French:
What was the result of the hepatitis C test at admission?
Make French version consistent with English version.

Appendix D: Answers to Survey Questions on Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C

HIV FACTS

  • You can’t tell if a person has HIV just by looking at them.
  • HIV can be found in blood, semen (cum), vaginal fluid (cum), and breast milk of an infected person.
  • You can get HIV if you have unprotected sex (if you don’t use a condom or dental dam) with a person who has HIV.
  • You can get HIV if you share rigs (needles/syringes) and works (water, cooker, spoons, cotton) with someone who has HIV.
  • You can get HIV if you share tattooing or piercing equipment with someone who has HIV.
  • HIV can enter through cuts and open sores on the skin and in the vagina, rectum (bum), mouth and nose.
  • To find out if you have HIV, ask a nurse in Health Care for a blood test.
Question Answer Here’s why
a. Is HIV spread by coughing or sneezing? No
  • There are no reports of anyone getting HIV from being exposed to coughing or sneezing by a person who has HIV.
  • There can be a small amount of HIV in saliva (spit) but not enough to infect a person.
b. Is a woman protected from HIV during sexual intercourse if the man pulls out his penis before he climaxes/cums? No
  • HIV could be in his ejaculate (cum) and in his pre-ejaculate (or “pre-cum” - liquid that is released from the penis before he cums).
  • Even if he pulls out his penis before he cums, the “pre-cum” will have already entered the woman. This also explains why women can get pregnant even if a man pulls out his penis before he cums.
  • Sexual intercourse (penile-vaginal) without a condom is a high-risk activity for getting HIV.
c. Is there a risk of getting HIV if a person has unprotected anal sex? Yes
  • The skin inside the bum is thin and can be easily cut. If HIV-infected cum or blood enters the cut, a person could HIV.
  • Anal sex without a condom is a high-risk activity for getting HIV.
  • Always use a condom and lots of water-based lubricant when having anal sex.
d. If a person washes their genitals/private parts after sex, can they protect themselves from getting HIV? No
  • The HIV will have entered your body during sex, so washing after sex will not kill the HIV.
  • Urinating (peeing) or douching after sex will not kill the HIV either.
  • Always use protection (condom, dental dam or non-microwavable plastic wrap) when having sex.
e. Is there such a thing as a female condom that can be used by women to protect themselves from getting HIV during sexual intercourse? Yes
  • With the female condom, a woman does not have to depend on her male partner to wear a condom.
  • The woman puts the female condom in her vagina.
  • Some people use the female condom for anal sex. The female condom is inserted in the bum. Lots of water-based lubricant should be used as the condom could tear.
f. Is HIV spread from one person to another if they share a drink? No
  • There have been no reports of getting HIV by drinking from the same glass as someone with HIV.
  • There can be HIV in saliva (spit), but not enough to infect a person.
g. If a person is taking antibiotics, are they protected from getting HIV? No
  • There are no medications that you can take to prevent you from getting HIV.
  • You can prevent yourself from getting HIV by:
    • using condoms and dental dams;
    • not using someone else’s rigs and works; and;
    • not using someone else’s tattooing or piercing equipment.
h. Is HIV spread in swimming pools and hot tubs? No
  • There are no reports of someone getting HIV by sharing a hot tub or swimming in a pool with a person who has HIV.
i. Is it possible to get HIV from oral sex? Yes
  • HIV can be found in ejaculate (cum) and vaginal fluids. If you have an open sore in your mouth and you go down on someone with HIV, the virus could enter your body through the open sore.
  • Unprotected oral sex is a low-risk activity for getting HIV, but you should always use a non-lubricated condom when going down on a man. Use a dental dam or non-microwavable plastic wrap as a barrier when going down on a woman.
j. If a person uses Vaseline or baby oil with a condom, does this lower their chance of getting HIV? No
  • Vaseline or baby oil will weaken a latex condom making it easier for the condom to break.
  • Use only water-based lubricants
k. Is there a risk of getting HIV if a person shoots up with a needle used by someone else? Yes
  • Using someone else’s rig (syringe/needle) is a high-risk activity for getting HIV.
  • Full strength bleach will kill HIV and should be used if you use someone else’s syringe.
l. Is HIV spread through food? No
  • There are no reports of a person getting HIV from food.
m. Is there medication a person can take that will cure HIV? No
  • There is no cure for HIV.
  • There are drugs that a person with HIV can take to help them live longer.
n. Is plastic wrap (Saran wrap) as effective as a condom in protecting a person from getting HIV during sexual intercourse? No
  • Plastic wrap can easily slip off a penis during and after insertion.
  • For oral sex, you can use plastic wrap (the non-microwavable kind) instead of a dental dam.
More about HIV

If you have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes, or genital warts, you could be at high-risk for getting HIV.

Here’s why

  • Some STIs can cause open sores in and/or around the genitals and anus.  You may have open sores and not even know it.  When you use a condom or dental dam, you can protect yourself and your partner from not only HIV, but other STIs as well.
  • If you have any open sores in and/or around your genitals or anus, or you think you might have sores in your vagina or bum, see a nurse in health care.  STIs can be treated and cured.
HEPATITIS C FACTS
  • You can’t tell if a person has hepatitis C just by looking at them.
  • The hepatitis C virus can be found in the blood of an infected person.
  • You can get hepatitis C if you have blood to blood contact (an open bleeding cut comes into contact with an open bleeding cut) with a person who has hepatitis C.
  • You can get hepatitis C if you share rigs (needles/syringes) and works (water, cooker, spoons, cotton) with someone who has hepatitis C.
  • You can get hepatitis C if you share tattooing or piercing equipment with someone who has hepatitis C.
  • You can get hepatitis C if you have unprotected sex (if you don’t use a condom or dental dam) with a person who has hepatitis C.
  • Hepatitis C can enter through cuts and open sores on the skin and in the vagina, rectum (bum), mouth and nose.
  • The hepatitis C virus can live for a long time in blood outside the body – up to 4 days.
  • To find out if you have hepatitis C, ask a nurse in Health Care for a blood test.
Question Answer Here’s why
a. Is it possible for someone to get hepatitis C if they borrow straws and / or crack pipes to snort or smoke cocaine? Yes
  • There could be hepatitis C-infected blood on the straw or crack pipe that you might not be able to see.
  • When the cocaine is snorted or smoked, hepatitis C-infected blood can enter the body through cuts in your nose or on your lips.
b. Is it possible for a person to get hepatitis C if they have unprotected sexual intercourse? Yes
  • Hepatitis C is spread through blood to blood contact.
  • If there are open sores on the penis, in the vagina or in the bum, you could get hepatitis C if you have unprotected sexual intercourse with a hepatitis C-infected person who also has open sores.
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse is a low-risk activity for getting hepatitis C.
  • You should use a condom to protect yourself from hepatitis C, because you may have cuts or open sores you’re not aware of.
c. Is there a risk of getting infected with hepatitis C while getting a tattoo or piercing? Yes
  • There may be hepatitis C-infected blood that you cannot see on the piercing and tattooing equipment.
  • There could be also be blood in the inks used for tattooing.
  • Using someone else’s tattooing or piercing equipment is a high-risk activity for getting hepatitis C.
d. Is hepatitis C spread through food? No
  • There are no reports of a person getting hepatitis C from food
e. Is there a vaccine that can prevent people from getting hepatitis C? No
  • There are vaccines to prevent people from getting hepatitis A and B, but there is no vaccine to prevent someone from getting hepatitis C.
f. Is there a risk of getting hepatitis C if a person injects with a needle used by someone else? Yes
  • Blood is almost always present in a used needle or syringe, even though you may not be able to see it.
  • Using a needle/syringe that has been used by someone else is a high-risk activity for getting hepatitis C.
g. Is hepatitis C spread in hot tubs and swimming pools? No
  • There are no reports of someone getting hepatitis C by sharing a hot tub or swimming in a pool with someone who has hepatitis C.
h. Is it true that some people live for many years with hepatitis C without feeling sick? Yes
  • Some people live for many years with hepatitis C and do not feel sick. However, even though they feel fine, they are infectious and can infect others if their blood comes into contact with the blood of another person.
i. Is it possible, with the use of medications, to no longer be able to detect hepatitis C in a person’s blood? Yes
  • Until recently, doctors would tell their hepatitis C patients that they had “cleared the virus”. This means that the virus could no longer be detected in their blood. Some doctors are now saying that the hepatitis is cured when it can no longer be detected in the blood.
j. Is hepatitis C spread by coughing or sneezing? No
  • There are no reports of anyone getting hepatitis C from being exposed to coughing or sneezing by a person who has hepatitis C.
k. Once a person’s hepatitis C has been treated and the virus can’t be detected in their blood, is it possible for them to get re-infected with hepatitis C? Yes
  • A person can get infected with hepatitis C again if they continue to practice risk behaviours such as sharing injecting, tattooing and piercing equipment, sharing razors or toothbrushes, or having unprotected sex where there is blood to blood contact.
l. If a person is taking antibiotics, are they safe from getting hepatitis C? No
  • There are no medications that you can take to prevent you from getting hepatitis C.
  • You can prevent yourself from getting hepatitis C by:
    • using condoms and dental dams;
    • not using someone else’s rigs and works;
    • not using someone else’s razor or toothbrush; and;
    • not using someone else’s tattooing or piercing equipment.
m. Is hepatitis C spread from one person to another if they share a drink? No
  • There are no reports of someone getting hepatitis C by drinking from the same glass as someone with hepatitis C.
n. Is it possible for a person to get hepatitis C if they borrow a razor or toothbrush from someone? Yes
  • There could be blood on the razor or toothbrush which you may not be able to see. If you have open cuts on your face, you could get hepatitis C from a razor used by someone who has hepatitis C. If you have open sores in your mouth, you could get hepatitis C from a toothbrush used by someone who has hepatitis C.
Answers to Survey Questions Errata
Table D1:
Answers to Survey Questions Errata
Question Issue Rectification
HIV, question c Typographical error: “If HIV-infected cum or blood enters the cut, a person could HIV.” Should read: “If HIV-infected cum or blood enters the cut, a person could get HIV.”
HIV, question g Typographical error: “not using someone else’s rigs and works; and;” Should read: “not using someone else’s rigs and works; and,”
Hepatitis C, question c Typographical error: “There could be also be blood in the inks used for tattooing.” Should read: “There could also be blood in the inks used for tattooing.”
Hepatitis C, question l Typographical error: “not using someone else’s razor or toothbrush; and;” Should read: “not using someone else’s razor or toothbrush; and,”

1 CSC Research Branch, CSC Public Health Branch, and the Public Health Agency of Canada HIV/AIDS Policy, Coordination and Programs Division and Community Acquired Infections Division.