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An Examination of Sex Offender Case Histories in Federal Corrections

1993, n° R-30
by
Laurence L. Motiuk Frank J. Porporino
Research and Statistics Branch
Correctional Service Canada
April, 1993

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I.  INTRODUCTION

II.  DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE-FILE REVIEW INSTRUMENT

III.  DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE-FILE REVIEW

A. Sampling Frame
B. Sample Size Determination
C. Sampling Procedure
D. Field Work
E. File Review Completion Rates

IV.  FINDINGS

PERSONAL BACKGROUND:
A. Demographic Characteristics
B. Criminal History
General History
Juvenile Offence History
C. Education/Employment History
D. Marital/Family History
E. Sexual Abuse History
F. Mental Health History
G. Substance Abuse History
SEX OFFENCE HISTORY:
A. Sex Offender Status
B. Most Recent Sex Offence
C. Complete Sex Offence History
SEX OFFENDER TYPOLOGY:
A. Child Victims
B. Adolescent Victims
C. Adult Victims

V.  DISCUSSION

VI.  REFERENCES

VII.  APPENDIX A

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Sample Size Determination

Table 2. Selection Intervals

Table 3. File Review Completion Rates by Stratum

Table 4. File Review Completion Rates by Region: On-register

Table 5. File Review Completion Rates by Region: Community

Table 6. Percentage Distribution of General Demographics

Table 7. Percentage Distribution of Statistical Information on Recidivism (SIR) Scale Risk Groupings

Table 8. Percentage Distribution of Juvenile Arrest Records

Table 9. Percentage Distribution of Education/Employment Problems

Table 10. Percentage Distribution of Marital/Family Problems

Table 11. Percentage Distribution of Sexual Abuse Problems

Table 12. Percentage Distribution of Mental Health Problems

Table 13. Percentage Distribution of Substance Abuse Problems

Table 14. Percentage Distribution of Sex Offenders Status

Table 15. Percentage Distribution of Victim Characteristics

Table 16. Percentage Distribution of Victim Harm

Table 17. Percentage Distribution of Antecedents/motives Assessed by Reviewers

Table 18. Percentage Distribution of Antecedents/motives Reported by Offenders

Table 19. Percentage Distribution of Circumstances Around Most Recent Sex Offence

Table 20. Percentage Distribution of Complete Sex Offence History

Table 21. Percentage Distribution of Child Victim Characteristics

Table 22. Percentage Distribution of Adolescent Victim Characteristics

Table 23. Percentage Distribution of Adult Victim Characteristics

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express our sincere thanks to all those who assisted in the execution of this study. Joe Beltempo, Catherine Cormier, and Verne Quinsey were very helpful in providing guidance for the design of the study and deserve considerable thanks. Linda Lefebvre assisted us directly with both the management of data and conducting analyses. We would also like to extend our appreciation for the efforts of those in the regions, namely, the Correctional Service of Canada records staff. As well, acknowledgement should be extended to Larry Corea and the firm of ARA for the very competent work in the data collection process.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A series of reviews by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) on programs and services for sex offenders had underscored the fact that a more co-ordinated programming and service strategy was needed in Canadian federal corrections. Moreover, it was strongly recommended that further research on sex offenders be pursued. Therefore, a nationwide 'Sex Offender Population Study' was initiated which had two components: 1) a census identification of all sex offenders and 2) an extensive case-file review of a large sample of sex offenders from across the country. While the first report examined the census data gathered on sex offenders, this report describes the 'Case-file Review' conducted to enhance our knowledge of the nature and characteristics of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction - both in institutions and under community supervision.

The present investigation began with the design and development of a structured case-file review instrument and a set of guidelines for completing a 'Case-file Review Schedule'. This instrument was used to gather case-specific information on the following: demographics, criminal history (i.e., general, juvenile, sex offence), education/employment, marital/family problems, sexual abuse history, mental health, substance abuse and sex offender typology (i.e., victim gender and age preferences).

The design of the 'Case-file Review' involved systematic selection, a modification of simple random sampling, of all sex offenders in CSC operational units (institutions and parole offices) with the exception of federal sex offenders in provincial facilities (n=74), Community Correctional Centres (n=33), females (n=1) and sex offenders located in CSC parole offices with less than 10 cases (n=142). These adjustments to the sex offender population base were made in order to establish a case-file review sample that was logistically feasible.

Two sampling frames were employed: 1) sex offenders currently on-register (i.e., institution/day parole) and 2) sex offenders currently under community supervision (i.e., full parole/mandatory supervision). These two frames were used to generate listings of sex offenders for case-file review. After adjustments to both the 'on-register' and 'community' supervision population bases had been made, a total of 2,777 federal sex offenders (2,088 [75.2%] 'on-register' and 689 [24.8%] 'community') served as candidates for sampling.

Both the 'on-register' and 'community' sex offender population bases were first ordered by CSC region (i.e., Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies, Pacific) with eligible cases listed by institution or parole office and then by age within operational unit. Case-file review samples were chosen to yield a 5% margin of error for a 95% level of confidence. Of the 2,777 sex offenders originally targeted for sampling, 842 (30.3%) were actually selected in the five CSC regions. The overall completion rate for case-file reviews was 785 (93.2%). The results of the 'Case-file Review' are organized into three sections: 'personal background', 'sex offence history' and 'sex offender typology'. Descriptive statistics for the sex offender population are presented with respect to 'institution', 'community' as well as 'overall'. To obtain an 'institution' group those sex offenders identified as being on day parole at the time of file-review were removed from the 'on-register' sample and placed in the 'community' group.

Statistical analyses revealed that the average age at admission for the sex offender population was 34.6 years old. At the time of the case-file review, the average age of the 'institution' sex offender population was found to be significantly younger than that in the 'community' (37.6 and 40.2 years, respectively). While four fifths of the sex offender population was found to be Caucasian, the second largest group were Natives (15%). Another important finding was that nearly 50% of the sex offenders examined were serving sentences of less than four years and roughly 8% of the sex offender population was serving a life sentence.

As a global measure of criminal history, the Statistical Information on Recidivism (SIR) Scale revealed that nearly two thirds of the sex offender population ranged from "good" to "very good" risk. This means that, as a group, sex offenders have experienced relatively less exposure to the criminal justice system than other offenders, which may suggest limitations for the SIR Scale in the determination of release risk. With respect to sex offenders' juvenile records, it was found that a substantial proportion (44.1%) had a history of arrests as juveniles.

A review of the sex offender population's educational background revealed that four fifths had less than grade 12 and one half had less than grade 10. Although the majority of sex offenders had been employed at the time of their current offence, more than one half were found to have been unstable in their employment pattern. In terms of occupation, nearly two thirds of the sex offenders were unskilled labourers. While less than a third of the sex offenders had experienced financial problems during the year prior to their current offence, two thirds of the sex offender population had been relying on social assistance.

The review of marital/family histories found that most of the sex offenders were single at the time of their current offence and that more than a third were reported to have been dissatisfied with their marital status at the time. It is noteworthy that the majority of sex offenders had been separated from their biological parents before age 16. Of those separated from their biological parents, one third had been placed in child welfare agencies and a similar proportion had been placed in training schools. Another important finding was that more than a third of the federal sex offender population had been abused by their parent(s) and/or primary caregiver(s) before the age of 16 years. Upon closer examination, it was found that about one third of the sex offenders had experienced physical abuse and that an equivalent proportion had been subjected to some form of emotional abuse or neglect. Finally, about one half of the sex offenders' parent/primary caregiver(s) were reported to have had alcohol/drug problems.

A closer examination of the sexual abuse histories for sex offenders revealed that one third had experienced sexual abuse before the age of 16. Interestingly, a further breakdown of the sexual abuse histories of sex offenders indicated that among those sex offenders who had been abused, more than three quarters had been abused by males, one quarter had been abused by authority figures and one third had experienced physical aggression by a sexual abuser.

The review of sex offenders' mental health histories found that one third of the sex offender population had suffered severe emotional problems prior to the current offence. It was noteworthy that a third of the sex offenders had received treatment by a mental health professional (i.e., more than one contact) prior to their current offence. Of those sex offenders who had received treatment, nearly 50% had received treatment from a mental health professional in the community. Approximately 20% of the sex offenders had a psychiatric admission in the past.

The substance abuse histories recorded in case-files for sex offenders revealed that they were likely to have had some problems (e.g., occasional minor arguments, assault charges) or interference with life (e.g., health threatened, frequent charges, job loss, marriage breakdown) associated with both alcohol and drug abuse as a teenager and as an adult. It is noteworthy that three quarters of the sex offenders had a history of alcohol abuse and roughly two thirds had a history of drug abuse.

An analysis of the ways in which sex offenders could be identified administratively showed that the majority of sex offenders (87.0%) were currently under sentence for a major admitting sex offence (i.e., 'major' is defined as the offence with the longest sentence). While the majority (69%) of federal sex offenders were serving their first sentence for a sex offence(s), less than a third had been convicted in the past for one or more sex offenses. It was noted that nearly one fifth of the sex offender population was known to have committed sexual offence(s) in the past but were never convicted. As expected, sex offenders in an 'institution' were more likely than sex offenders in the 'community' to be repeat sex offenders, currently under sentence for sexually-related crimes and to have previously committed a sexual offence but never convicted.

A descriptive profile of sex offenders was provided in relation to the most recent victim. The analyses on victimization clearly indicated the majority (90%) of victims were female, slightly more than one third (36.3%) were 12 years of age or younger, and in three out of four cases there was only one victim. We noted that for slightly more than a third of the case-files reviewed, the victims were unknown to the offender.

The nature of sexual offending was examined in relation to three factors: the degree of force used on the victim, the degree of physical injury and the nature of the act perpetrated on the victim. It was found that approximately one third of the sex offenders used physical aggression which could be described as a minor assault (e.g., hit, slap, push). Although the majority of victims (57%) were reported to have suffered no physical injury, 15% had been treated in a hospital. Nearly all of the sex acts perpetrated against victims involved physical contact. There were less than 2% of cases which involved exhibitionism or spoken contact (e.g., suggestive, propositions). It was found that for one third of the federal sex offender population the sexual act involved penetration or attempted penetration of the victims (e.g., oral, vaginal, anal).

Based on case-file reviewer appraisals of the offence description and victim statement, a distribution of antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence, found that for the majority of cases (91.0%) the motive was sexual gratification. We also examined sex offender case-files for the offenders' description of antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence and found that a large percentage of the sex offenders resisted taking full responsibility for their offenses. Many sex offenders claimed that they were innocent (21%) and some said they were either too intoxicated to know better (4.4%) or that their victims had actually consented (4.4%).

A descriptive analysis of the circumstances around their most recent sex offence revealed that, at the time, two thirds of the sex offender population had consumed alcohol, one third had used drugs, one half had planned the offence, two thirds had an alcohol problem, two fifths had a drug problem, and one out of ten had previously undergone sex offender treatment. It would appear that alcohol abuse is a significant problem among this population.

In exploring the complete sex offence history (all known sex offenses including the most recent), the case-file review revealed that two thirds of the federal sex offender population had victims who were 18 years of age or younger and that the overwhelming gender preference was female. A review of the circumstances around the complete sex offence history indicated that a large percentage of sex offenders had admitted responsibility for a previous sex offence and had used alcohol and/or drugs during or immediately prior to a sex offence. While less than one half (38%) of the sex offender population showed a pattern of increasing seriousness or severity of sex offenses over time, 43% had a pattern of increasing rate of sex offenses over time. Of special note, 44% had participated in some form of sex offender treatment program following a sex offence.

Further examinations of gender preference, relationship between the sex offender to the victim and characteristics of the acts perpetrated against victims were conducted separately for child, adolescent and adult victims. Information on child victimization indicated that two thirds of the child victims were either a biological or step-child of the sex offender. It was found that in relatively few cases (one in ten) the sex offender was a stranger to the child victim. With respect to the acts perpetrated against child victims, approximately 85% of the sex offender population had contact with children which involved touching, fondling or rubbing.

Information on adolescent victimization for the sex offender population showed that four fifths of the victims were female. Although one out of three adolescent victims were either a biological or step-child, it was also found that in a third of the cases the adolescent victim was found to be a stranger to the sex offender. In examining the acts perpetrated against adolescent victims, almost three quarters of the sex offender population had contact with adolescents which involved touching, fondling or rubbing. Nearly a quarter of these offenders were found to have had physical contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

Case-file review information on adult victimization revealed that overwhelmingly, adult victims of sex offenders were most often females. For more than half of the cases, the adult victim was a stranger to the sex offender and for about one quarter they were a casual acquaintance. More than a third of the adult victims of sex offenders had contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

In sum, the 'Case-file Review' component of the 'Sex Offender Population Study' yielded comprehensive information on the federal sex offender population. While the findings of this study may be limited only to federally sentenced sex offenders, it was learned that this group of offenders could be characterized by the absence of "static" factors (e.g., criminal history) and the presence of "dynamic" or situational/victimization factors (e.g. family situation, intoxication, age-gender sexual preference). This points to a need to standardize a risk assessment process specifically adapted for a sex offender population which would increase our ability to identify those who are likely to experience adjustment difficulties while on conditional release. In keeping with risk management practice, the application of systematic risk/need assessments and reassessments to the sex offender population could provide a useful means of monitoring changes in a sex offenders' behaviour, attitudes and circumstance which are clearly related to 'relapse' or re-offence phenomenon.

AN EXAMINATION OF SEX OFFENDER CASE HISTORIES IN FEDERAL CORRECTIONS

I.  INTRODUCTION

     The Working Group on Sex Offender Treatment Review (Ministry of the Solicitor General, 1989) and the Correctional Service of Canada's (CSC) Task Force on Mental Health (CSC, 1990) both recommended that further research be conducted on sex offenders for the purpose of developing and evaluating special treatment programs. Moreover, both of these reviews underscored the fact that a more co-ordinated programming and service strategy was needed.

     It is generally recognized that there is insufficient information available in existing automated data bases to provide a comprehensive profile of the number, types and characteristics of sex offenders under federal supervision. While such information is essential for the ongoing development and subsequent evaluation of sex offender assessment and treatment programs, it is also required to assist in the development of strategies to improve the management of re-offence risk in the sex offender population. A broad research strategy was established to ensure that accurate and relevant information would become available on sex offenders under federal supervision.

     Some recent research on federal sex offenders in Canada also provided impetus for further investigation. Gordon and Porporino (1990) reported that, in 1989, there were a total of 1,574 sex offenders in Canadian federal penitentiaries. At the time, this figure represented approximately 13% of the total federal inmate population. More importantly, it represented more than a doubling of the incarcerated sex offender population since 1978. However, as Gordon and Porporino (1990) pointed out, these percentages represented an underestimate of the actual sex offender population under federal supervision. In their study which relied on available automated data, it was possible to report only incarcerated offenders who had their 'major' offence (i.e., the offence which received the longest sentence) classified as sexual according to the criminal code. Consequently, sex offenders with multiple convictions who were serving their longest sentence for non-sex offenses were not included in the statistics. In addition, offenders currently serving sentences for nonsexual offenses but who also had previous convictions for sex offenses; offenders who had committed sexually-related offenses but were convicted for another major offence (i.e., homicide), and sex offenders under community supervision were not reflected in their data.

     While it is known that offence characteristics become very salient with respect to estimating the risk of sexual re-offending, available information on sex offending through CSC's automated offender information system offers only criminal code designations and does not clarify the circumstances surrounding the sexual offence (i.e., type, victims, etc.). Therefore, a nationwide 'Sex Offender Population Study' was initiated which had two related components: 1) a census identification of all sex offenders under federal supervision; and 2) an extensive case-file review of a large sample of sex offenders from across the country.

     The 'Sex Offender Census' was conducted to accurately identify the number, types and characteristics of federally sentenced sex offenders - both in institutions and under community supervision (Porporino & Motiuk, 1991). A standardized census checklist was administered by case management officers who reviewed sex offenders on their current caseloads. The census checklist gathered case-specific information such as: status (i.e., current offenses or previous history, details of the current sex offence (i.e., nature of the offence, number of victims, age and sex of victims, degree of injury, degree of force, presence of alcohol or drugs), past history of sexual offenses (i.e., patterns, seriousness) and treatment history (i.e., dates, type/nature, location, sponsors).

     The census portion of the 'Sex Offender Population Study' yielded information on 3,066 sex offenders. Preliminary results of the national sex offender census showed that sex offenders made up 14.9% of CSC's total offender population. In addition, it was found that 18.9% of the incarcerated population and 9.9% of the conditional release population were sex offenders.

     This, the second component of the 'Sex Offender Population Study', involved a comprehensive case- file review of a large sample of federal sex offenders from across the country. The case-file review portion of the 'Sex Offender Population Study' focused on the collection of detailed information on the personal background of the sex offender population as well as characteristics of the offenses they had committed. This report, which details the methodology employed in the case-file review, is essentially an examination of case histories for sex offenders in federal corrections.

II.  DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE-FILE REVIEW INSTRUMENT

     The information which resides in CSC's automated offender information system on sex offenders yields little information on the nature and characteristics of sex offenders. Therefore, it was decided that in conjunction with the census identification of sex offenders under federal supervision, a comprehensive case-file review of a large sample of sex offenders would be conducted in order to capture information available only from a systematic review of file documentation.

     Development of the Case-file Review Instrument. The case-file review instrument was designed to yield detailed information on the personal background of sex offenders (i.e., demographics, criminal, education/employment, marital/family, sexual abuse, mental health, substance abuse); sexual offending (i.e., most recent, most serious, offence with longest sentence), and typology (i.e., age and gender of victims, degree of force used, motives, treatment history).

     The design of the 'Case-file Review' instrument began with a contractor hired to do the data collection while working in close collaboration with CSC research staff. A case-file review instrument was drafted containing approximately 200 questions which had been drawn from a variety of sources. For example, several specialists in the field of sex offender research and treatment were consulted in order to facilitate the conceptual development of the case-file review instrument and to frame suitable questions pertinent to sex offenders. Subsequently, a case-file review instrument was drafted and pre-tested on 75 files. A copy of the final case-file review instrument is included as Appendix A.

III.  DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE-FILE REVIEW

A.  Sampling Frame

     A study sample of sex offender case-files to be reviewed was selected by using CSC's automated offender information system. Two sampling frames were used: 1) the on-register (i.e., institution/day parole) and 2) the community supervision (i.e., full parole/mandatory supervision) listings of current federally sentenced offenders who had been convicted of sex offenses. This procedure resulted in a population base of 3,027 sex offenders under federal jurisdiction. However, a number of adjustments to the population base had to be made in order to establish a case-file review sample that was logistically feasible (i.e., due to time constraints, distance, resources). These adjustments excluded the following: 1) sex offenders located in provincial facilities (n=74); sex offenders in Community Correctional Centres (n=33); female sex offenders (n=1); and sex offenders located in CSC parole offices with less than ten cases (n=142). After these adjustments, a total of 2,777 federal sex offenders [2,088 on-register (75.2%) and 689 on full parole or mandatory supervision (24.8%)] served as candidates for sampling.

B.  Sample Size Determination

     The determination of sample size depends on the following: 1) design of the study, 2) population size, 3) variability in the target population, 4) desired precision, 5) expected non-response and 6) operational constraints. Relying on the methodology used by CSC to conduct a national mental health survey of federal inmates (Motiuk & Porporino, 1991), we wished to achieve representativeness among sex offenders for the 'on-register' and community' population bases that would be correct within a 5% margin of error with 95% confidence. In Table 1, we present the sample sizes that were calculated for the case-file review.

Table 1. -- Sample Size Determination

STRATUM   POPULATION BASE   SAMPLE SIZE
On-register
2,088
504
Community
689
338

C.  Sampling Procedure

     Systematic selection, a modification of simple random sampling, was used as the method to select cases from the on-register and community listings. This procedure entailed selecting individuals through the application of a selection interval so that every 'Ith' offender on the list, following a random start, would be included in the sample.

     Selection intervals for the case-file review were determined by simply dividing the adjusted on- register and community population bases by the desired sample size. As Table 2 indicates, the selection intervals were the inverse of the sampling fraction.

Table 2. -- Selection Intervals

STRATUM    SELECTION INTERVAL
On-register
4.142
Community
2.038

     Thus, two systematic random samples were generated from the on-register and community listings as follows: individuals were first sorted by region, and within each region, by specific location (i.e., prison, parole office) and ascending order of age. This procedure was followed to ensure that there would be proportional representation by region, by location within regions and by age as well. With cases sorted in this fashion, a random starting point was used to begin selection within the range of the sampling interval.

D.  Field Work

     In order to ensure the quality of the case-specific information being extracted from sex offenders' files, the organization and administration of field work for the case-file review entailed the careful recruitment and selection of reviewers, training in the administration of the coding instrument, on-site reviews of case-files, field supervision and quality control.

     File Reviewer Recruitment and Selection. While the recruitment of case-file reviewers was left to the judgement of the consulting firm employed to perform the task of data collection, a variety of personal attributes were considered essential for selecting case-file reviewers. These included: at least an undergraduate degree in criminology or other social science discipline; work experience in corrections; personal suitability; ability to scan reports with a high degree of comprehension; ability to interpret information and make judgements on the basis of best available information; maturity and security clearance at the enhanced reliability level. While the majority of file reviewers were anglophone, bilingual reviewers (i.e., english/french) were recruited to examine the documentation written in french.

     A total of 18 file reviewers were selected to work on the project. Due to time constraints, reviewers not already known to the consulting firm were initially screened on the basis of submitted resumes and telephone interviews. Performance during the training sessions served as a further opportunity for assessing the suitability of potential candidates before the data collection process began.

     Training of File Reviewers. The proper training of file reviewers was recognized as critical to gathering comprehensive and reliable data on the sex offender population. Two-day training sessions were held to introduce the purpose and scope of the 'Sex Offender Population Study'; outline the structure of the 'Case-file Review Manual'; identify the relevant sources of information within the case file documentation available on the sex offender population; and gain experience with this data extraction method from the files of sex offenders.

E.  File Review Completion Rates

     A total of 2,777 sex offenders were targeted as potential candidates for the case-file review. Subsequent to systematic random selection, a total of 842 sex offenders (33.7%) were identified for file review in the CSC institutions and parole offices. Unfortunately, 74 case-files (7%) were found to be no longer available at the settings at the time of the study (i.e., due to relocation, etc.).

     In Table 3, we present the obtained overall completion rates for each of the three adjusted population bases. The overall case-file review completion rate (i.e., 'on-register' and 'community' samples combined) was 93.2%. We note that there was little differentiation in the overall case-file review completion rates between the 'on-register' (94.6%) and 'community' (91.1%) samples.

Table 3. -- File Review Completion Rates by Stratum

STRATUM
 POPULATION
BASE
 ADJUSTED
BASE
SAMPLE
COMPLETED
n   %
 
On-register
2,196
2,088
504
477   94.6
Community
831
689
338
308   91.1
TOTAL
3,027
2,777
842
785   93.2

     In order to understand the nature and characteristics of sex offenders 'on-register', we sought to review all of the case-files that were sampled for these facilities. In Table 4, we show the file review completion rates for each region. Of those reviewed, the Pacific and Quebec region had the highest completion rates (100.0% and 97.1%, respectively). Overall, the obtained case-file review completion rate for sex offenders 'on-register' was 94.6%

Table 4. -- File Review Completion Rates by Region: On-register

STRATUM
POPULATION
BASE
ADJUSTED
BASE
SAMPLE
COMPLETED
n   %
 
Atlantic
204
182
44
39   88.6
Quebec
448
432
104
101   97.1
Ontario
552
547
132
125   94.7
Prairie
590
535
129
117   90.7
Pacific
402
392
95
95   100.0
TOTAL
2,196
2,088
504
477   94.6

     In Table 5, we present the case-file review completion rates for sex offenders under 'community' supervision for each region. Although the overall case-file review completion rate (i.e., regional samples combined) was 91.1%, there was some variation in completion rates across the regions.

Table 5. -- File Review Completion Rates by Region: Community

REGIONAL
STRATUM
POPULATION
BASE
ADJUSTED
BASE
SAMPLE
COMPLETED
n   %
 
Atlantic
93
64
31
28   90.3
Quebec
239
219
108
104   96.3
Ontario
177
127
62
53   85.5
Prairie
162
132
65
57    87.7
Pacific
160
147
72
66   91.7
TOTAL
831
689
338
308   91.1

IV.  FINDINGS

     The results of the 'Case-file Review' are organized into three sections: personal background', 'sex offence history' and 'sex offender typology'. Descriptive statistics for the sex offender population are presented with respect to 'institution', community' as well as 'overall'. To obtain an 'institution' or incarcerated grouping, those sex offenders identified as being on day parole at the time of file-review (3%) were removed from the 'on-register' sample and placed in the 'community' group. It should be noted that group sizes (N's) may vary due to incomplete information on case-files.

A.  Demographic Characteristics

     Table 6 presents a distribution of selected background characteristics for sex offenders in an 'institution' and in the 'community'. As expected, statistical analyses revealed that the average age at admission for sex offenders in an 'institution' did not significantly differ from the 'community' supervision group (Means=34.7 and 34.6 years, respectively). However, at the time of the case-file review the 'institution' sex offender population was found to be significantly younger than those sex offenders under community supervision (37.7 and 40.1, respectively). While four out of five sex offenders in the case-file review were found to be Caucasian, the next most representative group were natives (15%). Another important finding was that nearly 50% of the sex offenders examined were serving sentences of less than four years. Roughly 8% of the sex offenders reviewed were serving life sentences.

Table 6. -- Percentage Distribution of General Demographics

Variable
‘Institution’
‘Community’
Overall
 
Age (in years):
at admission
at file review

M=34.7 SD=11.2
M=37.7 SD=11.0

M=34.6 SD=10.5
M=40.1 SD=11.5

M=34.6 SD=10.9
M=38.6 SD=11.3
 
% (n/N)
% (n/N)
% (n/N)
Race:
Caucasian
Native
Asian
Black
Other

77.4 (352/455)
16.2 (75)
1.3 (6)
3.2 (15)
1.5 (7)

80.0 (257/319)
11.8 (37)
0.9 (3)
3.1 (10)
3.8 (12)

78.7 (609/774)
14.5 (112)
1.2 (9)
3.2 (25)
2.5 (19)
Sentence Length:
less than 2 years
2 to 4 years
5 to 9 years
10+ years
Life

1.1 (5/463)
42.3 (196)
32.6 (151)
14.5 (67)
9.5 (44)

2.2 (7/322)
52.2 (168)
30.1 (97)
10.3 (33)
5.3 (17)

1.5 (12/785)
46.4 (364)
31.6 (248)
12.9 (100)
7.8 (61)

B.  Criminal History

     General History. The Statistical Information on Recidivism Scale (SIR) reflects a list of 15 risk-related factors found to be significantly associated with the decision to grant or refuse parole (Nuffield, 1982). Given that the majority of risk-related items in the SIR Scale entail criminal history, it also provides a general measure of exposure to the criminal justice system (e.g., previous convictions, incarcerations and revocations).In Table 7, we present a breakdown of the SIR risk groupings for sex offenders in an 'institution' and in the 'community'. Although the overall risk groupings for nearly two thirds of the sex offender population ranged from "good" to "very good", it was found that the percentage of cases in the poorer risk category was greater for those sex offenders in the 'institution' group (p<.02).

Table 7. -- Percentage Distribution of Statistical Information on Recidivism (SIR) Scale Groupings

Variable
‘Institution’
‘Community’
Overall
 
SIR Total Score
M=2.3 SD=10.6
M=6.0 SD=10.8
M=3.7 SD=10.8
 
% (n/N)
% (n/N)
% (n/N)
Risk Grouping:
Very Poor
Poor
Fair
Good
Very Good

17.8 (61/342)
12.3 (42)
12.3 (42)
19.6 (67)
38.0 (130)

9.1 (18/199)
9.6 (19)
11.1 (22)
17.6 (35)
52.8 (105)

14.6 (79/541)
11.3 (61)
11.8 (64)
18.9 (102)
43.4 (235)

     Juvenile Offence History. Upon examination of the sex offenders' juvenile records, it was found that 319 sex offenders (44.1%) had a history of arrests as juveniles. Table 8 presents a breakdown of the type of juvenile offence(s) recorded for the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groups. Although the types of recorded offence(s) for sex offenders was quite varied, we found that juvenile arrest records were most prevalent among those sex offenders in the 'institution' group and between the ages of 16 and 18.

Table 8. -- Percentage Distribution of Juvenile Arrest Records

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Juvenile Record:
49.3 (206/418)
36.8 (107/291)
44.1 (319/723)
Arrests - under age 16:
Violent Offence(s)
Sex Offence(s)
Other Offence(s)

9.5 (15/158)
7.6 (12/159)
51.6 (83/161)

7.5 (7/94)
5.2 (5/96)
51.0 (49/96)

8.7 (22/252)
6.7 (17/255)
51.4 (132/257)
Arrests - age 16 to age 18:
Violent Offence(s)
Sex Offence(s)
Other Offence(s)

17.1 (30/176)
14.6 (26/178)
82.6 (147/178)

15.2 (15/99)
8.8 (9/102)
73.0 (73/100)

16.4 (45/275)
12.5 (35/280)
79.1 (220/278)

C.  Education/Employment History

     A look at the education/employment histories of the sex offender population revealed that four out of five sex offenders had less than grade 12 and one half had less than grade 10. In Table 9, we present a breakdown of the education/employment problems for these offenders. Although the majority of sex offenders had been employed at the time of their current offence, more than 50% were found to be unstable in their employment pattern. With respect to type of occupation, the largest proportion of sex offenders (65%) were unskilled labourers during the year prior to their current offence. While less than a third of the sex offenders had experienced financial problems during the year prior to their current offence, two out of three sex offenders had relied on social assistance.

Table 9. -- Percentage Distribution of Education/Employment Problems

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Highest school grade completed:
less than grade 8
less than grade 10
less than grade 12

28.5 (132/463)
59.8 (277)
85.5 (396)

26.4 (85/322)
56.2 (181)
82.9 (267)

27.6 (217/785)
58.3 (458)
84.5 (663)
Unemployed at time of current offence:
48.3 (208/431)
39.4 (119/302)
44.6 (327/733)
Frequently unemployed at time of offence:
58.4 (201/344)
46.8 (126/269)
53.3 (327/613)
Occupation during the year prior to
current offence:
student
unskilled labour
skilled labour
clerical, sales
lower management/ supervisory
managerial/professional
other


0.9 (3/324)
68.5 (222)
7.1 (24)
4.3 (14)
8.6 (28)
2.2 (7)
8.0 (26)


0.8 (2/263)
59.7 (157)
18.3 (48)
1.1 (3)
9.1 (24)
3.0 (8)
8.0 (21)


0.9 (5/587)
64.6 (379)
12.3 (72)
2.9 (17)
8.9 (52)
2.6 (15)
8.0 (47)
Financial problems during the year prior
to current offence:
31.1 (93/299)
28.2 (77/273)
29.7 (170/572)
Reliance on social assistance:
40.7 (129/317)
36.0 (96/267)
38.5 (225/584)

D.  Marital/Family History

     The marital/family history of the sex offender population is presented in Table 10. We note that most of the sex offenders were single at the time of their current offence and that more than a third were reported to have been dissatisfied with their marital status at the time.

     It is noteworthy that the majority of sex offenders (60%) had been separated from their biological parents before age 16. Of those separated from their biological parents, one third had been placed in child welfare agencies and training schools. Another important finding was that more than a third of the federal sex offenders reviewed had been abused by their parent(s) and/or primary caregiver(s) before the age of 16 years. Upon closer examination, it was found that about one third of the sex offenders had experienced physical abuse and that an equivalent proportion had been subjected to some form of emotional abuse or neglect. Finally, more than 50% of the sex offenders' parent/primary caregiver(s) were reported to have had alcohol/drug problems, 8% had psychiatric problems and 6% had criminal histories.

Table 10. -- Percentage Distribution of Marital/Family Problems

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Marital status at time of current offence:
single

56.8 (262/461)

49.1 (157/320)

53.6 (419/781)
Dissatisfied with marital status at the time of current offence:
38.7 (121/313)
43.0 (107/249)
40.6 (228/562)
Separated from biological parents before age 16
62.2 (265/426)
55.2 (141/315)
59.2 (439/741)
Placement(s) before the age of 16:
child welfare
probation
training school
mental health facility
retardation facility

38.9 (98/252)
13.6 (33/242)
35.7 (87/244)
6.8 (17/252)
1.2 (3/251)

28.4 (48/169)
4.2 (7/167)
26.5 (45/170)
4.1 (7/171)
0.6 (1/171)

34.7 (146/421)
9.8 (40/409)
31.9 (132/414)
5.7 (24/423)
1.0 (4/422)
Abuse by parent(s) and/or primary caregiver(s) before the age of 16:
physical
emotional or neglect

40.4 (152/376)
36.6 (138/377)

24.8 (67/270)
24.1 (67/278)

33.9 (219/646)
31.3 (205/655)
Parent/primary caregiver(s) had:
alcohol/drug problem
psychiatric problem
criminal history

56.5 (212/375)
9.7 (30/308)
8.0 (24/300)

41.2 (107/260)
5.4 (13/239)
3.7 (9/244)

50.2 (319/635)
7.9 (43/547)
6.1 (3/544)

E.  Sexual Abuse History

     Table 11 presents the sexual abuse histories that were recorded. An inspection of Table 11 reveals that sex offenders in an 'institution' were more likely to have experienced sexual abuse before the age of 16 than sex offenders under community supervision (p<.01). Interestingly, a further breakdown of the sexual abuse histories of sex offenders indicated that among those sex offenders who had been sexually abused, more than three quarters had been abused by males, one quarter had been abused by authority figures (e.g., teacher, coach, scout leader, Big Brother) and one third had experienced the use of physical aggression by a sexual abuser.

Table 11. -- Percentage Distribution of Sexual Abuse Problems

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Victim of sexual abuse:
33.2 (117/352)
23.7 (63/246)
29.1 (180/618)
Sex of abuser(s):
male
female
both

78.5 (84/107)
13.1 (14)
8.4 (9)

69.0 (40/58)
20.0 (11)
12.0 (7)

75.5 (124/165)
15.2 (25)
6.7 (16)
Relationship of abuser(s) to offender:
biological parent
step-parent (foster)
sibling
other relative
friend
casual acquaintance
stranger
authority figure

12.8 (15/117)
7.5 (9)
10.8 (13)
15.0 (17)
1.7 (2)
28.8 (22)
9.4 (11)
23.9 (28)

13.3 (8/63)
13.3 (8)
10.0 (6)
18.3 (12)
1.6 (1)
15.9 (10)
4.8 (3)
23.8 (15)

12.8 (23/180)
9.4 (17)
10.6 (19)
16.1 (29)
1.7 (3)
17.8 (32)
7.8 (14)
23.9 (43)
Use of physical aggression by any sexual abuser during
or as part of any sexual act:
42.6 (23/54)
34.5 (10/29)
39.8 (33/83)

F.  Mental Health History

     The mental health histories of both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groups are presented in Table 12. We note that there was a statistically significant difference (p<.001) between the two groups in relation to having had suffered severe emotional problems prior to their current offence. More specifically, sex offenders in the 'institution' group were more likely to have experienced severe interference when compared to sex offenders in the 'community'. It is noteworthy that a third of the sex offenders had received treatment by a mental health professional (i.e., intervention entails more than one contact) prior to their current offence. Of those sex offenders who had received treatment, nearly 50% had received treatment from a mental health professional in the community. Approximately 20% of the sex offenders had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital or psychiatric ward of general hospital in the past.

Table 12. -- Percentage Distribution of Mental Health Problem

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Emotional Problems:
41.0 (181/441)
27.1 (85/314)
35.2 (266/755)
Treated by mental health professional:
38.2 (165/432)
28.5 (88/309)
34.1 (253/741)
Location of treatment:
community-based
under supervision
provincial facility
federal facility
psychiatric facility
develop. handicap. facility

49.7 (82/165)
7.9 (13)
7.9 (13)
19.4 (32)
14.5 (24)
0.6 (1)

50.0 (44/88)
12.5 (11)
4.5 (4)
13.6 (12)
17.0 (15)
2.3 (2)

49.8 (126/253)
9.5 (24)
6.7 (17)
17.4 (44)
15.4 (39)
1.2 (3)
Treated by mental health professional while on remand or bail:
8.1 (35/433)
10.0 (30/300)
8.9 (65/733)
Admitted to psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards of general hospitals:
20.5 (90/439)
15.0 (46/307)
18.2 (136/746)

G.  Substance Abuse History

     In Table 13, we present the substance abuse histories recorded in case-files. Statistical analyses revealed the sex offenders in the 'institution' group were significantly more likely than those in the 'community' to have had some problems (occasional minor arguments, assault charges) or interference with life (i.e., health threatened, frequent charges, job loss, marriage breakdown) associated with both alcohol and drug abuse as a teenager and drug abuse as an adult. It is noteworthy that three quarters of the sex offenders had a history of alcohol abuse and roughly two thirds of the sex offenders had a history of drug abuse as an adult.

Table 13. -- Percentage Distribution of Substance Abuse Problems

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Alcohol Abuse:
As a teenager
As an adult

57.3 (203/354)
78.2 (345/441)

44.0 (111/252)
78.0 (241/304)

51.5 (312/606)
78.1 (586/750)
Drug Abuse:
As a teenager
As an adult

50.9 (147/289)
66.8 (233/349)

33.7 (65/208)
53.3 (122/229)

43.7 (217/497)
61.4 (355/578)

SEX OFFENCE HISTORY:
A.  Sex Offender Status

     A distribution of the ways in which an individual could be identified as a sex offender in the case-file review is presented in Table 14. As the Table shows, the majority of sex offenders (87.0%) were currently under sentence for a major admitting sex offence (i.e., major is defined as the offence with the longest sentence). While the majority (69%) of federal sex offenders were serving their first sentence for a sex offence(s), less than one third had been convicted in the past for one or more sex offenses. We note that nearly one out of five of the sex offenders were also known to have committed sexual offence(s) in the past but were never convicted.

     As expected, sex offenders in the 'institution' group were more likely than sex offenders in the 'community' to have been repeat sex offenders (p<.001), currently under sentence for sexually-related crimes (p<.01) and to have previously committed a sexual offence but never convicted (p<.02).

Table 14. -- Percentage Distribution of Sex Offender Status

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Currently under sentence for a major admitting sex offence:
85.3 (405/463)
89.4 (288/322)
87.0 (683/785)
Currently under sentence for a non-major admitting sex offence:
14.3 (66/463)
11.2 (36/322)
13.0 (102/785)
Convicted in the past for one or more sex offenses:
Provincial
Federal
36.9 (171/463)
20.7 (96)
20.7 (96)
22.4 (72/322)
11.8 (38)
13.7 (44)
31.0 (243/785)
17.2 (134/781)
18.0 (140/779)
Currently under sentence for an offence that is not labelled as sexual
but which is known to be sexual in nature:

3.5 (16/463)

0.6 (2/322)

2.3 (18/785)
Known to have committed a sex offence in the past but
were never convicted:

21.0 (97/463)

14.0 (45/322)

18.1 (142/785)

B.  Most Recent Sex Offence

     A descriptive profile of sex offenders is provided in relation to the most recent victim. Analyses were also conducted for the most serious sex offence and the sex offence which received the longest sentence. However, these results will not be reported as they do not add to any of the conclusions which are drawn.

     For three quarters of the sex offender case-files reviewed, the most recent victim was the only victim. While another 20% were deemed to be the most representative, the remainder (5%) were the most seriously injured victim. A closer look at victim characteristics, the degree of harm to victims, antecedents/motives which led to the sex offence and circumstances around the most recent sex offence follows.

     In Table 15, victim information is presented for both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groupings. Overwhelmingly, the majority (87%) of victims were female, more than one third (37.3%) were 12 years of age or younger, and in three out of four cases there was one victim. We note that for slightly more than a third of the case-files reviewed, the victims were unknown to the offender.

Table 15. -- Percentage Distribution of Victim Characteristics

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Gender:
Male
Female

4.2 (65/457)
85.8 (392)

11.0 (33/319)
89.0 (284)

12.9 (100/776)
87.1 (676)
Age (years):
0 - 5
6 - 12
13 - 18
19 - 50
50+

6.6 (25/377)
32.4 (122)
24.7 (93)
31.6 (119)
4.8 (18)

5.9 (16/272)
29.0 (79)
32.7 (89)
29.8 (81)
2.6 (7)

6.3 (41/649)
31.0 (201)
28.0 (182)
30.8 (200)
3.9 (25)
Number of victims:
1
2
3+

73.7 (336/456)
12.7 (58)
13.6 (62)

75.7 (240/317)
14.2 (45)
10.1 (32)

74.5 (576/773)
13.3 (103)
12.2 (94)
Relationship to offender:
Spouse
Biological parent
Step-parent
Biological child
Step-child
Sibling
Step-sibling
Other relative
Good friend
Supervisory
Acquaintance
Stranger

2.9 (13/459)
1.6 (7)
1.6 (7)
10.1 (45)
9.4 (42)
0.9 (4)
0.5 (2)
8.3 (37)
5.4 (24)
5.2 (23)
16.0 (73)
38.2 (170)

1.3 (4/305)
1.3 (4)
0.3 (1)
12.2 (39)
10.0 (32)
0.9 (3)
0.9 (3)
4.7 (15)
4.7 (15)
5.6 (18)
20.1 (64)
37.9 (121)

2.2 (17/764)
1.4 (11)
1.1 (8)
11.0 (84)
9.7 (74)
1.0 (7)
0.7 (5)
6.8 (52)
5.1 (39)
5.4 (41)
17.7 (135)
38.1 (291)

     Table 16 presents the degree of force used by sex offenders, degree of physical injury on victims and the nature of the acts perpetrated against victims. With respect to the degree of force, approximately one third of the sex offenders used physical aggression which could be described as a minor assault (e.g., hit, slap, push). Although the majority of victims (57%) were found to have suffered no physical injury, over 15% had to be treated in a hospital. Nearly all of the acts perpetrated against victims involved physical contact. It is noteworthy that less than 2% of cases involved only exhibitionism or spoken contact (e.g., suggestive, propositions). Another finding was that one third of the cases involved penetration or attempted penetration of the victims (e.g., oral, vaginal, anal).

Table 16. -- Percentage Distribution of Victim Harm

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Degree of force:
Implied
Enticement
Threaten/no weapon
Threaten/weapon
Minor assault
Brutal assault
Death/no mutilation
Death/mutilation

15.7 (67/426)
13.6 (58)
9.2 (39)
15.5 (66)
33.3 (142)
12.2 (52)
0.2 (1)
0.2 (1)

19.5 (60/305)
14.4 (44)
15.1 (46)
10.8 (33)
31.8 (97)
8.2 (25)
0.0 (0)
0.0 (0)

17.4 (127/731)
14.0 (102)
11.6 (85)
13.5 (99)
32.7 (239)
10.5 (77)
0.1 (1)
0.1 (1)
Degree of physical injury:
None
Slight/no weapon
Slight/weapon
Treated and released
Hospitalized
Death
Death/mutilation

55.8 (225/403)
20.9 (84)
5.8 (24)
9.6 (39)
7.0 (29)
0.2 (1)
0.2 (1)

59.1 (177/297)
23.9 (71)
3.0 (9)
8.0 (24)
5.4 (16)
0.0 (0)
0.0 (0)

57.4 (402/700)
22.1 (155)
4.7 (33)
9.0 (63)
6.4 (45)
0.1 (1)
0.1 (1)
Acts perpetrated:
Exposure
Spoken
Touch, fondle, rub
Penetration or attempted

0.5 (2/443)
1.4 (6)
64.1 (284)
34.0 (151)

0.6 (2/315)
0.3 (1)
68.9 (217)
30.2 (95)

0.5 (4/758)
1.3 (7)
65.1 (297)
33.1 (151)

     Based on case-file reviewer appraisals of the offence description and victim statement, a distribution of antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence is presented in Table 17. As we see in Table 17, for the majority of cases (91.0%) the antecedent to or apparent motive for the sex offence was sexual gratification.

Table 17. -- Percentage Distribution of Antecedents/motives Assessed by Reviewers

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Type:
Sexual gratification
Jealousy
Rejection
Heated argument
Revenge
Robbery
Delusions/hallucinations
Claims innocence
Intoxicated
Claims victim consented
Other

92.6 (387/418)
0.5 (2)
1.2 (5)
1.4 (6)
1.4 (6)
1.7 (7)
0.2 (1)
0.0 (0)
0.5 (2)
0.2 (1)
0.2(1)

88.9 (273/307)
0.0 (0)
4.9 (15)
0.3 (1)
1.3 (4)
2.9 (9)
0.3 (1)
0.3 (1)
0.3 (1)
0.0 (0)
0.7 (2)

91.0 (660/725)
0.3 (2)
2.8 (20)
1.0 (7)
1.4 (10)
2.2 (16)
0.3(2)
0.1(1)
0.4 (3)
0.1 (1)
0.4 (3)

     We also examined sex offender case-files for the offenders' description of antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence (see Table 18). While one half of the sex offenders reported that sexual gratification was the antecedent to or apparent motive for the sex offence, more than one out of five (21%) cases had claimed that they were innocent.

Table 18. -- Percentage Distribution of Antecedents/motives Reported by Offenders

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Type:
Sexual gratification
Jealousy
Rejection
Heated argument
Revenge
Robbery
Delusions/hallucinations
Sex education
Claims innocence
Intoxicated
Angered
Marital problem
Claims victim consented
Can’t explain
Doesn’t remember
Emotional need
Not perceived wrong
Other

47.0 (174/370)
0.8 (3)
2.2 (8)
1.4 (5)
1.6 (6)
2.4 (9)
1.1 (4)
0.5 (2)
25.7 (95)
4.9 (18)
1.9 (7)
0.0 (0)
4.1 (15)
1.4 (5)
2.7 (10)
1.1 (4)
0.5 (2)
0.8 (3)

55.6 (158/284)
0.4 (1)
4.2 (12)
0.4 (1)
2.1 (6)
3.2 (9)
1.4 (4)
0.4 (1)
16.9 (48)
3.9 (11)
0.0 (0)
1.1 (3)
4.9 (14)
0.4 (1)
2.1 (6)
1.1 (3)
0.7 (2)
1.4 (4)

50.8 (332/654)
0.6 (4)
3.1 (20)
0.9 (6)
1.8 (12)
2.8 (18)
1.2 (8)
0.5 (3)
21.9 (143)
4.4 (29)
1.1 (7)
0.5 (3)
4.4 (29)
0.9 (6)
2.5 (16)
1.1 (7)
0.6 (4)
1.1 (7)

     In Table 19, we present the circumstances around the most recent sex offence recorded in the case-files for both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groups. Descriptive analyses revealed that at the time of the most recent sex offence, two thirds of the sex offender population had consumed alcohol, one third had used drugs, one half had planned the offence, two thirds had an alcohol problem, two fifths had a drug problem, and one out of ten had previously undergone sex offender treatment. This pattern of results remained consistent for both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender population.

Table 19. -- Percentage Distribution of Circumstances Around Most Recent Sex Offence

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Consumed alcohol at time
69.7 (262/376)
67.8 (196/289)
68.9 (458/665)
Used drugs at the time
31.8 (112/352)
26.7 (74/186)
29.6 (186/629)
Planned sex offence
48.8 (184/377)
49.8 (139/279)
49.2 (323/656)
Alcohol problem at time
71.3 (316/443)
63.5 (198/312)
68.1 (514/755)
Drug problem at the time
46.6 (197/423)
31.9 (96/301)
40.5 (293/724)
Receiving mental healthtreatment at the time
5.2 (23/446)
4.2 (13/313)
4.7 (36/759)
Receiving sex offender treatment prior to offence
13.3 (60/450)
7.3 (23/317)
10.8 (83/767)

C.  Complete Sex Offence History

     In exploring the complete sex offence history (all known sex offenses including the most recent sex offence), the case-file review revealed that two thirds of the sex offender population had victims who were 18 years of age or younger and for more than four fifths the gender preference was female (see Table 20). A case-file review of the circumstances around the complete sex offence history showed that the majority of sex offenders had admitted responsibility for a previous sex offence and had used alcohol and/or drugs during or immediately prior to a sex offence. While about 38% of the sex offender population demonstrated a pattern of increasing seriousness or severity of sex offenses over time, 43% had a pattern of increasing rate of sex offenses over time. Interestingly, 44% had received sex offender treatment following a sex offence.

Table 20. -- Percentage Distribution of Complete Sex Offence History

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Victim age-gender:
newborn - 3 yrs. female
newborn - 3 yrs. male
4 - 8 yrs. female
4 - 8 yrs. male
9 - 12 yrs. female
9 - 12 yrs. male
13 - 15 yrs. female
13 - 15 yrs. male
16 - 18 yrs. female
16 - 18 yrs. male
19 - 49 yrs. female
19 - 49 yrs. male
over 50 yrs. female
over 50 yrs. male
age-gender unclear

1.7 (8/463)
0.4 (2)
15.6 (72)
4.8 (22)
13.2 (61)
2.8 (13)
10.4 (48)
2.2 (10)
10.2 (47)
0.0 (0)
30.2 (139)
0.9 (4)
3.0 (14)
0.0 (0)
5.0 (23)

2.5 (8/322)
0.4 (2)
12.7 (41)
2.5 (8)
13.7 (44)
3.7 (12)
13.7 (44)
2.5 (8)
9.9 (32)
0.3 (1)
30.8 (99)
1.0 (3)
2.2 (7)
0.0 (0)
4.0 (13)

2.0 (16/785)
0.5 (4)
14.4 (113)
3.8 (30)
13.4 (105)
3.2 (25)
11.7 (92)
2.3 (18)
10.1 (79)
0.1 (1)
30.3 (238)
0.9 (7)
2.7 (21)
0.0 (0)
4.6 (36)
Admits responsibility 54.4 (243/447) 56.4 (176/312) 55.2 (419/759)
Used alcohol/drug 79.7 (310/389) 72.8 (211/290) 76.7 (521/679)
Increasing seriousness 43.0 (131/305) 30.0 (59/197) 37.9 (190/502)
Increasing rate 49.7 (145/292) 33.3 (61/183) 43.4 (206/475)
Received sex offender treatment after an offence 39.9 (180/451) 49.8 (159/319) 44.0 (339/770)

SEX OFFENDER TYPOLOGY:

A closer examination of age-gender preferences, relationship between the sex offender to the victim and characteristics of the acts perpetrated against victims are presented separately for child, adolescent and adult victims.

A.  Child Victim

     In Table 21, child victim information is presented for both the 'institution' and community' sex offender groupings. While two thirds of the child sex offenders had female victims, two out of three child victims were either a biological or step-child. We note that in one out of ten cases the child victim was found to be a stranger to the sex offender. With respect to the acts perpetrated against child victims, approximately 85% of the sex offenders had physical contact with children which involved touching, fondling or rubbing. Overall, 14% of the sex offenders were found to have had physical contact with children which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration of the victims (e.g., oral, vaginal, anal).

Table 21. -- Percentage Distribution of Child Victim Characteristics

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Gender of child victim(s):
male
female
both

14.6 (25/171)
62.6 (107)
22.8 (39)

14.8 (16/108)
72.2 (78)
13.0 (16)

14.7 (41/279)
66.3 (185)
19.0 (53)
Relationship of child victim(s) to offender:
biological child
step-child (foster)
other relative
good friend
supervisory
casual acquaintance
stranger

30.2 (51/173)
27.2 (46)
11.2 (19)
1.8 (3)
9.5 (16)
10.7 (18)
9.5 (16)

41.1 (44/103)
22.4 (24)
10.3 (11)
0.0 (0)
5.6 (6)
9.4 (10)
11.2 (12)

34.4 (95/276)
25.4 (70)
10.9 (30)
1.1 (3)
8.0 (22)
10.1 (28)
10.1 (28)
Acts perpetrated against child victim(s):
Spoken (suggestive, etc)
Exhibitionism
Physical (touch, fondle, rub)
Sexual penetration or attempt
0.6 (1/168)
0.0 (0)
87.5 (147)
11.9 (20)
1.9 (2/107)
1.9 (2)
80.4 (86)
15.9 (17)
1.1 (3/275)
0.7 (2)
84.7 (233)
13.5 (37)

B.  Adolescent Victims

     Adolescent victim information for both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groups is presented in Table 22. We note that four fifths of the adolescent victims were female. Although one out of three adolescent victims were either a biological or step-child, it was also found that in a third of the cases the adolescent victim was found to be a stranger to the sex offender. In relation to the acts perpetrated against adolescent victims, almost three quarters of the sex offenders had physical contact with adolescents which involved touching, fondling or rubbing. Nearly a quarter of these offenders were found to have had physical contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

Table 22. -- Percentage Distribution of Adolescent Victim Characteristics

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Gender of child victim(s):
male
female
both

16.4 (33/201)
79.6 (160)
4.0 (8)

13.2 (19/144)
82.6 (119)
4.2 (6)

15.1 (52/345)
80.9 (279)
4.1 (14)
Relationship of child victim(s) to offender:
biological child
step-child (foster)
other relative
good friend
supervisory
casual acquaintance
stranger

21.1 (42/200)
11.3 (24)
9.3 (18)
2.1 (4)
7.2 (15)
21.1 (41)
27.8 (56)

21.7 (31/143)
12.6 (18)
4.9 (7)
1.4 (2)
8.4 (12)
17.5 (25)
33.6 (48)

21.4 (72/337)
11.9 (40)
7.4 (25)
1.8 (6)
7.7 (26)
19.6 (66)
30.3 (102)
Acts perpetrated against child victim(s):
Spoken (suggestive, etc)
Exhibitionism
Physical (touch, fondle, rub)
Sexual penetration or attempt

1.1 (2/191)
1.1 (2)
71.7 (137)
26.2 (50)

0.0 (0/141)
2.8 (4)
72.3 (102)
24.8 (35)

0.6 (2/332)
1.8 (6)
72.0 (239)
25.6 (85)

C.  Adult Victims

     Adult victim information for both the 'institution' and 'community' sex offender groups is presented in Table 23. Overwhelmingly, adult victims of sex offenders were most often females. For more than half of the cases, the adult victim was a stranger to the sex offender and for about one quarter they were a casual acquaintance. More than a third of the adult victims of sex offenders had physical contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

Table 23. -- Percentage Distribution of Adult Victim Characteristics

Variable
‘Institution’
% (n/N)
‘Community’
% (n/N)
Overall
% (n/N)
 
Gender of adult victim(s):
male
female
both

3.6 (9/247)
96.0 (237)
0.4 (1)

3.1 (5/160)
95.6 (153)
1.3 (2)

3.4 (14/407)
95.8 (390)
0.7 (3)
Relationship of adult victim(s) to sex offender:
biological parent
step-parent
sibling
biological child
step-child
other relative
good friend
casual acquaintance
stranger
spouse
patient
supervisor/teacher

0.4 (2/244)
0.0 (0)
2.0 (5)
1.2 (3)
0.8 (2)
4.9 (12)
7.0 (17)
23.0 (56)
54.5 (134)
5.3 (13)
0.0 (0)
0.4 (1)

0.6 (1/156)
0.6 (1)
1.3 (2)
2.6 (4)
0.6 (1)
2.6 (4)
7.7 (12)
28.9 (45)
52.6 (78)
1.9 (3)
0.6 (1)
0.0 (0)

0.5 (2/400)
0.3 (1)
1.8 (7)
1.8 (7)
0.8 (3)
4.0 (16)
7.3 (29)
25.3 (101)
54.0 (216)
4.0 (16)
0.3 (1)
0.3 (1)
Acts perpetrated against adult victim(s):
Spoken (suggestive, etc)
Exhibitionism
Physical (touch, fondle, rub)
Sexual penetration or attempt

1.7 (4/241)
1.2 (3)
53.1 (128)
44.0 (106)

0.0 (0/149)
0.7 (1)
67.8 (101)
31.5 (47)

1.0 (4/390)
1.0 (4)
58.7 (229)
39.2 (153)

V.  DISCUSSION

     The purpose of the 'Case-file Review' component of the 'Sex Offender Population Study' was to enhance our knowledge of the nature and characteristics of sex offenders under federal jurisdiction - both in institutions and under community supervision.

     The Case-file Review of the federal sex offender population began with the design and development of a structured case-file review instrument and a set of guidelines for reviewing documentation. This instrument was used to gather case-specific information on the following: demographics, criminal history (i.e., general, juvenile, sex offence), education/employment, marital/family problems, sexual abuse history, mental health, substance abuse and sex offender typology (i.e., gender and age preferences).

     The design of the 'Case-file Review' involved systematic selection, a modification of simple random sampling, of all sex offenders in CSC operational units (institutions and parole offices) with the exception of federal sex offenders in provincial facilities, Community Correctional Centres, females and sex offenders located in CSC parole offices with less than 10 cases. These adjustments to the sex offender population base were made in order to establish a case-file review sample that was logistically feasible. Case-file review sample were chosen to yield a 5% margin of error for a 95% level of confidence. Of the 2,777 sex offenders originally targeted for sampling, 842 (30.3%) were actually selected in the five CSC regions. The overall completion rate for case-file reviews was 785 (93.2%).

     The results of the 'Case-file Review' were organized into three sections: 'personal background', 'sex offence history' and 'sex offender typology'. Descriptive statistics were presented with respect to those in an 'institution' and in the 'community' as well as combined.

     Statistical analyses revealed that the average age at admission for the sex offender population was 34.6 years old. At the time of the case-file review, the average age of the 'institution' sex offender population was found to be significantly younger than those under community' supervision (37.6 and 40.2 years, respectively). While four fifths of the sex offender population was found to be Caucasian, the second largest group were Natives (15%). Another important finding was that nearly 50% of the sex offenders examined were serving sentences of less than four years and roughly 8% of the sex offender population was serving a life sentence.

     An analysis of Statistical Information on Recidivism (SIR) Scale groupings revealed that nearly two thirds of the sex offender population ranged from "good" to "very good" risk. This finding that sex offenders have experienced relatively less exposure to the criminal justice system than other offenders suggests some limitations may be placed on the SIR Scales' utility in the determination of release risk for sex offenders.

     A systematic review of the case file documentation yielded some important information. It is noteworthy that 44% of the sex offender population had a juvenile record, 85% had not completed high school, 53% had an unstable employment record, 65% were employed as unskilled labourers, 35% had been placed by child welfare agencies, 33% had a history of parental abuse, 30% had been a victim of sexual abuse, 35% had emotional problems, 20% had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital in the past, 78% showed indications of alcohol problems, and 61% showed signs of drug problems. It would appear that sex offenders may indeed form a relatively high risk/high need group of offenders.

     Information on victimization revealed that approximately one third of the sex offenders used physical aggression which could be described as a minor assault (e.g., hit, slap, push) and 10% could be described as a brutal assault (e.g., wounding, maiming). Although the majority of victims (57%) were reported to have suffered no physical injury, 15% had to be treated in a hospital. While nearly all of the sex acts perpetrated against victims involved physical contact, there were less than 2% of cases which involved only exhibitionism or spoken contact (e.g., suggestive, propositions). It was found that one third of the cases involved penetration or attempted penetration of the victims (e.g., oral, vaginal, anal).

     Based on file reviewer appraisals of motive, for the majority of cases (91.0%) it was deemed to be sexual gratification. On the other hand, offenders' description of antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence yielded a substantial proportion of sex offenders who resisted taking full responsibility for their offenses. Many sex offenders claimed that they were innocent (21%) and some said they were either too intoxicated to realize what they were doing (4.4%) or that their victims had actually consented (4.4%).

     Descriptive analyses of the circumstances around their most recent sex offence revealed that, at the time, two thirds of the sex offenders had consumed alcohol, one third had used drugs, one half had planned the offence, two thirds had an alcohol problem, two fifths had a drug problem, and one out of ten had previously undergone sex offender treatment. Again, it would appear that alcohol abuse is frequently a problem among this population.

     In exploring the complete sex offence history (all known sex offenses including the most recent), the review revealed that two thirds of the federal sex offender population had victims who were 18 years of age or younger and that the overwhelming gender preference (four fifths) was female. A further finding of the complete sex offence history was a large percentage of sex offenders who had admitted responsibility for a previous sex offence and had used alcohol and/or drugs during or immediately prior to a sex offence. While less than one half of the sex offender population showed a pattern of increasing seriousness or severity of sex offenses over time, more than a third had a pattern of increasing rate of sex offenses over time. Of special note, a substantial portion of the sex offender population (44%) had participated in some form of sex offender treatment program following a sex offence.

     Further examinations of gender preference, relationship between the sex offender to the victim and characteristics of the acts perpetrated against victims were conducted separately for child, adolescent and adult victims. Information on child victimization indicated that two thirds of the child victims were either a biological or step-child of the sex offender. It was found that in relatively few cases (one in ten) the sex offender was a stranger to the child victim. With respect to the acts perpetrated against child victims, approximately 85% of the sex offender population had physical contact with children which involved touching, fondling or rubbing.

     Information on adolescent victimization for the sex offender population showed that four fifths were female. Although one out of three adolescent victims were either a biological or step-child, it was also found that in a third of the cases the adolescent victim was found to be a stranger to the sex offender. In examining the acts perpetrated against adolescent victims, almost three quarters of the offenders had physical contact with adolescents which involved touching, fondling or rubbing. Nearly a quarter of these offenders were found to have had physical contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

     Case-file review information on adult victimization revealed that overwhelmingly, adult victims of sex offenders were most often females. For more than half of the cases, the adult victim was a stranger to the sex offender and for about one quarter they were a casual acquaintance. More than a third of the adult victims of sex offenders had physical contact which involved sexual penetration or attempted penetration.

     In sum, the 'Case-file Review' component of the 'Sex Offender Population Study' yielded comprehensive information on the federal sex offender population. While the findings of this study may be limited only to currently sentenced federal sex offenders, it was learned that this group of offenders could be characterized by the absence of "static" factors (e.g., criminal history) and the presence of "dynamic" or situational/victimization factors (e.g. family situation, intoxication, age-gender sexual preference). This points to a need to standardize a risk assessment process specifically adapted for a sex offender population which would increase our ability to identify those who are likely to experience adjustment difficulties while on conditional release. In keeping with case management practice, the application of systematic risk/need assessments and reassessments to the sex offender population could provide a useful means of monitoring changes in a sex offenders' behaviour, attitudes and circumstance which are clearly related to 'relapse' or re-offence phenomenon.

VI.  REFERENCES

Correctional Service Canada. (1991). Report of the task force on mental health. Ottawa.

Gordon, A., & Porporino, F. (1991). Managing the treatment of incarcerated sexual offenders. Corrections Today, 53, 162-168.

Motiuk, L. L., & Porporino, F. (1991). The prevalence nature and severity of mental health problems among federal male inmates in Canadian penitentiaries. Report No. 24, Research and Statistics Branch, Correctional Service Canada.

Nuffield, J. (1982). Parole decision-making in Canada: Research towards decision guidelines. Ottawa: Communication Division.

Porporino, F., & Motiuk, L. L. (1991). Preliminary results of the national sex offender census. Research and Statistics Branch, Correctional Service Canada.

Solicitor General of Canada. (1990). The management and treatment of sex offenders - Report of the working group: Sex offender treatment review. Ottawa.

VII.  APPENDIX A

CORRECTIONAL SERVICE CANADA

File Review Manual for the Federal Sex Offender Population Study

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I: BACKGROUND OF OFFENDER

A: Offender Demographics
B: Education/Employment History
C: Marital/Family History
D: Offender's Sexual Abuse History
E: Offender's Mental Health History
F: Offender's Substance Use History
G: Offender's Juvenile Offence History

PART II:  OFFENDER'S SEX OFFENCE HISTORY

A:  Most Recent Sex Offence
B.  Most Serious Sex Offence
C:  Sex Offence with Longest Sentence

D.  Complete Sex Offence History

PART III:  SEX OFFENDER TYPOLOGY

PART IV:  GENERAL CRIMINAL HISTORY

PART V:  CURRENT OFFENCE CASE MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTATION

Case Tracking
 
Operational Unit
Code __ __ __
Name of Unit _____________________________
 
1 Case Number: _______
2 FPS Number: _________
3 Coding Date: __/ __/ __ (yy/mm/dd)

PART I: BACKGROUND OF OFFENDER

A: Demographics   Instructions/Comments
     
4. Date of Birth (yy/mm/dd): __/ __/ __      
     
5. Race
1. Caucasian
2. Asian
3. Inuit
4. Aboriginal - Status
5. Aboriginal - Non- Status
6. Metis
7. Black
8. Other (specify) _________________
9. Not known
  5i). code only one category

  ii) If it is not possible to determine whether the
offender is a status or non-status aboriginal, code
as other and specify aboriginal
     
6. Preferred working language
1. English
2. French
3. Native Languages
8. Other (specify) __________________
9. Not known
  6. Code only one category
     
     
B: Education/Employment History    
     
7. Highest school grade completed at time of current offence
__ __
99 not known
  7i) Code highest grade as a 2 digit number (eg. 08)
   ii) code highest grade completed up to the end
of high school, including upgrading.
     
8. College of university prior to current offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  8. Code “yes” for some university or college
(postsecondary education).
     
9. Employment status at the time of the current offence
1. employed
2. unemployed
3. student
4. disability/retired
5. incarcerated
6. other (specify) ________
7. not known
  9. Code only one category
     
10. Frequently unemployed during the year prior to current
offence
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  10i) Code “yes” if known accumulated number of
months unemployed is greater than 6 months of
record of significant or problematic amount of
unemployment
  ii) code na if offender was unemployed because
he was incarcerated.
     
11. Occupation during the year prior to current offence
1. student
2. semi-skilled or unskilled labour (construction, factory,
cashier)
3. skilled labour (mechanic, plumber, machinist)
4. clerical, sales (insurance, auto dealer, computer)
5. lower management/supervisory (foreman, store manger,
self-employed, small business)
6. managerial, professional (executive, teacher, doctor,
lawyer)
7. unemployed/welfare
8. retired/disability
88. other (specify) ________
98. not applicable
99. not known
  11i). Report highest level achieved
  ii) code na if offender was unemployed because
he was incarcerated
     
12. Financial problems during the year prior to current
offence.
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  12i). For example, default on loans, overextended
credit, unable to meet payments
  ii) code na if offender incarcerated
     
13. reliance on social assistance during the year prior to
current offence
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  13i) For example, unemployment benefits,
welfare, disability pension.
  ii) Code na if offender incarcerated
     
14. Longest period of time continuously employed in months
__ __ __
(-99) not known
  14i) If offender changes jobs for better pay and/
or position, count as one period
  ii) code number of months as a three digit number.
     
     
C: Marital/Family History    
     
15. A social isolate at the time of current offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not know
  15. Code “yes” if offender lacked significant and
warm relationship with a non-relative; offender
has been described as, or , has expressed having
difficulty in meeting and maintaining friends, being
unable to get along with other, disregarding
feelings and expectations of others or expressing
extreme independence.
     
16. Living situation at the time of current offence
1. alone and transient (temporary shelter with different
acquaintances, YMCA)
2. alone and stable (own apartment or rooms)
3. with parent and/or sibling
4. with wife (include common-law relationship if 6 months
5. with roommates/friends (sharing apartment)
6. with partner in heterosexual relationship
7. with partner in homosexual relationship
8. supervised group home (halfway house)
9. with other family/relative
10. incarcerated
88. other (specify)_____
99. not known
   
     
17. Marital status at the time of current offence
1. single, never married
2. common-law union (6 months +)
3. married
4. separated
5. divorced
6. widowed
9. not known
  17. Code only one status
     
18. Dissatisfaction with marital status (indicated in item 17)
at the time of current offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  18. Offender expresses wish to separate from
spouse, depressed about loneliness of being
single, angered by divorce.
     
19. Total number of marriages/common-law relationships,
up to the time of current offence
__ __
9 not known
  19 i) Include in the total, relationship at time of
current offence.
  ii) Code as a 2 digit number.
     
20. Lived with both biological parents to age 16
1. yes
2. not
9. not known
   
     
21 Reason(s) for separation from biological parents before
age 16
1. death of parent
2. parental divorce or separation
3. parental institutionalization (significant incarceration,
psych. commitment).
4. offender institutionalization (training school, group home)
5. employment
6. left/expelled from home
7. in care of other family members
8. foster home/family
9. biological father not known
10. adoption
11. boarding/resid. school
12. poor family environment
13. abandoned by parent(s)
88. other (specify) _______
99. not known
  21i) Code all that apply
  ii) Code na it no separation
     
22. Age of first separation from biological parents
__ __
98. not applicable (no separation)
99. not known
  22i) Code as a 2 digit number
  ii) code na if no separation
     
23. Placement(s) before the age of 16
a) child welfare placement
b) probation placement
c) training school
d) mental health facility
e) retardation facility
(answer a to e as: 1. yes; 2. no; 8. n/a; 9. not
known)
  23i ) Code yes, no or not known to each of the
following to indicate if the offender was placed out
of his home in the following settings prior to the age
of 16
     
24. Physical abuse of the offender by parent(s) and/or
primary caregiver(s) before the age of 16
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  24. i) Example of physical abuse are frequent
slapping, beating, whipping and/or severe enough
as to cause injury.
  ii) Primary caregiver(s) includes step-parent,
foster-parent, group home supervisor
     
25. Source of report that the offender was a victim of
physical abuse before the age of 16
1. offender’s self-report
2. offender’s self report corroborated by official
documentation (police records, court report, social agency
report) or official documentation only
8. not applicable
  25. Code na if offender not physically abuse by
parent(s) and/ or primary caregiver(s)
     
26. Emotional abuse or neglect of the offender by parent(s)
and/or primary care giver(s) before the age of 16
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  26.i) Examples of emotional abuse are frequent
and/or severs verbal abuse, lock in closet,
abandonment
  ii) Examples of neglect are failure to meet basic
needs such as malnutrition, seek critical medical
help, put child’s life in danger.
     
27. Source of report that the offender was a victim of
emotional abuse or neglect abuse before the age 16
1. offender’s self report
2. offender’s self report corroborated by official
documentation or official documentation only
8. not applicable
  27. Code na if offender not emotionally abused or
neglected by parent(s)/primary caregiver(s)
     
28. Parent/primary caregiver had an alcohol and/or drug
problem
1. yes
2. no
3. not known
  28. Examples of problems are situations in which
alcohol and/or drug use in frequent and/or
severe enough as to threaten health, cause
severe behaviour change, social and
occupational problems, repeated charges and
convictions or admission to re-hab program
     
29. Parent/primary caregiver had a psychiatric problem
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  29. Examples include prescription of psychiatric
medication, involved in therapy with psychologist,
serious suicide attempts, psychiatric admissions.
     
30. Parent/primary caregiver had a criminal history
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  30. Criminal history is understood as formal
charges and convictions It is critical that the files
be examined thoroughly to gather information
regarding sexual abuse to the offender.
     
     
D: Offender’s Sexual Abuse History    
     
In this section, sexual abuse in defined as sexual acts which
were committed against the offender before the age of 16
where the abuser was at least 5 years older than the
offender.
   
     
31. Victim of sexual abuse before the age of 16
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  If answered No or Not Known to item 31, skip to item 38
     
32. Source of report that the offender was a victim of
sexual abuse before the age of 16
1. offender’s self report
2. offender’s self report corroborated by official
documentation or official documentation only
8. not applicable
9. not known
   
     
33. Age of offender when sexual abuse began
__ __
98. not applicable
   
     
34. Duration of sexual abuse in months
__ __ __
98not applicable
99 not known
  34I) Code 001 repeated sexual abuse which was
1 month or less in duration
  ii) Code na when there was only 1 abusive
contact.
     
35. Sex of abuser(s)
1. male
2. female
3. both
8. not applicable
9. not known
   
     
36. Relationship of abuser(s) to offender
1. biological parent
2. step-parent (foster parent)
3. sibling
4. other relative
5. friend
6. casual acquaintance
7. stranger (no previous contact)
8. authority figure (teacher, coach, clergy)
98. not applicable
  36. Code all that apply
     
37. Use of physical aggression by any sexual abuser during
or as part of any sexual act
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  37. Examples of physical aggression include
physical injury, restraining, choking, hitting,
threatened use of weapon.
     
     
E. Offender’s Mental Health History    
     
38. Emotional problems interfered severely with the
offender’s life prior to the current offence
1. yes
2. no
3. not known
  38. Examples of severe interference include
consulted mental health professional for help,
received psychiatric medication, serious attempts
at suicide, admission to psychiatric facility.
     
39a. Offender received treatment by a mental health
professional prior to current offence
1. no
2. yes, in the community
3. yes, in the community under supervision
(probation, full parole, day parole, mandatory supervision)
4. yes, in a provincial correctional institution
5. yes in a federal institution
6. yes in a psychiatric institution
7. yes, in an institution for the developmentally handicapped
8. not applicable
9. not known
  39a. Treatment entails intervention greater than
one contact.
     
39b. Offender received treatment by a mental health
professional while on remand or bail
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
40a. Admitted to psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wars of
general hospitals
1. yes
2. no.
9. not known
   
     
40b. Actual number of psychiatric admissions if known
__ __
98 not applicable
99 not known
  40b.i) Code number as 2 digits.
  ii) code na when no admissions
     
     
F: Offender’s Substance Use History    
     
41. History of alcohol abuse as a teenager
1. no problems associated
2. some problems associated (occasional minor arguments,
assault, charge
3. interference with life (health threatened, frequent charges,
job loss, frequent assaultive behaviour, marriage
breakdown, addiction)
8. not applicable
9. not known
  41i) Teenager is understood as an adolescent
under age 18.
  ii) Code na if offender never drank as a teenager.
     
42. History of alcohol abuse as an adult
1. no problems associated
2. some problems associated
3. interference with life
8. not applicable
9. not known
  42. Code na for an offender who never drinks.
     
43. History of drug abuse as a teenager
1. no problems associated
2. some problems associated
3. interference with life
8. not applicable
9. not known
  43. Code na for an offender who never drinks.
     
44. History of drug abuse as an adult
1. no problems associated
2. some problems associated
3. interference with life
8. not applicable
9. not known
  44. Code na for an offender who never drinks.
     
     
G Offender’s Juvenile Offence History    
     
45a. Offender had a juvenile offence history
1. yes
2. no
3. not known
  45a. i) Code Yes, No or Not known to indicate if
the offender was arested for this type of offence
before the age of 16.
  ii) Violent offenses are understood as person
offenses excluding sex offenses
     
45b. Arrests under age 16
A-1 violent offence(s) 1. Yes 2. No. 8. N/A 9. Not known
A-2 sex offence(s) 1. Yes 2. No. 8. N/A 9. Not known
A-3 other offence(s) 1. Yes 2. No. 8. N/A 9. Not known
N/A Not applicable
  45b. Code age as a 2 digit number.
     
45c. If aYes to any part of 45a, specify the age first arrested
__ __
98 not applicable
99 not known
   
     
46a. Arrests - age 16 to age 18
A-1 violent offence(s):
A-2 sex offence(s):
A-3 other offence(s):
1. yes; 2. no; 8. not applicable; 9. not known
N/A Not applicable
  46a i ) Code yes, no or not known to indicate if
the offender was arrested for this type of offence
before the age of 16.
  ii)Violent offenses are understood as person
offenses excluding sex offenses
     
46b. If yes was answered to any part of item 46a, specify
age arrested
__ __
98 not applicable
99 not known
   

PART II:  OFFENDER'S SEX OFFENCE HISTORY

47. Rationale for identification as a sex offender. Circle all that apply and provide number of offenses where required.      
     
47.1 The offender is currently under sentence for a major admitting sex offence (major is defined as the offence with the longest sentence).
1. Yes
2. No
   
     
47.2 The offender is currently under sentence for a non-major admitting sex offence (non-major is defined as an offence for which the sentence received was not the longest sentence received for the current term).
1. Yes
2. No
   
     
47.3 The offender has been convicted in the past for one or more sexual offenses for which he is not currently under sentence.    
     
47.3a If the offender was convicted for one or more sexual offenses and had served a Federal sentence(s) prior to the current sentence, indicate with 2 digits the number of sexual offenses for which he was convicted.
__ __
98 not applicable
99 not known
   
     
47.3b If the offender was convicted for one or more sexual offenses and had served a Provincial sentence(s) including a probation sentence(s), prior to the current sentence, indicate with 2 digits the number of sexual offenses for which he was convicted.
__ __
98 not applicable
99 not known
   
     
47.4 The offender is currently under sentence for an offence that is not labeled as sexual but which is known from its description to be sexual in nature. The charge may have been reduced through plea bargaining (Sexual Assault reduced to Assault Causing Bodily Harm) or the result of the more serious aspect of the sexual offence (a rape that ends in the murder of the victim becomes Manslaughter)
1. Yes
2. No
   
     
47.5 The offender is known to have committed a sex offence in the past for which he was never convicted. The offender may have admitted this himself of it may be documented on file as charges dropped or withdrawn, the reason for admission to a psychiatric or retardation facility, social services contact, or the reason parole was revoked.
1. Yes
2. No
   
     
A: Most Recent Sex Offence    
     
In this section, please provide the requested information for the most recent sexual offence(s)    
     
48. Date most recent sex offence(s) occurred
__/ __/ __
yy/ mm/ yy
-99/99. not known
   
     
49. Date charged for most recent sex offence(s)
__/__/__
yy/mm/yy
-98/98 not applicable
-99/99. not known
   
     
50. Date convicted for most recent sex offence(s)
__/__/__
yy/mm/dd
-98/98 not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
51a. Suspended sentence/ probation/ community service order received for most recent sex offence(s)
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
   
     
51b. Length in months of suspended sentence/ probationary or community service order sentence
__ __ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
   
     
52a. Carceral sentence received for most recent sex offence(s)
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
   
     
52b. Length in months of carceral sentence
__ __ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
999. life/indeterminate
   
     
51b. Code na if no suspended/ probationary or community service order received.    
     
52bi) code na if no carceral sentence received
  ii) Code as 999 if a life sentence of unspecified length or an indeterminate sentence was received
   
     
53. Criminal code numbers, offence descriptors and sentence type if convicted for most recent sex offence(s) Criminal Code Number Descriptor Sentence Type
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8. Not applicable
-99. Not known
  53. Sentence type: code 1 for single conviction
sentence, 2 for a concurrent sentence, 3 for a
consecutive sentence or nk for not known.
     
54. Total number of sexual victims in most recent sex offence(s)
__ __
98. Not applicable
99. Not known
   
     
Items 55 through 84 should be recorded for the most recent sexual victim. If 2 or more were involved in the most recent sexual offenc(s), provide information on the most seriously injured victim or the most representative victim.    
     
55. Nature of victim for whom information is provided
1. Most seriously injured
2. Most representative
3. Only one victim
8. Not applicable
9. Not known
  55. Indicate whether this victim was the most
seriously injured victim, the most representative
victim or the only victim of the most recent offence
     
56. Sex of Victim
1. male
2. female
8. not applicable
9. not known
   
     
57. Age of Victim
__ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
  57. Code age as a 2 digit number
     
58. Relationship of victim to offender
1. spouse
2. biological parent
3. step-parent (include foster)
4. biological child
5. step-child
6. sibling
7. step-sibling
8. other relative (uncle, aunt, nephew, grandparent)
9. good friend (include girlfriend/boyfriend)
10. supervisory acquaintance (teacher, coach, baby-sitter)
11. casual acquaintance (neighbour)
12. stranger
13. not a person
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
59. Degree of force (coercion) used to commit sex offence
1. none
2. enticement, persuasion (candy for child, job offer)
3. threaten to use force, no weapon
4. threaten to use force with weapon
5. physical aggression, minor assault (hit, slap, push)
6. physical aggression, serious assault (wounding, maiming, endangering victim’s life
7. caused death without post-death mutilation
8. caused death and post-death mutilation (cuts off victims breasts after she is dead)
98. not applicable
99. not known
  59. Code the amount of force clearly evident in the description of force (coercion) used in relation to this victim.
     
60. Degree of physical injury to victim
1. no injury
2. slight injury, no weapon
3. slight injury, weapon
4. victim treated in clinic (emergency room) and released
5. victim hospitalized at least one night
6. victim dead
7. victim death and post-death mutilation
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
61. Duration in months, if sexual abuse was more than one contact
__ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
  61i) Code 001 for repeated sexual abuse which was 1 month or less in duration   ii) Code na when there was only 1 abuse contact
     
62. Acts perpetrated against this victim
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration or attempted penetration of victim (oral, vaginal, anal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical contact with victim)
8. not applicable
9. not known
  62. Code all that apply
     
63. Antecedents to or apparent motives involved in the sex offence
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15. doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/ loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
  63i) Base your appraisal on the offence description and victim statement. Do not include the offender’s own explanation.
  ii) Code all that apply.
     
64_1. Offender’s description of antecedents to or   64. Code all that apply
     
64_2 motives involved in the sex offence   64. Code all that apply
     
64_3
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex, leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15. doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/ loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
  64. Code all that apply
     
65. Offender consumed alcohol at time of sex offence or immediately prior to most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
66. Offender used drugs at time of sex offence or immediately prior to most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
67. Offender planned sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  67. Examples of planning include seeking out specific victim types, clear evidence of planning by previous rehearsal, carrying rope, weapon, mask, cruising, stalking, altering car.
     
68. Offender had an alcohol problem at time of most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  68. examples of alcohol problem include blackouts, bingeing, charges, etc.
     
69. Offender had a drug problem at time of most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  69. Examples of drug problems include charges, addiction, frequent hard drug use, social interference.
     
70. Offender was receiving treatment other than sex offender treatment form a mental health professional at the time of the most recent offence.
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  70.I) Mental health professional includes social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist
  ii) Do not include sex offender treatment in coding this item.
     
71. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment prior to the most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  71. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending.
     
72. 1 General location of sex offender treatment,   72.i.) If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4.
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the most recent sex offence.
     
72_2 prior to the most recent sex offence    
     
72_3
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
73_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by   73I) Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex treatment following the most recent sex offence(s).
     
73_2 offender prior to the most recent sex offence    
     
73_3    
     
73_4
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
74. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment at the time of the most recent sex offence
1. yes
2 no
9. not known
  74. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending.
     
75_1 General location of sex offender treatment at   75I) If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4.
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment at the time of the most recent sex offence.
     
75_2 the time of the most recent sex offence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
7. other (specify) __________
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
76_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by   76. Code all that apply.
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment at the time of the most recent sex offence(s).
     
76_2 offender at the time of the most recent sex    
     
76_3 offence    
     
76_4
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management)
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
77. Offender commenced sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the most recent sex
offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
 
77. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending
     
78_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by   78i) Code all that apply.
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the most recent sex offence(s).
     
78_2 offender while on remand or bail for the most    
     
78_3 recent sex offence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management)
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
79. Offender expressed interest in sex offender treatment program for most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
80. Offender received sex offender treatment following the most recent sex offence
1. yes
2 no
3. in progress
9 not known
   
     
81_1 General location of sex offender treatment,   81I) If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment following the most recent sex offence.
     
81_2 following most recent sex offence    
     
81_3
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
82_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by   82i)code all that apply
  ii) code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment following the most recent sex offence.
     
82_2 offender following the most recent sex offence    
     
82_3    
     
82_4
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
83. Offender was under supervision of provincial or federal correctional authorities at the time of the most recent sex offence.
1. no (living in community)
2. incarcerated
3. offender on day parole
4. offender on full parole
5. offender on mandatory supervision
6. offender on partial release (temporary absence)
7. probation
8. bail/remand
9. at large
10. awaiting proceedings
99. not known
   
     
84. Offender was under supervision of mental health authorities at the time of the most recent sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  84. Examples of this type of supervision include mental retardation authorities, Warrant of the Lieutenant Governor.
     
B. Most Serious Sex Offence    
     
In this section, please provide the requested information for the most serious offence. the most serious sexual offence is the one which resulted in the greatest physical injury to the victim and/or in which the act perpetrated were the most lifethreatening. If the most serious sexual offence is also the most recent, skip ahead to section C Sec. B
1. not completed
2. completed
   
     
85. Date most serious sex offence occurred
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-98/98 not applicable
-99/99 not known
* not completed
   
     
86. Date charged for most serious sex offence
__/__/__
yy mm dd-
-98/98. Not applicable
-99/-99 Not known
Not completed
   
     
87. Date convicted for most serious sex offence
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-98/98 not applicable
-99/99 not known
* not completed
   
     
88a. Suspended sentence/ probation/ community service order received for most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
88b. Length in month of suspended sentence/probationary or community service order sentence
__ __ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
* not completed
  88b. Code na if no suspended sentence/ probationary or community service order received
     
89a. Carceral sentence received for most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
*not completed
   
     
89b. Length in months of carceral sentence
__ __ __
999. life/indeterminate
-98 not applicable
-99 not known
* not completed
  89bi) Code na if no carceral sentence received
  ii) code as 999 if a life sentence of unspecified
length or an indeterminate sentence was received.
     
90. Criminal code numbers, offence descriptors and sentence type if convicted for most serious sex offence Criminal Code # Descriptor Sentence Type
1.
2.
3.
  90. Sentence type: code 1 for single conviction, 2 for a concurrent sentence, 3 for a consecutive
sentence or nk for not known.
     
91. Total number of sexual victims in most serious sex offence
__ __
-99. not known
*not completed
   
     
Items 92 through 113 should be recorded for the victim of the most serious sex offence. If 2 or more were involved in the most serious sexual offence, provide information on the most seriously injured victim or the most representative victim.    
     
92. Nature of victim for whom information is provided
1. most seriously injured
2. most representative
3. only one victim
9. not known
* not completed
  92. Indicate whether this victim was the most
seriously injured victim, the most representative
victim or the only victim of the most serious
offence.
     
93. Sex of Victim
1. male
2. female
9. not known
*not completed
   
     
94. Age of victim
__ __
99. not known
* not completed
  94. Code age as a 2 digit number.
     
95. Relationship of victim to offender
1. spouse
2. biological parent
3. step-parent (include foster)
4. biological child
5. step-child
6. sibling
7. step-sibling
8. other relative (uncle, aunt, nephew, grandparent)
9. good friend (include girlfriend/boyfriend)
10. supervisory acquaintance (teacher, coach, baby-sitter)
11. casual acquaintance (neighbour)
12. stranger
13. not a person
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
96. Degree of force (coercion) used to commit sex offence
1. none
2. enticement, persuasion (candy for child, job offer)
3. threaten to use force, no weapon
4. threaten to use force with weapon
5. physical aggression, minor assault (hit, slap, push)
6. physical aggression, serious assault (wounding, maiming, endangering victim’s life
7. caused death without post-death mutilation
8. caused death and post-death mutilation (cuts off victims breasts after she is dead)
9. not known
* not completed
  96. Code the amount of force clearly evident in
description of force (coercion) used in relation
to this victim
     
97. Degree of physical injury to victim
1. no injury
2 slight injury, no weapon
3. slight injury, weapon
4. victim treated in clinic (or emergency ward) and released
5. victim hospitalized at least one night
6. victim death without post-death mutilation
7. victim death and post-death mutilation
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
98. Duration in months, if sexual abuse was more than one contact
__ __ __
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
* not completed
  98i) Code 001 for repeated sexual abuse which was 1 month or less in duration
  ii) Code na when there was only 1 abuse contact
     
99_1. Acts perpetrated against this victim    
     
99_2    
     
99_3
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration or attempted penetration of victim (oral, vaginal, anal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical contact with victim)
8. not applicable
9. not known
*not completed
   
     
100_1 Antecedents to or apparent motives involved 100_2 in the sex offence
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15 doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
* not completed
99. Code all that
apply
  100i) Base your appraisal on the offense
description and victim statement. Do not include
the offender’s own explanation.
  ii) code all that apply.
     
101_1 Offender’s description of antecedents to or   101. Code all that apply
     
101_2 motives involved in the sex offence    
     
101_3
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15 doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
102. Offender consumed alcohol at time of sex offence or immediately prior to most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
103. Offender used drugs at time of sex offence or immediately prior to most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
104. Offender planned sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  104. Examples of planning include seeking out
specific victim types, clear evidence of planning by previous rehearsal, carrying rope, weapon, mask, cruising, stalking, altering car.
     
105. Offender had an alcohol problem at time of most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  105i) Examples of alcohol problem include
blackouts, bingeing, charges, social interference
     
106. Offender had a drug problem of time of most serious offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  106i) Examples of drug problems include
charges, addiction, frequent use of hard drugs, social interference.
     
107. Offender was receiving treatment other than sex offender treatment form a mental health professional at the time of the most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  107i) mental health professional includes social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist
  ii) Do not include sex offender treatment as a
type of treatment in coding this item.
     
108. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  108. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending
     
109. General location of sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex offence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
  109i) If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex offence.
     
110_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received   110.i) Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex
offence(s)
     
110_2 by offender prior to the most serious sex    
     
110_3 offence.
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
111. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment at the time of the most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  111. code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending.
     
112. General location of sex offender treatment at the time of the most serious sex offence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
  112. If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex offence.
     
113_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by offender at the time of the most serious sex offence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
  113i) Code all that apply.
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the most serious sex offence.
     

114. Offender commenced sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  114. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending.
     
115. Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by offender while on remand or bail the most serious
sex offence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _______________________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
  115i) Code all that apply.
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the
most serious sex offence
     
116. Offender expressed interest in sex offender treatment program for most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
117. Offender has received sex offender treatment following the most serious sex offence.
1. yes
2. no
3. in progress
9. not known
   
     
118_1 General location of sex offender treatment   118. If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex
offender treatment prior to the most serious sex
offence.
     
118_2 following the most serious sex offence    
     
118_3
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
   
     
119_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received   119i) Code all that apply.
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment following the most serious sex offence
     
119_2 by offender following the most serious sex    
     
119_3 offence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
120. Offender was under supervision of provincial or federal correctional authorities at the time of the most serious sex offence
1. no (living in community)
2. incarcerated
3. offender on day parole
4. offender on full parole
5. offender on mandatory supervision
6. offender on partial release (temporary absence)
7. probation
8. bail/remand
9. at large
10. awaiting proceedings
99. not known
   
     
121. Offender was under supervision of mental health authorities at the time of the most serious offence.
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  121. Examples of this type of supervision include
mental retardation authorities, Warrants of the Lieutenant Governor.

PART III:  SEX OFFENDER TYPOLOGY

C: Sex Offence with Longest Sentence      
     
In this section, please provide the requested information for the sex offence with the longest sentence. If this is also the most recent sex offence or the most serious sex offence, skip ahead to Section D. If two sex offenses have the same sentence length, provide data on the most recent of these offenses.      
     
Sec. C
1. not completed
2. completed
   
     
122. Date sex offence with longest sentence occurred
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-98/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
* not completed
   
     
123. Date charged for sex offence with longest sentence
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-98/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
* not completed
   
     
124. Date convicted for sex offence with longest
sentence
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-98/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
* not completed
   
     
125a. Suspended sentence/probation/ community service order received for sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     

125b. Length in months of suspended sentence/ probationary or community service order sentence
__ __ __
-98 not applicable
-99. not known
* not completed
  125b. Code na if no suspended sentence/ probationary or community service order received
     
126a. Carceral sentence received for sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
126b. Length in months of carceral sentence
__ __ __
999. life/indeterminate
-98. not applicable
-99. not known
* not completed
  126bi) Code na if no carceral sentence received  
 ii) code as 999 if a life sentence of unspecified length or an indeterminate sentence was received.
     
127. Criminal code numbers, offence descriptors and sentence type if convicted for sex offence with longest sentence
Criminal Code # Descriptor Sentence Type
1.
2.
3.
  127. Sentence type: code 1 for single conviction, 2 for a concurrent sentence, 3 for a consecutive sentence or nk for not known.
     
128. Total number of sexual victims in sex offence with longest sentence
__ __
-99. not known
* not completed
   
     
Items 129 through 158 should be recorded for the victim of the sex offence receiving the longest sentence. If 2 of more victims were involved in the sexual offence with the longest sentence, provide information on the most seriously injured victim or the most representative victim.    
     
129. Nature of victim for whom information is provided
1. most seriously injured
2. most representative
3. only one victim
*not completed
  129. Indicate whether this victim was the most seriously inured victim, the most representative victim, or the only victim of the offence which received the longest sentence.
     
130. Sex of victim
1. male
2. female
9. not known
*not completed
   
     
131. Age of victim
__ __
-99 not known
*not completed
  131. Code age as a 2 digit number.
     
132. Relationship of victim to offender
1. spouse
2. biological parent
3. step-parent (include foster)
4. biological child
5. step-child
6. sibling
7. step-sibling
8. other relative (uncle, aunt, nephew, grandparent)
9. good friend (include girlfriend/boyfriend)
10. supervisory acquaintance (teacher, coach, baby-sitter)
11. casual acquaintance (neighbour)
12. stranger
13. not a person
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
133. Degree of force (coercion) used to commit sex offence
1. none
2. enticement, persuasion (candy for child, job offer)
3. threaten to use force, no weapon
4. threaten to use force with weapon
5. physical aggression, minor assault (hit, slap, push)
6. physical aggression, serious assault (wounding, maiming, endangering victim’s life
7. caused death without post-death mutilation
8. caused death and post-death mutilation (cuts off victims breasts after she is dead)
99. not known
* not completed
  133. Code the amount of force clearly evident in the description of force (coercion) used in relation to this victim.
     
134. Degree of physical injury to victim
1. no injury
2. slight injury, no weapon
3. slight injury, weapon
4. victim treated in clinic (emergency room) and released
5. victim hospitalized at least one night
6. victim dead
7. victim death and post-death mutilation
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
135. Duration in months, if sexual abuse was more than one contact
__ __ __
-98 not applicable
-99 not known
* not completed
  135i) Code 001 for repeated sexual abuse which was 1 month or less in duration.
  ii) Code na when there was only 1 abuse contact
     
136_1 Acts perpetrated against this victim   136. Code all that apply.
     
136_2    
     
136_3
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration
or attempted penetration of victim (oral, vaginal, anal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical contact with victim)
8. not applicable
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
137_1 Antecedents to or apparent motives involved   137. Base your appraisal on the offence description and victim statement. Do not include the offender’s own explanation.
  ii) Code all that apply
     
137_2 in the sex offence
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex, leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15. doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/ loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
138_1 Offender’s description of antecedents to or   138. Code all that apply
     
138_2 motives involved in the sex offence    
     
138_3
1. sexual gratification, deviation (date refuses sex, leads to rape, small boy grabbed in park and raped)
2. jealousy (envious of relationship with other, leads to rape)
3. rejection (turned down on a date, leads to rape)
4. heated argument (angered by car accident, leads to rape)
5. revenge (cold-blooded act to punish victim or other)
6. robbery/economic (broke into home, discovers victim, decides to rape her)
7. delusions, hallucinations (God told him to rape his mother)
8. sex education
9. claims innocence
10. intoxicated/drug or alcohol abuse
11. angered by someone/something
12. marital problems/breakdown
13. claims victim consented
14. can’t explain/doesn’t know why
15. doesn’t remember
16. love/emotional need/ loneliness
17. not perceived as wrong/harmful
88. other (specify) _________
90. not answered
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
139. Offender consumed alcohol at time of sex offence or immediately prior to sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
140. Offender used drugs at time of sex offence or immediately prior to sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
141. Offender planned sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  141. Examples of planning include seeking out specific victim types, clear evidence of
planning by previous rehearsal, carrying rope, weapon, mask, cruising, stalking, altering car.
     
142. Offender had an alcohol problem at time of sex offence with longest sentence.
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
*not completed
  142. Examples of alcohol problem include
blackouts/ bingeing, charges, etc.
     
143. Offender had a drug problem at time of sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
 
143. Examples of drug problems include
charges, addiction, frequent hard drug use,
social interference
     

144. Offender was receiving treatment other than sex offender treatment from a mental health professional at the time of the sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  144i) Mental health professional includes
social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist
  ii) Do not include sex offender treatment as a type of treatment in coding this item.
     
145. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment prior to the sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  145. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending
     
146_1 General location of sex offender treatment   146i). If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
146_2 prior to the sex offence with the longest sentence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
   
     

147_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received
  147i). Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender did receive sex offender treatment prior to the sex offence with longest sentence(s).
     
147_2 by offender prior to the sex offence with    
     
147_3 longest sentence.
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
148. Offender was receiving sex offender treatment at the time of the sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  148. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending.
     
149. General location of sex offender treatment at the time of the sex offence with longest sentence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
  149i). If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
150_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by offender at the time of sex offence with longest sentence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
  150i) Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment at the time of the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
151. Offender commenced sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  151. Code yes if treatment is known to be focused on sex offending
     
152_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received by offender while on remand or bail for the sex offence with longest sentence
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
 
152i) Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment while on remand or bail for the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
153. Offender expressed interest in sex offender treatment program for sex offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
154. Offender has received sex offender treatment following the offence with longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
3. In progress
9. not known
* not completed
   
     
155_1 General location of sex offender treatment,   155. If 5 or 6 is coded do not code 4
  ii) Code na if offender has not received sex offender treatment prior to the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
155_2 following the sex offence with the longest sentence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
*not completed
   
     
156_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received   1561) . Code all that apply
  ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender treatment following the sex offence with longest sentence.
     
156_2 by offender following the sex offence with    
     
156_3 longest sentence    
     
156_4
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) __________________
98. not applicable
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
157. Offender was under supervision of provincial or federal correctional authorities at the time of the sex offence with longest sentence
1. no (living in community)
2. incarcerated
3. offender on day parole
4. offender on full parole
5. offender on mandatory supervision
6. offender on partial release (temporary absence)
7. probation
99. not known
* not completed
   
     
158. Offender was under supervision of mental health authorities at the time of the sex offence with
longest sentence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
* not completed
  158. Examples of this type of supervision include mental retardation authorities, Warrants of the Lieutenant Governor
     
     
D. Complete Sex Offence History    
     
Code all known sex offenses including most recent sex offence, most serious sex offence and sex
offence with longest sentence.
   
     
159. Total number of sex offenses
__ __
-99. not known
  159. total includes all conviction, charges, documented incidents.
     
160_1 Victim Age - sex category   160. Code age-sex category in which there was at least one victim.
ii) In situations where abuse was ongoing indicate age-sex category of first sexual abuse for that victim.
     
160_2    
     
160_3 1. newborn -3 years female    
     
160_4 2. newborn -3 years male    
     
160_5 3. 4-8 years female    
     
160_6 4. 4-8 years male    
     
160_7 5. 9-12 years female    
     
160_8 6. 9-12 years male
7. 13-15 years female
8. 13-15 years male
9. 16-18 years female
10. 16-18 years male
11. 19-49 years female
12. 19-49 years male
13. over 50 female
14. over 50 male
15. Age and/or sex of victim(s) unclear
90. not answered
   
     
161. Offender has admitted responsibility for any previous sex offence.
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
162. Offender had used alcohol and/or drugs during or immediately prior to any sexual offence.
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
163. There is a pattern of increasing seriousness or severity of sex offenses over time.
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  163.i) For eg., in early offence use of enticement, then later
offence use of threats, next weapons, etc.
ii) code na when there was only a single offence
     
164. There is a pattern of increasing rate of sex offenses over time.
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  164. i) For eg. after each release for sex offence, time in community decreases before each subsequent offence, and/ or more offenses are occurring per unit time in
which offender has opportunity.
ii) code na when there was only a single offence
     
165. The offender has received sex offender treatment following any sexual offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
  165. Refer to item 73 for types of sex offender treatment
     
166_1 General location of treatment if offender has   166i) Code all that apply
ii) Code na if no sex offender treatment was received following any sex offence.
     
166_2 received or is currently receiving sex offender    
     
166_3 treatment following any sexual offence
1. federal correctional institution
2. provincial correctional institution
3. provincial psychiatric facility (inpatient)
4. in community (social agency, psych. facility)
5. in community under federal supervision (day parole, full parole, mandatory supervision)
6 in community under provincial supervision (probation, parole)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
167_1 Type(s) of sex offender treatment received   167. i) Code all that apply
ii) Code na if offender did not receive sex offender
treatment following any sex offence.
     
167_2 offender following any sexual offence    
     
167_3    
     
167_4
1. drug treatment (anti-androgens)
2. minor tranquilizers
3. phenothiazines
4. other drug treatment
5. behavioural therapy for deviant arousal (laboratory, biofeedback).
6. skills training (sex ed. heterosocial skills, assertiveness, anger management
7. group therapy of any kind
8. individual psychotherapy of any kind
9 sexual addiction/offenders treatment program
10. Phoenix program - Alberta
88. other (specify) _________
98. not applicable
99. not known
   

PART IV:  GENERAL CRIMINAL HISTORY

Base information on a review of the sex offence history.      
     
168. Sex of child victim
1. male
2 female
3. both male and female
8. not applicable
9 not known
  168i) Child victims are children under age 12.
ii) Code na if no child victims.
     
169_1. Relationship of child victims to offender   169i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no child victims.
     
169_2    
     
169_3    
     
169_4
1. biological child
2. step-child
3. other relative (include siblings, nephews)
4. good friend
5. supervisory (student, boy scout)
6. casual acquaintance
7. stranger
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
170_1 Acts perpetrated against child victims   170i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no child victims.
     
170_2    
     
170_3    
     
170_4
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration or attempted penetration of victim (oral, anal, vaginal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical touching of victim)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
171. Sex of adolescent victims
1. male
2 female
3. both male and female
8. not applicable
9 not known
  171i) Adolescent victims are aged 12-17.
ii) Code na if no adolescent victims.
     
172_1 Relationship of adolescent victims to   172i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no adolescent victims.
     
172_2 offender    
     
172_3    
     
173_1 Acts perpetrated against adolescent victims   173i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no adolescent. victims.
     
173_2    
     
173_3    
     
173_4
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration or attempted penetration of victim (oral, anal,
vaginal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no
exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical
touching of victim)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
174. Sex of adult victims
1. male
2 female
3. both male and female
8. not applicable
9 not known
   
     
175_1 Relationship of adult victims to offender    
     
175_2    
     
175_3
1. biological parent
2. step-parent
3. sibling
4. biological child (when an adult)
5 step child (when an adult)
6. other relative (include siblings, nephews)
7. good friend
8. casual acquaintance
9. stranger
10. spouse/ common law partner
11. patient
12. supervisor/ teacher
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
   
     
176_1 Acts perpetrated against adult victims    
     
176_2    
     
176_3    
     
176_4
1. physical contact (touch, fondle, rub)
2. physical contact including sexual penetration or attempted penetration of victim (oral, anal, vaginal)
3. spoken contact (suggestive, propositions, no exhibitionism)
4. exhibitionism (exposure but no physical touching of victim)
90. not answered
98. not applicable
99. not known
  174i) Adult victims are age 18 and older.
ii) Code na if no adult victims.
     
175i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no adult victims.
   
     
176i) Code all that apply.
ii) Code na if no adult victims.
   
     
     
Part IV - General Criminal History    
     
177. Total number of admissions to federal institutions
__ __
99. not known
   
     
178. Total number of admissions to provincial institutions
__ __
99. not known
   
     
179. Nature of most serious conviction (i.e. the offence for which longest sentence was received)
1. murder, 1st degree
2. murder, 2nd degree
3. manslaughter
4. criminal negligence
5. attempted murder
6. wounding
7. kidnapping, forcible confinement
8. assault causing bodily harm
9. common assault
10. rape, attempted rape
11. indecent assault
12. other sexual offenses (exhibitionism etc.).
13. arson, fire setting
14. robbery
15. threatening, possession of weapon
16. property (break and enter, auto theft, mischief
to property)
17 other (narcotics, prostitution)
18. Sexual assault/aggravated assault
99. not known
  179. The most serious conviction is the one for which the longest sentence was received.
     
180. Pattern of increasing seriousness or severity of
non-sex, person offenses over time
1. yes
2. no
3. not applicable
9. not known
  180i) For eg., early offence threatened only; later offence
weapon involved; more recent a physical assault.
ii) Code na if non-sex person offenses total 0 or 1.
     
181. Pattern of increasing rate of non-sex, person
offenses over time
1. yes
2. no
8. not applicable
9. not known
  181i) For eg., length of time between first and second offence, 2
years, between second and third 1 year, third and fourth 6 months.
     
182. Adult aggression score/ rating (when offender is over 18, lifestyle indicators)
mild - arguments, verbally aggressive
moderate - minor assaults, fights, slaps
severe - brutal assault causing injury, broken bones
extreme - mutilation , death
1. no evidence of aggression
2. occasional mild aggression
3. frequent mild aggression
4. occasional moderate aggression
5. frequent moderate aggression
6. occasional of frequent severe aggression
7 occasional or frequent extreme aggression
9. not known
  182. Adult is understood as when offender was 18 or older.

PART V:  CURRENT OFFENCE CASE MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTATION

183. Total aggregated sentence on the current term in months
__ __ __
999. life/indeterminate
-99. not known
    183. Code 999 if a life sentence of unspecified
length or an indeterminate sentence was received.
     
184. The current offence is also a sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
185. The current offence is also the most serious sex offence
1. yes
2. no
9. not known
   
     
186. Date of admission on current term.
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
  186. Code date first admitted to a CSC facility
after conviction for the current offence.
     
187a. Day parole eligibility date
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
187b. Full parole eligibility date
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
188. Mandatory supervision date
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
189. First release date on current term
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
190. First release type on current term
1. day parole
2. full parole
3. mandatory supervision
4. release on warrant expiry
8. not applicable
9. not known
  190. Code na if no release on current term as of coding date.
     
191. Warrant expiry date
__/__/__
yy mm dd
-99/98. not applicable
-99/99 not known
   
     
192. Present status
1. incarcerated - minimum security
2. incarcerated - medium security
3. incarcerated - maximum security
4. R.P.C. or R.T.C. (regional psychiatric centre or regional treatment centre)
5. R.R.C. (regional reception centre)
6. S.H.U. (special handling unit)
7. half way house
8. community supervision - day parole
9. community supervision - full parole
10. community supervision - mandatory supervision
11. other - unspecified
12. at large
13. warrant expired
14. on bail
16. mental hospital
17. deported
18. in custody - reoffence
19. probation
20. transferred to provincial court only
99 not known
   
     
193. General statistical information about Recidivism Scale Score (SIR)
+ or - ___
-99. not known
  193. This is expressed as a positive or negative number.