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Correctional Service of Canada - Male Young Offenders in Canada: Revised Edition

Roberta Lynn Sinclair & Roger Boe
Research Branch
Correctional Service Canada
September, 1998

SUMMARY

The focus of this report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving male young offenders in Canada. It is an update to the original report, B-22, published in May, 1998. This version includes 1997 Uniform Crime Report data. The original report was written in response to a special request, and supplemented a presentation for the Heads of Corrections.

The three data sources used in compiling this report are the Uniform Crime Report Survey, the Youth Court Survey, and the Corrections Key Indicator Report, all published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Where available, the analyses in this report examine male young offender trends over the past 6 years. The analyses are directed toward seven questions:

1. Has there been an increase in male youth charged by police, 1992-1997?

  • There has been a consistent decrease at the national level.
  • By offense category, there was a slight increase in violent crimes until 1995 when a decrease trend began ending with the 1997 rate equal to the 1992 rate. Property crimes decreased significantly and other offenses decreased until 1994, remaining relatively stable thereafter. Drug offenses increased until 1994, remaining stable at approximately 36 per 10,000 male youth.
  • At the regional level, both the Prairie and Pacific regions experienced a consistent decrease. The rates remained fairly stable for the other regions. The 1997 rates were consistently lower than the 1992 rates.

2. Has there been an increase in male youth processed through the youth court system, 1991/92-1996/97?

  • There has been a decrease at the national level.
  • There was a consistent decrease of property crimes and other crimes, while crimes of violence increased slightly until the trend began to decrease in 1994/95. Young Offenders Act offenses peaked in 1993/94 and remained stable through to 1996/97. Following 1992/93, drug offences consistently increased until 1996/97.
  • All regions experienced a decrease, except the Atlantic and Quebec regions which increased slightly from 1992/93 to 1996/97.

3. Are male youth getting involved with crime at a younger age?

  • At the national level, male youth are not getting involved with crime at a younger age. A mean age of 15.5 has remained consistent from 1992/93 to 1995/96, increasing slightly in 1996/97 to 16.

4. Are male youth getting more violent?

  • The Uniform Crime Report Survey (UCR) data suggests that the national rate of violent crime by male youth peaked in 1995 and decreased in subsequent years, remaining relatively stable at a rate similar to 1992.
  • Although there was fluctuation, there were no major regional trends evident in the UCR data. The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population and Quebec had the lowest rate.
  • At the national level, there was a steady increase in the number of male youth processed through the youth court system, followed by a slight decrease in 1994/95 and 1995/96 to its lowest level, and an increase in 1996/97 to slightly above the 1991/92 rate.
  • Youth court statistics indicate relative stability among the violent offenses over the four-year period. Non-sexual assault increased from 1991/92 to the highest level in 1994/95 and the second highest level in 1996/97.

5. Has there been an increase in the frequency of male youth remanded into custody pending disposition of a charge?

Due to data from only Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia, conclusions are tentative.

  • Prince Edward Island increased from 1992/93 to 1996/97.
  • Overall stability in Manitoba from 1992/93 was followed by an increase to the highest rate per 10,000 male youth in 1996/97.
  • British Columbia increased slightly over the 5-year span.

6. Are male youth getting more serious dispositions?

  • There has been a consistent increase in secure custody dispositions. Open custody increased until 1993/94, followed by a slight decrease in 1996/97. Probation decreased until 1993/94 when an increase trend began. Fine and community service order dispositions decreased in 1993/94 to 1994/95, before leveling off. Absolute discharge dispositions decreased from 1991/92 to 1996/97.
  • Dispositions remained relatively stable in the Atlantic region. There was a slight decrease in the use of secure custody and a slight increase in the use of probation in the Quebec region. In the Ontario region, there was an increase in the use of secure custody and probation dispositions, and a substantial decrease in fine and community service orders. There was a slight increase in the use of secure and open custody dispositions in the Prairie and Pacific regions.
  • The most common disposition across regions was probation, except in the Ontario region in 1993/94 where fine and community service order were the most common dispositions.

7. Has there been an increase in the number of male youth transferred to adult court?

  • There has been an increase in the number of male youth transferred to adult court from 1991/92 to 1996/97. Following a decrease trend from 1991/92, the number of youth transferred to adult court more than doubled in 1994/95, fluctuating until an increase in 1996/97.
  • From 1991/92 to 1996/97, a total of 486 male youths were transferred to adult court. The majority of youth (87%) were 16 years of age or older.
  • The Prairie region has the highest number of transfers, while the Atlantic region has the lowest.

NOTE

  • The unit of analyses in the Youth Court Survey is cases processed and in the Uniform Crime Report Survey is either incidents or persons charged. In the latter case this includes the number of charges laid or recommended to be laid against those people. An explanation and definition of the data sources are presented in Appendix A and F. Please see original sources for further clarification.
  • The Youth Court Survey and Corrections Key Indicator Report data are presented for fiscal years. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Survey data are presented for calendar years. Caution must therefore be used in making comparisons between the data sources. The Postcensal and updated Postcensal population estimates (Statistics Canada) are for July 1 of the specific year.
  • The population estimates used in this report may not be the most recent revision of the data. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics provides revisions the year following the original release. The changes, however, are small and do not effect the findings of this report (See Appendix A, Canadian Census).
  • To contextualize the UCR findings in this report, the rates of adult females and males, and youth females and males charged by police increased from 1984 to 1991. From 1991 to 1996, the overall charge rates declined.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF CHARTS

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH CHARGED BY THE POLICE, 1992 - 1997?

Canada

  • At the national level, there has been a consistent decrease in male youth charged by police.
  • By offense, property crimes had the most significant and consistent decrease trend. Crimes of violence increased slightly until 1995, decreased in 1996 and 1997 with the 1997 rate equal to the 1992 rate. Drug offenses increased until 1994 when the rate stabilized at approximately 36 per 10,000 male youth. Other offenses decreased gradually from 1992 to 1994, and remained relatively stable in subsequent years.

Regions

  • Overall, the 1997 regional rates are notably lower than the 1992 rates.
  • In the Atlantic region there was a decrease from 1992 to 1995, followed by a slight increase in 1996 before dropping to the lowest rate in 1997.
  • The Quebec region experienced a decrease from 1992 to 1994, followed by a slight increase from 1995 to 1996 and a decrease in 1997 to the lowest rate in the 6-year span.
  • The trend in the Ontario region suggests the greatest fluctuation. A significant decrease from 1992 to 1993 was followed by a slight increase from 1993 to 1995. A notable decrease in 1996 was followed by the lowest rate in 1997.
  • Both the Prairie and the Pacific regions consistently decreased in the rate of male youth charged by police, 1992 to 1997.
  • Over the 6-year span, the Prairie region consistently had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population, followed by the Pacific region. The lowest rate was in the Quebec region. Ontario and the Atlantic regions had similar rates.
Table 1.1: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Canada
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Crimes of Violence 15,742 132.8 16,375 136.4 16,753 138.5 17,250 141.0 16,589 134.0 16,613 132.8
Property Crimes 66,591 561.9 59,242 493.6 54,784 452.9 52,945 432.9 51,242 413.9 46,234 369.5
Drugs*** 2,186 18.4 2,959 24.7 4,176 37.2 4,494 36.7 4,796 38.7 4,393 35.1
Other**** 27,876 235.2 27,030 225.2 25,962 214.6 26,696 218.3 26,631 215.1 26,802 214.2
TOTAL 112,395 948.4 105,606 880.1 101,675 840.6 101,385 829.0 99,258 801.8 94,042 751.7

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

 

Table 1.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Canada
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993 1,251,427

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division.

Chart 1.1A: Total Male Youth Charged by Police, Canada

 

Chart 1.1B: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Chart 1.1C: Male Youth Charged by Police by Offense Category Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Table 1.3: Male Youth Charged by Police*, Regions
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
ATLANTIC                        
Crimes of Violence 1,152 104.7 1,346 124.9 1,363 129.3 1,324 127.0 1,259 121.3 1,121 109.0
Property Crimes 5,784 525.8 5,264 488.3 4,974 471.9 4,663 447.3 4,868 469.1 4,082 397.0
Drugs*** 112 10.2 150 13.9 227 21.5 223 21.4 319 30.7 295 28.7
Other**** 2,579 234.5 2,554 236.9 2,511 238.2 2,493 239.1 2,615 252.0 2,435 236.8
TOTAL 9,627 875.2 9,314 864.0 9,075 861.0 8,703 834.8 9,061 873.8 7,933 771.5
QUEBEC                        
Crimes of Violence 2,549 84.8 2,502 82.4 2,617 85.7 2,696 89.0 2,501 83.3 2,546 85.9
Property Crime 11,584 385.4 9,314 306.6 8,179 268.0 7,889 260.4 8,271 275.4 6,869 231.7
Drugs 533 17.7 936 30.8 1,272 41.7 1,286 42.5 1,445 48.1 1,398 47.2
Other 3,403 113.2 3,059 100.7 2,642 86.6 2,861 94.4 2,926 97.4 2,819 95.1
TOTAL 18,069 601.1 15,811 520.4 14,710 482.0 14,732 486.3 15,143 504.2 13,632 459.9
ONTARIO                        
Crimes of Violence 6,573 155.5 6,648 154.9 6,699 154.9 7,111 161.2 6,429 142.8 6,796 147.8
Property Crimes 21,581 510.4 19,492 454.0 17,974 415.5 18,086 409.9 16,609 369.0 14,915 324.3
Drugs 731 17.3 945 22.0 1,427 33.0 1,718 38.9 1,791 39.8 1,551 33.7
Other 10,936 258.7 10,709 249.5 10,663 246.5 10,647 241.3 9,940 220.8 9,407 204.5
TOTAL 39,821 941.8 37,794 800.4 36,763 849.8 37,562 851.3 34,769 772.4 32,669 710.2
PRAIRIE                        
Crimes of Violence 3,519 164.4 3,730 171.8 3,655 166.3 3,746 167.5 4,008 175.8 3,836 165.0
Property Crimes 18,475 862.9 16,487 759.4 15,349 698.3 14,435 645.6 14,054 616.6 13,749 591.5
Drugs 306 14.3 430 19.8 532 24.2 563 25.2 632 27.7 643 27.7
Other 8,203 383.1 7,914 364.5 7,187 327.0 7,685 343.7 8,229 361.0 8,956 385.3
TOTAL 30,503 1,424.7 28,561 1,315.6 26,723 1,215.8 26,429 1,182.0 26,923 1,181.2 27,184 1,169.5
PACIFIC                        
Crimes of Violence 1,949 141.7 2,149 151.3 2,419 165.0 2,373 157.2 2,392 153.5 2,314 144.8
Property Crimes 9,167 666.7 8,685 611.6 8,308 566.7 7,872 521.4 7,440 477.6 6,619 414.3
Drugs 504 36.7 498 35.1 718 49.0 704 46.6 609 39.1 506 31.7
Other 2,755 200.4 2,794 196.8 2,959 201.8 3,010 199.4 2,921 187.5 3,185 199.4
TOTAL 14,375 1,045.5 14,126 994.8 14,404 982.5 13,959 924.5 13,362 857.7 12,624 790.2
TOTAL 112,395 948.4 105,606 880.1 101,675 840.6 101,385 829.0 99,258 801.8 94,042 751.5

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

 

Table 1.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Regions
Region 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 110,000 107,800 105,400 104,248 103,774 102,825
Quebec 300,600 303,800 305,200 302,919 300,320 296,425
Ontario 422,800 429,300 432,600 441,233 450,170 459,965
Prairie 214,100 217,100 219,800 223,595 227,938 232,446
Pacific 137,500 142,000 146,600 150,984 155,791 159,766
TOTAL 1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993 1,251,427

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

 

Chart 1.3A: Male Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions

QUESTION 2: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN MALE YOUTH PROCESSED THROUGH THE YOUTH COURT SYSTEM, 1992/93 - 1996/97?

Canada

  • Overall, there has been a decrease.
  • By specific offense, crimes of violence increased slightly from 1991/92 to 1993/94 followed by a decrease trend until returning to a slightly higher rate in 1996/97. Young Offenders Act offenses increased until 1993/94 and remained relatively stable through to 1996/97. The only consistent decrease trends from 1992/93 to 1996/97 occurred in property crimes (significant) and other crimes (except for an increase in 1995/96). After a slight decrease from 1991/92 to 1992/93, drug offenses consistently increased.

Regions

  • Both the Atlantic and Quebec regions increased from 1992/93 to 1996/97. The other regions decreased. The most significant decrease was in the Prairie region, followed by the Pacific and Ontario regions.
  • Over the 5-year span, the Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population, followed by the Ontario, Atlantic, Pacific and Quebec regions.
Table 2.1: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, Canada
  1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Crimes of Violence 16,277 144.8 17,706 149.4 18,687 155.7 18,526 153.2 17,315 141.6 18,215 147.1
Property Crimes 55,870 497.1 52,060 439.3 48,960 408.0 44,287 366.1 43,050 352.0 42,453 342.9
Drugs*** 1,894 16.9 1,985 16.8 2,726 22.7 4,002 33.1 4,212 34.4 4,747 38.3
Other**** 14,599 129.9 14,986 126.5 15,098 125.8 14,500 119.9 15,762 128.9 14,258 115.2
Young Offenders Act***** 7,163 63.7 7,675 64.8 8,587 71.6 8,270 68.4 8,790 71.9 8,440 68.2
TOTAL 95,803 852.3 94,412 796.7 94,058 783.8 89,585 740.6 89,129 728.8 88,113 711.7

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crimes

***** Young Offenders Act = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and Assist/Interfere Other

 

Table 2.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Canada
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
1,124,000 1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 2.1A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

Chart 2.1B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System by Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Table 2.3: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, Regions
  1992/1993** 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
ATLANTIC  
Crimes of Violence 1,231 111.9 1,322 122.6 1,326 125.8 1,304 125.1 1,400 134.9
Property Crimes 4,243 385.7 4,088 379.2 3,923 372.2 3,840 368.4 4,086 393.7
Drugs**** 114 10.4 154 14.3 206 19.5 236 22.6 333 32.1
Other ***** 942 85.6 864 80.1 801 76.0 780 74.8 912 87.9
Young Offenders Act****** 548 49.8 634 58.8 662 62.8 669 64.2 791 76.2
Atlantic – Total 7,078 643.5 7,062 655.1 6,918 656.4 6,829 655.1 7,522 724.8
QUEBEC  
Crimes of Violence 2,211 73.6 2,222 73.1 2,511 82.3 2,214 73.1 2,215 73.8
Property Crimes 5,160 171.7 4,841 159.3 4,542 148.8 4,120 136.0 4,860 161.8
Drugs 360 12.0 768 25.3 1,178 38.6 1,088 35.9 1,328 44.2
Other 1,205 40.1 1,135 37.4 1,214 39.8 1,286 42.5 1,317 43.9
Young Offenders Act 735 24.5 726 23.9 814 26.7 826 27.3 862 28.7
Quebec – Total 9,671 321.7 9,692 319.0 10,259 336.1 9,534 314.7 10,582 352.4
ONTARIO  
Crimes of Violence 8,160 193.0 8,759 204.0 8,416 194.5 8,647 196.0 8,259 183.5
Property Crimes 20,208 478.0 20,055 467.2 17,984 415.7 17,967 407.2 16,965 376.9
Drugs 786 18.6 1,017 23.7 1,529 35.3 1,921 43.5 1,983 44.1
Other 6,878 162.7 7,071 164.7 6,835 158.0 6,871 155.7 6,695 148.7
Young Offenders Act 2,266 53.6 2,733 63.7 2,576 59.5 2,719 61.6 2,589 57.5
Ontario – Total 38,298 905.8 39,635 923.2 37,340 863.2 38,125 864.1 36,491 810.6
PRAIRIE  
Crimes of Violence 4,352 203.3 4,758 219.2 4,568 207.8 4,521 202.2 4,467 196.0
Property Crimes 16,347 763.5 15,184 699.4 13,404 609.8 12,947 579.0 12,338 541.3
Drugs 379 17.7 458 21.1 642 29.2 578 25.9 659 28.9
Other 4,974 232.3 5,060 233.1 4,725 215.0 5,046 225.7 4,363 191.4
Young Offenders Act 3,080 143.9 3,360 154.8 3,154 143.5 3,117 139.4 2,909 127.6
Prairie – Total 29,132 1,360.7 28,820 1,327.5 26,493 1,205.3 26,209 1,172.2 24,736 1,085.2
PACIFIC  
Crimes of Violence 1,752 127.4 1,625 114.4 1,705 116.3 1,714 113.5 1,874 120.3
Property Crimes 6,102 443.8 4,792 337.5 4,434 302.5 4,163 275.7 4,204 269.8
Drugs 346 25.2 329 23.2 447 30.5 501 33.2 444 28.5
Other 987 71.8 968 68.2 925 63.1 953 63.1 971 62.3
Young Offenders Act 1,046 76.1 1,134 79.9 1,064 72.6 1,101 72.9 1,289 82.7
Pacific – Total 10,233 744.2 8,848 623.1 8,575 585.0 8,432 558.5 8,782 563.7
TOTAL 94,412 796.7 94,058 783.8 89,585 740.6 89,129 728.8 88,113 711.7

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** 1991 YCS not included because the Youth Court Statistics Report does not differentiate between males and females with this data.

However, the data may be made available from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.

*** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

**** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

***** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

****** YOA = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and Assist/Interfere Other

 

Table 2.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population, Regions*
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Atlantic 110,000 107,800 105,400 104,248 103,774
Quebec 300,600 303,800 305,200 302,919 300,320
Ontario 422,800 429,300 432,600 441,233 450,170
Prairie 214,100 217,100 219,800 223,595 227,938
Pacific 137,500 142,000 146,600 150,984 155,791
TOTAL 1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 2.3A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System

Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions

QUESTION 3: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

Canada

  • Overall, it appears that male youth are not getting involved with crime at a younger age. This is true both for male youth charged by police and the rate of male youth charged by police per 10,000 male youth population. There was a steady trend with the number of youth processed increasing as age increased.
  • The mean age of 15.5 was consistent from 1992/93 to 1995/96, increasing slightly in 1996/97 to 16.

Regions

  • In almost all regions, the greatest number of male youth processed through youth court by principle charge were 17 years of age. The Pacific region (1996/97) was the exception, where the greatest number of male youth processed were16 year olds.
  • The following is characteristic of each region:

Atlantic Region: There was a slight increase in males aged 12, 13, 14, 15 and over 17 processed from 1992/93 to 1996/97. There was a decreased number of male youth processed in the other age categories.

Quebec Region: From 1992/93 to 1996/97 there was a steady increase in the number of youth processed in every year and in each age category except for the over 17 year old age group which experienced a decrease.

Ontario Region: From 1992/93 to 1996/97 decreases were noted in all age groups except the 12, 13, 15 and over 17 age groups where there were slight increases.

Prairie Region: Decrease in the number and age of males processed through youth court from 1992/93 to 1996/97, except for 12 year olds where a slight increase occurred.

Pacific Region: There was a decrease in number and in age of males processed through youth court from 1992/93 to 1996/97.

* See Appendix C for additional research findings

Table 3.1: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Canada
OFFENSE <12 12 13 14 15 16 17 >17 Unknown
1991/1992  
Crimes of Violence 5 548 1,252 2,171 3,289 4,066 4,539 52 355
Property Crimes 26 1,818 4,363 8,274 11,766 14,400 14,352 143 728
Other Crimes 1 193 647 1,428 2,505 3,908 5,180 512 225
Drugs - 1 26 93 288 509 941 4 32
Young Offenders Act - 53 319 763 1,420 1,660 2,123 747 78
1991/1992 TOTAL 32 2,613 6,607 12,729 19,268 24,543 27,135 1,458 1,418
Per 10,000 Male Youth   138.6 355.0 674.6 1,022.1 1,295.8 1,484.0    
1992/1993  
Crimes of Violence 13 639 1,448 2,616 3,502 4,408 4,753 33 294
Property Crimes 17 1,846 4,148 7,715 10,820 13,509 13,315 92 598
Other Crimes 1 201 640 1,586 2,534 4,188 5,149 475 212
Drugs - 9 42 113 293 596 911 3 18
Young Offenders Act 1 50 300 905 1,525 1,881 2,272 674 67
1992/1993 TOTAL 32 2,745 6,578 12,935 18,674 24,582 26,400 1,277 1,189
Per 10,000 Male Youth   137.0 325.0 650.0 947.9 1,240.8 1,312.8    
1993/1994  
Crimes of Violence 15 796 1,706 2,753 3,695 4,376 4,940 81 324
Property Crimes 13 1,648 3,912 7,218 10,376 12,451 12,647 119 576
Other Crimes 5 289 740 1,603 2,763 3,802 5,110 558 228
Drugs - 12 68 237 487 789 1,103 11 19
Young Offenders Act 1 96 421 1,001 1,760 2,096 2,389 734 89
1993/1994 TOTAL 34 2,841 6,847 12,812 19,081 23,514 26,189 1,503 1,236
Per 10,000 Male Youth   141.8 348.3 658.7 968.6 1,184.6 1,312.1    
1994/1995  
Crimes of Violence 1 916 1,717 2,709 3,533 4,444 4,738 56 412
Property Crimes 3 1,620 3,623 6,512 9,331 11,379 11,117 108 594
Other Crimes - 256 802 1,559 2,604 3,708 4,775 541 255
Drugs - 24 98 352 727 1,201 1,556 14 30
Young Offenders Act - 68 450 1,014 1,686 2,095 2,232 645 80
1994/1995 TOTAL 4 2,884 6,690 12,146 17,881 22,827 24,418 1,364 1,371
Per 10,000 Male Youth   142.7 327.8 594.8 890.0 1,149.4 1,222.7    
1995-1996  
Crimes of Violence 19 917 1,820 2,899 3,637 4,189 4,544 67 308
Property Crimes 14 1,684 3,691 6,411 9,142 11,008 10,587 112 388
Drugs - 21 94 370 826 1,314 1,664 9 26
Young Offenders Act 1 94 425 1,009 1,751 2,142 2,372 569 69
Other Federal Statutes 5 309 871 1,717 2,702 3,831 4,743 541 217
1995/1996 TOTAL 39 3,025 6,901 12,406 18,058 22,484 23,910 1,298 1,008
Per 10,000 Male Youth   148.7 338.0 601.5 875.9 1,127.6 1,193.2    
1996/1997  
Crimes of Violence - 946 1,826 2,804 3,662 4,188 4,438 63 288
Property Crimes - 1,644 3,530 6,384 9,291 10,722 10,394 83 405
Other Crimes - 335 810 1,615 2,845 3,601 4,436 401 215
Drugs - 35 150 438 934 1,373 1,770 18 29
Young Offenders Act - 94 438 1,106 1,916 2,143 2,196 483 64
1996/1997 TOTAL - 3,054 6,754 12,347 18,648 22,027 23,234 1,048 1,001
Per 10,000 Male Youth   148.3 329.1 598.0 896.0 1,059.0 1,136.5    
TOTAL 141 17,162 40,377 75,375 111,610 139,977 151,286 7,948 7,223

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth

court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offense, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offenses, property offenses, other Criminal Code offenses, offenses under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offenses.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

****** YOA = Failure to Comply with a Disposition or Undertaking, Contempt Against Youth Court, and Assist/Interfere Other

******* Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

******** - is nil or zero

Table 3.2: Total Male Youth, by Age (12 - 17 Years) Population, Canada
  12 13 14 15 16 17
1991 188,500 186,100 188,700 188,500 189,400 182,800
1992 200,300 196,600 194,500 195,600 198,500 199,500
1993 202,400 202,400 199,000 197,000 198,100 201,100
1994 202,100 204,100 204,200 200,900 198,600 199,700
1995 203,374 204,179 206,248 206,172 202,625 200,381
1996 206,016 205,233 206,198 208,125 207,990 204,431

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 3.1A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Age, Canada

 

Chart 3.1B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, by Age, Canada

 

  1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97
MEAN AGE 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.4 16.0

 

Table 3.3: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Regions
REGION <12 12 13 14 15 16 17 >17 Unknown
ATLANTIC  
1992/1993**** 1 218 499 887 1,256 1,969 2,196 29 23
1993/1994 2 207 559 854 1,335 1,879 2,139 68 19
1994/1995 2 243 534 910 1,262 1,907 1,969 64 27
1995/1996 2 210 541 890 1,373 1,812 1,948 50 3
1996/1997 - 280 599 1,166 1,516 1,938 1,939 54 30
QUEBEC  
1992/1993 3 102 393 1,049 1,854 2,766 3,377 112 15
1993/1994 4 123 391 1,050 1,879 2,728 3,425 92 -
1994/1995 1 119 423 1,262 2,027 2,824 3,516 82 5
1995/1996 - 127 450 1,151 2,000 2,608 3,130 66 2
1996/1997 - 119 437 1,201 2,203 3,012 3,521 83 6
ONTARIO  
1992/1993 19 1,255 2,809 5,598 7,717 9,601 9,941 265 1,093
1993/1994 16 1,284 2,996 5,701 8,395 9,596 10,104 407 1,136
1994/1995 1 1,317 2,952 5,101 7,657 9,210 9,414 405 1,283
1995/1996 33 1,400 3,174 5,468 7,724 9,308 9,639 410 969
1996/1997 - 1,448 3,002 5,215 7,904 8,573 9,067 373 909
PRAIRIE  
1992/1993 9 936 2,151 3,975 5,681 7,583 8,001 742 54
1993/1994 12 1,017 2,284 3,972 5,606 6,971 8,078 800 80
1994/1995 - 966 2,144 3,646 5,117 6,695 7,192 679 54
1995/1996 4 1,005 2,070 3,615 5,186 6,714 6,965 619 31
1996/1997 - 982 2,018 3,490 5,093 6,212 6,449 441 51
PACIFIC  
1992/1993 - 234 726 1,426 2,166 2,663 2,885 129 4
1993/1994 - 210 617 1,235 1,866 2,340 2,443 136 1
1994/1995 - 239 637 1,227 1,818 2,191 2,327 134 2
1995/1996 - 283 666 1,282 1,775 2,042 2,228 153 3
1996/1997 - 225 698 1,275 1,932 2,292 2,258 97 5

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offense, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offenses, property offenses, other Criminal Code offenses, offenses under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offenses.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** 1991 YCS not included because the Youth Court Statistics Report does not differentiate between males and females with this data.

However, the data may be made available from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.

***** Noting the similarity between the actual rate & the per 10,000 male youth population rate (refer to prior table), only the actual rate is

referred to for the regions

****** - is nil or zero

 

Chart 3.3A: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Atlantic Region

 

Chart 3.3B: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Quebec Region

 

Chart 3.3C: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Ontario Region

 

Chart 3.3D: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Prairie Region

 

Chart 3.3E: Male Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Pacific Region

 

QUESTION 4: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

Canada

Uniform Crime Report

  • Nationally, the rate peaked in 1995 before returning to a slightly lower rate in 1996 and 1997.
  • The homicide rate decreased significantly from 1992 to 1993, and since 1994 the rate has remained fairly stable at approximately 0.40 per 10,000 male youth until a decrease in 1997. The 1997 rate is lower than the 1992 rate. The attempted murder rate fluctuated from 1992 to 1996, before reaching its lowest rate in 1997. There was a steady decrease in sexual assault and other sexual offenses over the 6-year span. There was a steady increase in non-sexual assault rates from 1992 to 1995, followed by a decline in 1996 and 1997 to slightly above the 1992 rate. The rate of abduction fluctuated, however the variations are small. Overall, robbery rates increased from 1992 to 1997.
  • Across the 6-year span, non-sexual assault had the highest charge rate among the violent offense categories, followed by robbery, sexual assault and other sexual offenses, attempted murder, homicide, and abduction.

Youth Court Survey

  • From 1991/92 to 1993/94, there was steady increase in the number of male youth processed through the youth court system for a violent offense (per 10,000 male youth population), followed by a decrease trend until 1996/97 when the rate increased to slightly above the 1991/92 rate.
  • Overall, the homicide rate decreased from 1991/92 to 1996/97. The attempted murder rate peaked in 1992/93 and experienced slight fluctuations in subsequent years. A steady decrease in sexual assault and other sexual offenses followed the highest rate in 1993/94. Non-sexual assault increased from 1991/92 to its peak level in 1994/95. The rate decreased in 1995/96 before returning to the second highest level in 1996/97. A decrease was apparent in weapon offenses, while the robbery rate increased slightly over the 6 year span. The abduction rate increased slightly in 1992/93 and remained relatively stable.

Regions

Uniform Crime Report

  • Although there was regional fluctuation, no major trends were evident.
  • An increase in the Atlantic region from 1992 to 1994 was followed by a decrease from 1995 to 1997.
  • An increase in the Quebec region from 1993 was followed by a slight decrease in 1996 and an increase in 1997.
  • The rate in Ontario decreased from 1992 to 1994. A slight increase in 1995 was followed by a marked decrease in 1996. A slight increase in 1997 followed the decrease, but the rate remained considerably lower than the 1992 level.
  • The rate of male youth charged by police for a violent offense in the Prairie region was inconsistent, with the highest rate of male youth charges occurring in 1996.
  • In the Pacific region there was an increase until 1994 followed by a decrease trend.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 male youth population and Quebec region had the lowest rate.

* See Appendix D for additional research findings.

Table 4.1: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Canada
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**10,000 Actual Number Rate per 10,000 Actual Number Rate per 10,000 Actual Number Rate per 10,000 Actual Number Rate per 10,000 Actual Number Rate per 10,000
Homicide 49 0.41 33 0.27 48 0.40 49 0.40 47 0.38 42 0.34
Attempted Murder 66 0.56 61 0.51 103 0.85 81 0.66 81 0.65 51 0.41
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses*** 2,231 18.83 2,245 18.71 2,036 16.83 1,709 13.97 1,634 13.20 1,570 12.55
Non-Sexual Assault**** 10,807 91.20
9.1
11,458 95.48
9.5
11,958 98.86
9.9
12,400 101.39
10.1
11,827 95.53
9.6
11,811 94.38
9.4
Abduction 3 0.03 2 0.02 8 0.07 6 0.05 5 0.04 3 0.02
Robbery 2,586 21.83 2,576 21.47 2,600 21.50 3,005 24.57 2,995 24.20 3,136 25.06
TOTAL 15,742 132.84 16,375 136.46 16,753 138.50 17,250 141.05 16,589 134.00 16,613 132.75

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** There may be a difference in the definition for 1996 in comparison to the prior year because 1996 does not include the category of Rape/Indecent Assault, however, it is anticipated to be negligible.

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

 

Table 4.2: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993 1,251,427

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

 

Chart 4.1A: Total Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Chart 4.1B: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Table 4.3: Male Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offense, Regions
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
ATLANTIC  
Homicide 3 0.3 3 0.3 2 0.2 4 0.4 1 0.1 - -
Attempted Murder - - 1 0.1 - - 1 0.1 - - 3 0.3
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses 235 21.4 271 25.1 220 20.9 198 19.0 167 16.1 152 14.8
Non-Sexual Assault 847 77.0 994 92.2 1,055 100.1 1,043 100.1 1,034 99.6 905 88.0
Abduction - - - - - - - - - - - -
Robbery 67 6.1 77 7.1 86 8.2 78 7.5 57 5.5 61 5.9
TOTAL 1,152 104.7 1,346 124.9 1,363 129.3 1,324 127.0 1,259 121.3 1,121 109.0
QUEBEC  
Homicide 11 0.4 7 0.2 13 0.4 6 0.2 4 0.1 1 0.0
Attempted Murder 31 1.0 19 0.6 47 1.5 20 0.7 23 0.8 10 0.3
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses 232 7.7 275 9.1 251 8.2 228 7.5 190 6.3 173 5.8
Non-Sexual Assault 1,670 55.6 1,669 54.9 1,758 57.6 1,808 59.7 1,675 55.8 1,691 57.1
Abduction - - 1 0.1 - - - - - - 1 0.0
Robbery 605 20.1 531 17.6 548 17.9 634 20.9 609 20.3 670 22.6
TOTAL 2,549 84.3 2,502 82.4 2,617 85.8 2,696 89.0 2,501 83.3 2,546 85.9
ONTARIO  
Homicide 14 0.3 8 0.2 11 0.3 13 0.3 18 0.4 8 0.2
Attempted Murder 24 0.6 16 0.4 32 0.7 35 0.8 27 0.6 10 0.2
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses 845 20.0 838 19.5 731 16.9 646 14.6 583 12.9 598 13.0
Non-Sexual Assault 4,640 109.7 4,795 111.7 4,973 114.9 5,339 121.0 4,722 104.9 5,006 108.8
Abduction 1 0.0 - - 4 0.1 2 0.1 - - - -
Robbery 1,049 24.8 991 23.1 948 21.9 1,076 24.4 1,079 23.9 1,174 25.5
TOTAL 6,573 155.5 6,648 154.9 6,699 154.9 7,111 161.2 6,429 142.8 6,796 147.8
PRAIRIE  
Homicide 19 0.9 10 0.5 13 0.59 12 0.54 15 0.7 20 0.9
Attempted Murder 9 0.4 18 0.8 14 0.64 18 0.81 24 1.05 13 0.6
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses 628 29.3 587 27.0 548 24.93 418 18.69 460 20.2 418 18.0
Non-Sexual Assault 2,312 108.0 2,517 115.9 2,502 113.83 2,623 117.31 2,766 121.4 2,668 114.8
Abduction 2 0.1 1 0.1 2 0.09 1 0.04 3 0.1 - -
Robbery 549 25.6 597 27.5 576 26.21 674 30.14 740 32.5 717 30.9
TOTAL 3,519 164.4 3,730 171.8 3,655 166.29 3,746 167.54 4,008 175.9 3,836 165.0
PACIFIC  
Homicide 2 0.2 5 0.4 9 0.61 14 0.93 9 0.6 13 0.8
Attempted Murder 2 0.2 7 0.5 10 0.68 7 0.46 7 0.5 15 0.9
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offenses 291 21.2 274 19.3 286 19.50 219 14.50 234 15.0 229 14.3
Non-Sexual Assault 1,338 97.3 1,483 104.4 1,670 113.92 1,587 105.11 1,630 104.6 1,541 96.5
Abduction - - - - 2 0.14 3 0.20 2 0.1 2 0.1
Robbery 316 22.9 380 26.8 442 30.15 543 35.96 510 32.7 514 32.2
TOTAL 1,949 141.8 2,149 151.3 2,419 165.01 2,373 157.17 2,392 153.5 2,314 144.8
TOTAL 15,742 132.8 16,375 136.5 16,753 138.50 17,250 141.05 16,589 134.0 16,613 132.6

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total male (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

Table 4.4: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 110,000 107,800 105,400 104,248 103,774 102,825
Quebec 300,600 303,800 305,200 302,919 300,320 296,425
Ontario 422,800 429,300 432,600 441,233 450,170 459,965
Prairie 214,100 217,100 219,800 223,595 227,938 232,446
Pacific 137,500 142,000 146,600 150,984 155,791 159,766
TOTAL 1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993 1,251,427

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

 

Chart 4.4A: Male Youth Charged for a Violent Offense by Police Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Regions

 

Table 4.5: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System* for a Violent Offense, Canada
  1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Homicide*** 58 0.5 54 0.5 38 0.3 58 0.5 43 0.4 48 0.4
Attempted Murder 42 0.4 64 0.5 47 0.4 48 0.4 39 0.3 56 0.5
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual 1,928 17.2 2,122 17.9 2,444 20.4 2,153 17.8 1,816 14.9 1,698 13.7
Non-Sexual Assault 9,824 87.4 10,723 90.5 11,377 94.8 11,533 95.4 11,031 90.2 11,801 95.3
Abduction 16 0.1 37 0.3 25 0.2 49 0.4 57 0.5 27 0.2
Robbery 1,921 17.1 2,145 18.1 2,032 16.9 2,050 16.9 2,073 16.9 2,442 19.7
Weapon 2,386 21.2 2,439 20.6 2,566 21.4 2,510 20.8 2,115 17.3 2,019 16.3
Other 102 0.9 122 1.0 158 1.3 125 1.0 141 1.2 124 1.0
TOTAL 16,277 144.8 7,706 49.4 18,687 55.7 18,526 53.2 17,315 141.6 8,215 147.1

* Source: Youth Court Survey.

** Rate per 10,000 total male youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Offense categorizations are comprised of the following offenses:

Homicide: Murder, Manslaughter, Infanticide and Other Related; Attempted Murder: Attempted Murder; Sexual Assault and Other

Sexual Offenses: Aggravated Sexual Assault, Sexual Assault/Weapon, Sexual Assault, Rape/Indecent Assault, Other Sexual Offenses; Non-Sexual Assault: Aggravated Assault, Assault With a Weapon, Cause Bodily Harm/Intent, Minor Assault, Unlawfully Cause Bodily harm, Assaulting Peace Officer, Other Assaults; Abduction: Kidnapping/Hostage Taking; Robbery: Robbery; Weapon: Dangerous Use of a Weapon, Possession of a Weapon, Other Weapons Offenses; Other: Extortion, Criminal Negligence

Note: Due to possible difference in the definitions of violent crimes, based on the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Youth Court

Survey used in this report, the enclosed tables and charts should be compared on a general level.

Table 4.6: Total Male Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada
  1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
  1,124,000 1,185,000 1,200,000 1,209,600 1,222,979 1,237,993

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 4.5A: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

Chart 4.5B: Male Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offense Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Canada

 

QUESTION 5: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF MALE YOUTH REMANDED INTO CUSTODY PENDING DISPOSITION OF A CHARGE?

Due to data from only Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia, conclusions are tentative:

Prince Edward Island: There was an increase from 1992/93 to 1996/97.

Manitoba: Overall stability from 1992/93 was followed by an increase to the highest rate per 10,000 male youth in 1996/97.

British Columbia: The rate increased slightly over the 5-year span.

Table 5.1: Male Youth Remanded into Custody* Per Month**, Select Provinces***
  1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
PROVINCE Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Newfoundland 18 6 - - - - 62 23 57 21
Prince Edward Island 2 3 2 3 3 5 3 5 5 8
Nova Scotia 27 7 - - - - 35 9 29 8
Manitoba 99 21 101 21 92 19 103 21 124 25
British Columbia 107 8 133 9 142 10 157 11 158 10
Yukon< 71 592 18 150 3 25 - - 6 41
Northwest Territories - - 9 28 7 22 - - - -

* Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Young Offenders: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics

** Average Month-End Admission: Data are an indication of the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total by the number of months for the corresponding period.

*** All available information is reported in the tables

**** - is nil or zero

Table 5.2: Male Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Select Provinces
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Newfoundland 30,600 29,500 28,400 27,300 26,980
Prince Edward Island 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,005
Nova Scotia 39,200 38,400 38,000 37,800 38,343
Manitoba 48,400 47,900 48,000 48,300 48,864
British Columbia 136,300 140,100 145,400 149,700 154,102
Yukon 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,300 1,460
Northwest Territories 3,300 3,200 3,200 3,300 3,379

 

Chart 5.1A: Male Youth Remanded Into Custody Per Month, Per 10,000 Male Youth Population, Select Provinces

QUESTION 6: ARE MALE YOUTH GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS?

Canada

  • For the most serious disposition, secure custody, there was a consistent increase from 1991/92 to 1994/95. Following a slight decrease in 1995/96, the percentage returned to a level similar to the 1994/95 level in 1996/97. The second most serious disposition, open custody, also revealed an increase until 1993/94. The percentage remained stable until a slight decrease in 1996/97. Probation revealed a consistent decrease until 1993/94 when a marked increase trend began. Fine and community service order dispositions decreased dramatically from 1993/94 to 1994/95 before leveling off and decreasing slightly in 1996/97. Absolute discharge dispositions decreased from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Regions

  • The most common disposition in each year across all regions was probation, except in 1993/94 where fine and community service order were the most common dispositions in the Ontario region.
  • Examining the percentage of male youth dispositions per total male youth disposition, the following appeared for each region:

Atlantic Region: Slight fluctuation in secure custody and probation dispositions. Slight and consistent increase in open custody from 1991/92 to 1996/97. Slight decrease in fine and community service order dispositions from 1991/92 to 1995/96 returning to a higher percentage in 1996/97. Overall, absolute discharge remained stable in the 6-year span.

Quebec Region: Slight decrease in secure custody. A notable increase from 1991/92 to 1994/95 in open custody dispositions and returned to a lower rate in 1995/96 to 1996/97. Slight and steady increase in probation. A decrease in fine and community service order ending in 1993/94 was followed by an increase. Fairly stable rate of absolute discharge.

Ontario Region: The secure custody rate remained stable until an increase in 1994/95, and remained stable for the following two years. Relatively stable open custody rate. The probation rate showed a marked increase in 1994/95 and increased slightly in subsequent years. A marked decrease in 1994/95 in fine and community service order dispositions. Stable rate of absolute discharge.

Prairie Region: Slight increase in secure and open custody dispositions. Slight and consistent decrease in probation until 1994/95 when an increase trend began. Slight decrease in fine and community service and absolute discharge dispositions.

Pacific Region: Steady increase in secure and open custody dispositions. Slight and consistent decrease in probation until 1994/95, when a slight increase trend began. Overall decrease infine and community service order and absolute discharge dispositions.

Table 6.1: Male Youth Disposition*, Canada
DISPOSITION** 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Secure Custody 9,014 9,785 10,033 10,521 9,671 10,396
Detention for Treatment 10 3 4 8 3 -
Open Custody 11,110 11,862 12,587 11,800 11,541 11,385
Probation 25,721 25,437 24,475 28,675 28,395 30,047
Fine 5,091 4,641 4,543 3,786 3,545 3,043
Compensation 222 225 175 136 137 162
Pay Purchaser 34 71 81 31 20 24
Compensation (Kind) 21 11 3 5 7 6
Community Service Order 7,573 7,942 8,208 3,743 3,821 3,531
Restitution 147 140 129 94 116 91
Prob./Seizure/Forfeit 64 81 144 18 25 36
Absolute Discharge 2,206 2,053 1,930 1,745 1,543 1,062
Other 1,943 2,330 2,304 798 892 1,196
TOTAL 63,156 64,581 64,616 61,360 59,716 60,979

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** - is nil or zero

 

Table 6.2: Percentage of Male Youth Disposition Per Total Male Youth Dispositions*, Canada
% OF DISPOSITION 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Secure Custody 14.0 15.2 15.5 17.2 16.2 17.0
Open Custody 17.6 18.4 19.5 19.2 19.3 18.7
Probation 40.7 39.4 37.9 46.7 47.6 49.3
Fine & Community Service Order 20.5 19.5 19.7 12.3 12.3 10.8
Absolute Discharge 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.6 1.7

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Both community service order and fine contributed to the decrease

 

Chart 6.2A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Canada

 

Table 6.3: Male Youth Disposition*, Regions
DISPOSITION** 1991/1992 %*** 1992/1993 % 1993/1994 % 1994/1995 % 1995/1996 % 1996/1997 %
ATLANTIC  
Secure Custody 915 13 884 15 784 13 773 13 681 12 757 13
Open Custody 1,414 21 1,267 21 1,262 21 1,333 23 1,286 23 1,392 23
Probation 3,741 55 3,220 54 3,277 56 3,154 54 3,099 56 3,217 54
Fine & CSO**** 586 9 447 8 435 7 413 7 366 7 519 9
Absolute Discharge 158 2 138 2 147 3 164 3 129 2 100 2
TOTAL 6,814 100 5,956 100 5,905 100 5,837 100 5,561 100 5,985 101
QUEBEC  
Secure Custody 1,678 22 1,531 19 1,568 20 1,548 19 1,181 16 1,473 17
Open Custody 969 13 1,124 14 1,074 14 1,257 15 1,013 13 1,072 13
Probation 3,741 49 4,014 50 4,131 52 4,264 52 4,106 54 4,669 55
Fine & CSO 1,154 15 1,166 15 1,003 13 1,117 13 1,184 16 1,265 15
Absolute Discharge 108 1 116 2 111 1 100 1 113 2 86 1
TOTAL 7,650 100 7,951 100 7,887 100 8,286 101 7,597 100 8,565 101
ONTARIO  
Secure Custody 3,325 17 3,803 18 4,075 18 4,716 21 4,666 21 4,719 21
Open Custody 4,888 25 5,370 25 5,984 26 5,170 23 5,467 24 5,230 23
Probation 5,745 29 5,947 28 5,739 25 10,900 48 10,632 47 11,322 50
Fine & CSO 4,948 25 5,251 25 6,162 27 1,156 5 1,064 5 846 4
Absolute Discharge 947 5 1,051 5 1,009 4 868 4 727 3 490 2
TOTAL 19,853 101 21,422 101 22,969 100 22,810 101 22,556 100 22,607 100
PRAIRIE  
Secure Custody 2,659 13 2,935 15 2,942 16 2,846 16 2,545 15 2,750 17
Open Custody 2,763 14 2,788 14 2,903 15 2,798 16 2,665 16 2,441 15
Probation 8,425 42 8,121 42 7,793 41 7,018 40 7,321 43 7,312 45
Fine & CSO 5,375 27 5,117 26 4,666 25 4,361 25 4,261 25 3,594 22
Absolute Discharge 742 4 490 3 498 3 418 2 411 2 282 2
TOTAL 19,964 100 19,451 100 18,802 100 17,441 99 17,203 101 16,379 101
PACIFIC  
Secure Custody 437 7 632 9 664 11 638 11 598 11 697 12
Open Custody 1,076 17 1,313 19 1,364 22 1,242 21 1,110 20 1,250 21
Probation 4,069 63 4,135 60 3,535 57 3,339 57 3,237 58 3,527 59
Fine & CSO 601 9 602 9 485 8 482 8 491 9 350 6
Absolute Discharge 251 4 258 4 165 3 195 3 163 3 104 2
TOTAL 6,434 100 6,940 100 6,213 101 5,896 100 5,599 101 5,928 100

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** Percentage of male youth dispositions per total male youth dispositions

**** CSO = Community Service Order

 

Chart 6.3A: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Atlantic Region

 

Chart 6.3B: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Quebec Region

 

Chart 6.3C: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Ontario Region

 

Chart 6.3D: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Prairie Region

 

Chart 6.3E: Percentage of Male Youth Dispositions Per Total Male Youth Dispositions, Pacific Region

 

QUESTION 7: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MALE YOUTH TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT?

  • Overall, there has been an increase in the number of male youth transferred to adult court in Canada from 1991/92 to 1996/97.
  • Following a decrease in 1992/93, the number of male youths transferred to adult court more than doubled in 1994/95. A significant decrease of almost 50% in 1995/96 was followed by an increase in 1996/97.
  • Since 1991/92, the Prairie region has undergone the largest increase - peaking in 1994/95. A significant decrease in 1995/96 was followed by a slight increase in 1996/97.
  • The Atlantic region had the least absolute number (12) of male youths transferred to adult court over the 6-year span, while the Prairie region had the most (247).
  • The average age remained stable from 1991/92 to 1996/97 (approximately 16.3).
  • The majority (87%) of youth transferred to adult court from 1991/92 to 1996/97 have been 16 years of age or older.

* See Appendix E for additional research findings

Table 7.1: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court*, Regions & Canada
  1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Atlantic 5 3 1 3 - -
Quebec 25 11 5 11 11 26
Ontario 12 19 21 25 15 12
Prairie 24 15 60 70 38 40
Pacific 2 2 7 8 6 9
Canada Total** 68 (16.6)*** 50 (16.2) 94 (16.3) 117(16.3) 70 (16.1) 87(16.4)

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Total excluding male youth aged <12 or >17

*** Average age of youth transferred to adult court

 

Table 7.2: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court* by Age, Canada
  Total <12 2 13 4 15 6 17 >17 Unknown
1991/1992 68 - - - 1 4 12 45 6 -
1992/1993 50 - - - 2 3 5 31 8 1
1993/1994 94 - - 1 2 9 15 60 6 1
1994/1995 117 - 3 - 3 9 37 62 3 -
1995/1996 70 1 - - 3 6 11 47 2 -
1996/1997 87 - - - 1 10 28 43 4 1
Canada Total 486 1 3 1 2 41 08 288 29 3

* Source: Youth Court Survey

 

Chart 7.1A: Male Youth Transferred to Adult Court, Canada 1991/92 – 1996/97

APPENDIX A

EXPLANATION AND DEFINITION OF DATA SOURCES

1. UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY (UCR)

  • A continuous historical record of crime and traffic statistics that have been investigated and reported by every Canadian police agency since 1962.
  • As of 1995, there were approximately 1,800 separate police locations responding to the Survey, comprising approximately 420 different police forces. The most significant loss of information occurs in the rare situation where a police force fails to submit data to the Centre. In this situation, estimates are calculated for that particular force.
  • Collected information includes the number of criminal incidents, the clearance status of those incidents and information on persons charged.
  • Data is available for nearly 100 separate criminal offenses.
  • Incidents are classified according to the most serious offense occurring in the incident (generally the offense which carries the longest maximum sentence under the Criminal Code of Canada). Violent offenses take precedence over non-violent offenses (i.e., an incident involving a breaking and entering offense and an assault is counted as an assault incident).

2. REVISED, OR INCIDENT BASED, UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY

  • In 1984 the UCR Survey was re-developed and expanded in terms of the information collected. The Revised UCR Survey allows detailed examinations of accused and victim characteristics (e.g., age, sex, alcohol/drug consumption, relationship, level of injury and weapon causing injury), as well as characteristics of the incident itself (e.g., location, targets of violations, secondary violations, the presence of weapons, property type, date and time).
  • In 1996, the Revised UCR Survey had 154 police forces reporting to it, representing approximately 47% of the national volume of reported crime: 39% of incidents were from Quebec, 38% from Ontario, 10% from Alberta, 8% from British Columbia, 4% from Saskatchewan and 1% from New Brunswick. With the exception of Quebec, the majority of police departments are urban.

3. YOUTH COURT SURVEY

  • National database of statistical information on charges, cases and persons involving accused who are 12 to 17 years of age (up to the 18th birthday). It represents a census of federal statute charges (Criminal Code, Narcotic Control Act, Food and Drugs Act, Young Offender Act, and other federal statutes) heard in youth courts, excluding appeals, reviews, provincial statutes, and municipal by-law infractions.
  • Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against one young person that have the same date of first appearance.
  • Data is collected from all youth courts in Canada and is intended to achieve complete coverage of charges dealt with by youth courts.

4. CORRECTIONS KEY INDICATOR REPORT FOR ADULTS AND YOUNG OFFENDERS

  • Data is quite general in nature and is primarily used to monitor correctional population trends.
  • Allows for historical comparisons and provides some indication of current trends and demands.

5. CANADIAN CENSUS

  • Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division (Final Postcensal Estimates for 1991; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1992, 1993, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1994, 1996, 1997). Note that the population estimates used in this report are not the most recent. However, the changes are very slight and do not affect the results.

APPENDIX B DATA PRESENTATION

  • This report presents data on the national and regional levels separately and provides comparisons between regions. This is done because there is often disparity between regions, and Canadian totals are greatly influenced by what happens in large population provinces, such as Ontario.
  • The wording in this report, specifically the definitions, are often extracted verbatim from the original sources (i.e., Uniform Crime Report and Youth Court Survey). Please refer to the original source if further clarification is needed on any definition.

APPENDIX C

REPORT: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995.

  • In their research on serious violent youth offenders, Lee and Leonard concluded that "[o]ffenses involving accused under fifteen years of age accounted for only 17% of the charges of serious violence (15% for males and 2% for females). One-fifth of the charges related to offenses that occurred when the accused was fifteen, 26% of offenses at age sixteen and 35% of offenses at age seventeen. Sixteen- and seventeen-year-old accused, therefore, accounted for the bulk (62%) of the charges" (1995:9).

APPENDIX D REPORTS: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court.

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995.

A Profile of the Juvenile Justice System in Canada.

Sharon Moyer, November 1996.

  • There is widespread consensus among the Canadian populace and research that large portions of young offenders are perpetrators of the most serious forms of violence. This is evident in the extensive media coverage afforded to the topic. However, according to Lee and Leonard (1995:1), these accounts "belie the fact...that the phenomenon of serious youth violence is actually so infrequent that it tends to elude statistical analysis." Similarly, the research of Moyer (1996:2) concludes that "[e]ven a cursory look at the type of offenses which result in system involvement shows that the vast majority of juvenile criminal behavior involved is not, by any definition, very serious in nature."
  • Lee and Leonard (1995:4) state that "[t]o put this base into perspective it is worth noting that during the reference period, in the nine jurisdictions included in the study, approximately three million individuals were at risk of being charged under the YOA, that is, they were between the ages of 12 and 17 years at some time during the reference period. The estimated number of young persons identified for this study, therefore, represents a mere 0.06% of the population at risk, and their charges relating to serious offenses are approximately 0.3% of the 900,000 charges of all types dealt with by youth courts of the nine jurisdictions in the same period."

APPENDIX E REPORT: Serious Violent Offenses and Offenders in Youth Court.

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995.

  • Only a small fraction of young persons (males and females) charged with serious violent offenses were transferred to adult court.
  • Transfer orders were issued by youth courts in more cases that did not involve violent offenses than in cases that did.
  • Youth who were transferred tend to be of the upper limit of the age jurisdiction of the YOA.
  • Youth who were transferred tend to have rather high charge to person ratios in their youth court histories. They share these characteristics, however, with many who remain in the youth justice system and receive dispositions under the Act. The data signal a need for more detailed research into the workings and effects of the transfer provisions of the YOA (50).

APPENDIX F Youth Court Survey

  • A case is one or more charges against a young person which are presented in court on the same date. Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against a young person that have the same date of first appearance. Identifiers used to link charges to cases are the coded name, sex, date of birth, date of first court appearance and court location code. This report uses case counts as the unit of analysis.

Uniform Crime Report

  • An incident is the basis for counting reported crime. An incident is the set of connected events usually constituting an occurrence report. In the aggregate survey, the incident is used in conjunction with the Most Serious Offense rule to form the aggregate offense counts (see below for definition of the Most Serious Offense rule). In the incident based survey, information for each incident is reported individually. Aggregate most serious offense rules are then applied to these data in order to reconcile them with historical aggregate counts as well as with data from aggregate respondents.
  • Most Serious Offense Rule - The UCR classifies incidents according to the most serious offense in the incident. In categorizing incidents, violent offenses always take precedence over non-violent offenses. The UCR Survey scores violent incidents differently from other types of crimes. For violent crimes, a separate incident is recorded for each victim (categorized according to the most serious offense against the victim). If, for example, one person assaults three people, then three incidents are recorded. If three people assault one person, only one incident is recorded. For non-violent crimes, one incident (categorized according to the most serious offense in the incident) is counted for every distinct or separate occurrence.
  • Robbery is one exception to the above ruling. Robbery is categorized as a violent offense. Unlike all other violent offenses, one occurrence of robbery is equal to one incident, regardless of the number of victims. The reason for this exception is that robbery can involve many people who could all be considered victims. In a bank robbery with 5 tellers and 20 customers present, 25 incidents of robbery would be counted if the normal scoring rule for violent incidents were applied. This would seriously overstate the occurrence of robbery.
  • Thus, the total number of incidents recorded by the UCR survey is not a census of all violations of the law that come to the attention of the police. Rather, it is equal to the number of victims of violent crimes (other than robberies) plus the number of separate occurrences of non-violent crimes (and robberies).
  • Persons charged - The UCR also records the number of persons charged. 4For incidents that are cleared, the survey collects the number of adults charged by gender, as well as the number of youths (aged 12 to 17 years) charged by gender. The "persons charged" category includes the number of people charged or recommended for charges by police, not the number of charges laid or recommended or laid against those people. A person who is simultaneously charged with more than one offense is counted according to the most serious offense, even if the offenses occurred in more than one incident. In addition, persons may be counted more than once throughout the year; that is, individuals are counted on each occasion that they are charged by the police.
  • Persons charged refers to persons who were charged in connection with a particular incident. These persons, however, may have been charged later with a lesser offense. For example, a person who commits a breaking and entering offense may end up being charged with possession of stolen goods if, for instance, the police have better evidence on the latter offense. Both the actual incident and the person charged are counted under breaking and entering, even though the person was actually charged with possession of stolen goods.

Corrections Key Indicator Report

  • The data used in this report are the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total number of months for the corresponding period. Actual in counts includes all youths on remand and temporary detention, sentenced offenders and other young offenders who are legally required to be at a facility and are present at the time the count is taken.