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ADULT MALE OFFENDERS IN CANADA:
RECENT TRENDS


By:
Colleen Anne Dell, Roberta Lynn Sinclair, and Roger Boe
Research Branch
Correctional Service of Canada


December, 1998


SUMMARY

The focus of this report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving adult male offenders in Canada. The report was written in response to a special request. To allow for comparison, it adheres to the same format of Research Brief B-18, Female Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends, by Colleen Anne Dell and Roger Boe; Research Brief B-21, Adult Female Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends, by Colleen Anne Dell and Roger Boe; and Research Brief B-22, Male Young Offenders in Canada: Recent Trends, by Roberta Lynn Sinclair and Roger Boe. This report completes the series.

The data used to compile this report is derived from two sources: the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Adult Criminal Court Survey, both published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Where available, the analyses in this report examine adult male offender trends over the past 5 years. The analyses were directed toward five questions:



  1. Has there been an increase in adult males charged by the police, 1992 - 1997?
    • At the national level, no. There has been a decrease in the rate of adult males charged by police. It decreased from 413 per 10,000 adult male population in 1992 to 311 in 1997.
    • At the regional level, no. There has been a decrease in the rate of adult males charged by police.
    • By offence category, there was a substantial decrease in property crimes (143 to 100 per 10,000) and other crimes (129 to 95 per 10,000). There was a decrease in violent crimes (107 to 88 per 10,000) and drug offences (34 to 27 per 10,000).


  2. Has there been an increase in adult males processed through the court system, 1994/95 - 1996/97.
    • At the national level, there was a decrease in the rate of adult males processed through the court system. It decreased from 338 per 10,000 adult male population in 1994/95 to 312 in 1996/97.
    • At the regional level, rates within the Quebec, Ontario and Prairie regions declined slightly. Increases were noted in the Pacific region (437 to 402 per 10,000) and the Atlantic region (246 to 309 per 10,000).
    • By offence category, from 1994/95 to 1996/97, there was a decrease in violent crimes (86 to 78 per 10,000), property crimes (101 to 94 per 10,000), and other crimes (125 to 115 per 10,000). Drug crimes remained relatively stable (approximately 25 per 10,000).


  3. Are adult males getting involved with crime at a younger age?
    • At the national level, no.
    • A mean age of 32 in 1994/95 increased slightly to 33 in 1995/96 and returned to 32 in 1996/97.


  4. Are adult males getting more violent?
    • According to the Uniform Crime Report Survey, from 1992 to 1997, the national rate of violent crime among adult males has declined from 107 to 88 per 10,000 adult male population.
    • Since 1992, there was an overall trend decrease in the rate of adult males charged for a violent crime in the Atlantic region (92 to 75 per 10,000), Ontario region (108 to 84 per 10,000), Prairie region (138 to 125 per 10,000) and Quebec region (86 to 59 per 10,000). The Pacific region had an overall slight increase (113 to 150 per 10,000).
    • By offence, homicide, attempted murder and abduction remained stable at a low rate (approximately 0.4 per 10,000). There was a notable decrease in sexual assault and other sexual offences (12 to 8 per 10,000) and a decline in non-sexual assault (86 to 75 per 10,000) and robbery (7 to 5 per 10,000).
    • Adult Criminal Court Survey statistics indicate a decrease at the national level from 86 per 10,000 adult male population in 1994/95 to 78 in 1996/97 in the number of adult males processed through court for a violent offence.
    • Focusing on specific offences over the 3-year period, there was stability in homicide and attempted murder (0.4 per 10,000). Sexual assault and other sexual offences decreased from 10 per 10,000 in 1994/95 to 8 in 1996/97. Major assault and common assault decreased very slightly from 7 per 10,000 in 1994/95 to 6.5 in 1996/97. There was a steady rate of abduction (0.1), while there was a very slight increase from 1994/95 to 1996/97 in robbery (3.9 to 4.2 per 10,000) and kidnapping (0.3 to 0.4 per 10,000).


  5. Are adult males getting more serious dispositions?
    • At the national level, prison, probation, restitution and fine dispositions remained relatively stable from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Unknown and other dispositions remained relatively stable from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a significant decrease in 1996/97.
    • At the regional level the most notable findings were:
    • Atlantic: All dispositions except prison decreased from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by an increase in 1996/97, with the exception of prison disposition.
    • Quebec: All dispositions remained relatively stable.
    • Ontario: There was a slight increase in probation (22 to 26 per total adult male disposition) and other dispositions (0.4 to 2.2 per total adult male disposition). There was a slight decrease in prison (41 to 40 per total adult male disposition) and fine disposition (31 to 30 per total adult male disposition).
    • Prairie: An increase in probation (22 to 17 per total adult male disposition), restitution (0.1 to 0.2 per total adult male disposition) and fine disposition (44 to 49 per adult male disposition). There was relative stability in prison disposition (29 per total adult male disposition) and other dispositions (3.0 per total adult male disposition).
    • Pacific: An increase in prison (42 to 46 per total adult male disposition), probation (26 to 31 per total adult male disposition) and other dispositions (0.5 to 2.8 per total adult male disposition). A decrease in fine (31 to 21 per total adult male disposition).

NOTE

  • The unit of analysis is cases processed (Adult Criminal Court Survey) and incidents or persons charged (Uniform Crime Report) (in the latter case this includes the number of people charged or recommended for charges by police, not the number of charges laid or recommended to be laid against those people). An explanation and definition of the data sources are presented in Appendix A to Appendix C respectively. For further clarification, please refer to the original source.
  • The Adult Criminal Court Survey data are presented for fiscal years. The Uniform Crime Report Survey data are presented for calendar years. Caution must therefore be made in comparison of the data sources. As well, the Postcensal and updated Postcensal population estimates (Statistics Canada) are for July 1 of the indicted years.
  • The data sources and population estimates used in this report may not be the most recent revision of the data. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics revises data the year following the original release. The changes, however, are small and do not effect the findings of this report.
  • The 1992/93 and 1993/94 Adult Criminal Court Surveys are not used in this report. They represent only 30% survey coverage whereas the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 represent approximately 80% coverage. The 1994/95 and 1995/96 surveys account for Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The 1996/97 survey accounts for Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Yukon.
  • To contextualize the UCR findings in this report, the rate of adult males and females and youth males and females charged by police increased from 1984 - 1991. From 1991 to 1996, the rates, overall, declined.1

1 Statistics Canada. Criminal Justice at a Glance: Data Highlights from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 1997.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables

List of Charts

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1:
HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN ADULT MALES CHARGED BY THE POLICE?

QUESTION 2:
HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN ADULT MALES PROCESSED THROUGH THE COURT SYSTEM?

QUESTION 3:
ADULT MALES GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

QUESTION 4:
ARE ADULT MALES GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

QUESTION 5:
ARE ADULT MALES GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS?


* Refer to Appendix A for definitions of data sources

** Refer to Appendix B for format of data presentation

QUESTION 1:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN ADULT MALES CHARGED BY THE POLICE?

Canada

  • Overall there was a decrease. This is true for the number of adult males charged by police and the rate of adult males charged by police per 10,000 adult male population.
  • By offence, there was a marked decrease in property crimes and other crimes from 1992 to 1997. There was a decrease in violent crimes and drug offences from 1992 to 1997.

Regions

  • In the Atlantic region there was a notable decrease from 1992 to1997, excluding a slight increase in 1996.
  • In the Quebec region there was a substantial decrease from 1992 to1997.
  • In the Ontario region there was a decrease from 1992 to 1997.
  • The rate declined substantially in the Prairie region from 1992 to 1997. The greatest decrease was between 1994 and 1995.
  • There was a decrease in the Pacific region from 1992 to 1993, followed by a slight increase from 1993 through to 1996 and a decrease in 1997, the lowest recorded rate .
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 adult male population, followed by the Pacific, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic regions.
Table 1.1: Adult Males Charged by Police*, Canada
OFFENCE 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Crimes of Violence 111,668 106.5 114,140 106.6 110,079 101.6 102,804 93.4 99,097 88.8 99,611 88.1
Property Crimes 150,066 143.1 135,983 126.9 125,401 115.8 122,762 111.6 123,324 110.5 113,280 100.2
Drugs*** 35,769 34.1 33,793 31.5 33,429 30.9 32,535 29.6 33,196 29.8 30,619 27.1
Other**** 135,627 129.3 132,200 123.4 122,433 113.0 117,500 106.8 113,830 102.0 107,798 95.3
TOTAL 433,130 413.0 416,116 388.4 391,342 361.3 375,601 341.4 369,447 331.1 351,308 310.7

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Traffic offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

Table 1.2: Total Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population*, Canada
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
10,487,200 10,712,100 10,833,300 11,004,228 11,155,618 11,305,795

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division.

Chart 1.1A: Total Adult Males Charged by Police, Canada

Chart 1.1B: Adult Males Charged by Police Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Chart 1.1C: Adult Males Charged by Police by Offence Category Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Table 1.3: Adult Males Charged by Police*, Regions
OFFENCE 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
ATLANTIC
Crimes of Violence 7,980 91.5 7,914 89.1 7,452 83.1 6,702 74.6 6,896 76.5 6,757 74.6
Property Crimes 12,184 139.7 11,272 126.9 9,594 107.0 9,101 101.3 9,131 101.3 8,626 95.2
Drugs*** 2,056 23.6 2,076 23.4 2,171 24.2 2,379 26.5 2,305 25.6 2,069 22.8
Other**** 10,407 119.4 9,776 110.0 8,857 98.8 7,749 86.2 8,383 93.0 7,923 87.5
TOTAL 32,627 374.2 31,038 349.4 28,074 313.1 25,931 288.6 26,715 296.4 25,375 280.1
QUEBEC
Crimes of Violence 22,855 86.1 22,243 82.7 21,297 78.5 19,300 70.2 18,695 67.3 16,557 59.1
Property Crimes 37,232 140.3 34,025 126.5 31,398 115.7 28,626 104.1 30,114 108.4 26,074 93.1
Drugs 6,564 24.7 7,424 27.6 7,420 27.3 7,607 27.7 7,781 28.0 6,647 23.7
Other 29,857 112.5 29,225 108.6 26,596 98.0 26,078 94.9 24,744 89.1 20,847 74.5
TOTAL 96,508 363.6 92,917 345.4 86,711 319.5 81,611 296.9 81,334 292.8 70,125 250.4
ONTARIO
Crimes of Violence 42,269 107.7 42,202 105.2 40,096 99.0 37,765 91.6 34,122 81.6 35,863 84.4
Property Crimes 47,397 120.8 43,201 107.7 37,254 92.0 37,293 90.5 35,566 85.1 33,543 79.0
Drugs 12,940 33.0 12,363 30.8 11,886 29.3 11,421 27.7 11,976 28.6 10,923 25.7
Other 54,454 138.7 52,608 131.1 48,434 119.6 46,182 112.0 42,748 102.2 39,230 92.4
TOTAL 157,060 400.2 150,374 374.8 137,670 339.9 132,661 321.8 124,412 297.5 119,559 281.5
PRAIRIE
Crimes of Violence 23,853 137.8 25,145 142.5 23,851 133.9 22,361 124.0 22,292 122.1 23,155 124.9
Property Crimes 33,030 190.8 28,607 162.1 27,244 152.9 26,003 144.2 25,342 138.9 23,719 128.0
Drugs 5,660 32.7 5,439 30.8 5,384 30.2 4,973 27.6 5,221 28.6 5,066 27.3
Other 29,971 173.2 30,056 170.3 27,473 154.2 25,700 142.6 26,313 144.2 27,880 150.4
TOTAL 92,514 534.5 89,247 505.7 83,952 471.2 79,037 438.4 79,168 433.8 79,820 430.6
PACIFIC
Crimes of Violence 14,711 112.6 16,636 122.7 17,383 125.0 16,676 116.4 17,092 116.2 17,279 115.1
Property Crimes 33,20,223 154.8 18,878 139.3 19,911 143.1 21,739 151.8 23,171 157.5 21,318 142.1
Drugs 8,549 65.4 6,491 47.9 6,568 47.2 6,155 43.0 5,913 40.2 5,914 39.4
Other 10,938 83.7 10,535 77.7 11,073 79.6 11,791 82.3 11,642 79.1 11,918 79.4
TOTAL 54,421 416.5 52,540 387.6 54,935 394.9 56,361 393.5 57,818 393.0 56,429 376.0
TOTAL 433,130 413.0 416,116 388.4 391,342 361.3 375,601 341.4 369,447 331.1 351,308 310.7

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crimes

***** Traffic Offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

****** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

Table 1.4: Total Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population*, Regions
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 871,900 888,500 896,900 898,491 901,606 905,672
Quebec 2,653,300 2,690,100 2,713,100 2,748,692 2,776,714 2,799,215
Ontario 3,924,800 4,013,000 4,050,300 4,121,805 4,181,392 4,246,682
Prairie 1,306,300 1,355,600 1,391,300 1,432,602 1,470,708 1,500,681
Pacific 1,306,300 1,355,600 1,391,300 1,432,602 1,470,708 1,500,681
TOTAL 10,487,200 10,712,100 10,833,300 11,004,228 11,155,618 11,305,795

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

Chart 1.3A: Adult Males Charged by Police Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Regions

QUESTION 2:

HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN ADULT MALES PROCESSED THROUGH THE COURT SYSTEM, 1994/95 - 1996/97?

Canada

  • Overall, there has been a decrease.
  • By offence, there was a decrease in violent, property, and other crimes from 1994/95 to 1996/97.
  • Drug crimes remained stable at approximately 26 per 10,000 adult male population over the 3-year period.

Regions

  • Overall, from 1994/95 to 1996/97 there was a notable increase in the Pacific region (noting a decrease from 1995/96 to 1996/97) and an increase in the Atlantic region.
  • The Quebec region decreased slightly, while the Ontario and Prairie regions decreased from 1994/95 to 1996/97.
  • The Pacific region had the highest rate per 10,000 adult male population, followed by the Prairie, Ontario, Atlantic and Quebec regions.
Table 2.1: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System*, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and the Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
OFFENCE 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Crimes of Violence 75,581 86.3 74,324 83.7 70,128 78.2
Property Crimes 88,640 101.2 86,882 97.8 84,139 93.8
Drugs*** 22,381 25.6 23,153 26.1 22,637 25.2
Other**** 296,409 338.4 291,212 327.9 279,786 311.9
TOTAL 296,409 338.4 291,212 327.9 279,786 311.9

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** Drugs = Drug Related Offences

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Criminal Code Violations

***** Traffic offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

Table 2.2: Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba & New Brunswick for 1994 and 1995 and the Northwest Territories for 1996)
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1994 1995 1996
8,758,700 8,884,601 8,971,968

** 1994, 1995 and 1996 calendar year population statistics are used for the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 fiscal year

Adult Criminal Court Survey data

Chart 2.1A: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Chart 2.1B: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System by Offence Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Table 2.3: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System*, Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia in the Pacific region, Manitoba in the Prairie region and New Brunswick in the Atlantic region for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and the Northwest Territories in the Prairie region for 1996/97)
OFFENCE 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
ATLANTIC
Crimes of Violence 3,599 58.6 4,533 73.8 4,766 77.4
Property Crimes 4,763 77.6 5,852 95.3 5,659 91.9
Drugs*** 1,047 17.0 1,460 23.8 1,257 20.4
Other**** 5,711 93.0 7,119 115.9 7,356 119.5
Atlantic-Total 15,120 246.2 18,964 308.8 19,038 309.2
QUEBEC
Crimes of Violence 11,540 42.5 12,795 46.5 11,908 42.9
Property Crimes 16,114 59.4 15,433 56.1 14,743 53.1
Drugs 4,381 16.2 5,506 20.0 5,500 19.8
Other 22,539 83.1 22,321 81.2 20,937 75.4
Quebec-Total 54,574 201.2 56,055 203.8 53,088 191.2
ONTARIO
Crimes of Violence 44,925 111.0 41,516 100.7 39,175 93.7
Property Crimes 45,632 112.7 44,364 107.6 43,620 104.3
Drugs 12,919 31.9 12,322 29.9 12,170 29.1
Other 62,244 153.7 58,105 141.0 55,633 133.0
Ontario-Total 165,720 409.3 156,307 379.2 150,598 360.1
PRAIRIE
Crimes of Violence 15,135 110.5 15,021 108.2 13,827 99.7
Property Crimes 21,879 159.7 20,933 150.7 19,834 143.0
Drugs 3,933 28.7 3,732 26.9 3,610 26.0
Other 18,945 138.3 18,853 135.8 18,517 135.5
Prairie-Total 59,892 437.2 58,539 421.6 55,788 402.2
PACIFIC*****
Crimes of Violence 382 335.1 459 411.2 452 389.0
Property Crimes 252 221.1 300 268.7 283 243.6
Drugs 101 88.6 133 119.1 100 86.1
Other 368 322.8 455 407.6 439 377.8
Pacific-Total 1,103 967.6 1,347 1,206.6 1,274 1,096.5
TOTAL 296,409 338.4 291,212 327.9 279,786 311.9

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

****** Traffic offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

******* Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

Table 2.4: Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population, Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia in the Pacific region, Manitoba in the Prairie region and New Brunswick in the Atlantic region for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and the Northwest Territories in the Prairie Region for 1996/97)
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1994 1995 1996
Atlantic 614,100 614,165 614,165
Quebec 2,713,100 2,748,692 2,776,714
Ontario 4,050,300 4,121,805 4,181,392
Prairie 1,370,000 1,388,776 1,386,719
TOTAL 8,758,700 8,884,601 8,971,968

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

** 1994, 1995 and 1996 calendar year population statistics are used for the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 fiscal year Adult Criminal Court

Survey data

Chart 2.3A: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Regions

QUESTION 3:

ARE ADULT MALES GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

Canada

  • Overall it appears males are not getting involved with crime at a younger age. This is true for both adult males charged by police and the rate of adult males charged by police per 10,000 adult male population.
  • A mean age of 32 in 1994/95 increased slightly to 33 in 1995/96 and returned to 32 in 1996/97.

Regions

  • Examining the total rates of adult males processed through court, by principle charge and age, the following is characteristic of each region:

Atlantic Region:

A steady trend with the lower the age the greater the rate of   adult males processed through the court system. There was a lower rate in 1994/95 in comparison to the 1995/96 and 1996/97 rates of males processed through court per 10,000 adult male population.


Quebec Region:

A steady trend with the lower the age the greater the rate of adult males processed through the court system.


Ontario Region:

A steady trend with the lower the age the greater the rate of adult males processed through the court system.


Prairie Region:

A steady trend with the lower the age the greater the rate of adult males processed through the court system.


Pacific Region:




A steady trend with the lower the age the greater the rate of adult males processed through the court system. There was, however, an anomalous high rate of adult males aged 30-34 who were processed through the court system per 10,000 adult male population in 1995/96.


Table 3.1: Adult Males Processed Through Court*, by Most Serious Offence**, by Age***, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
OFFENCE 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Unknown
1994/1995
Crimes of Violence 18,111 26,767 16,621 6,416 3,273 4,393
Property Crimes 34,978 27,865 14,312 5,235 2,773 3,477
Drugs**** 7,480 8,710 4,117 853 201 1,020
Other Crimes***** 32,409 36,685 20,575 8,653 4,391 7,094
1994/1995 TOTAL 92,978 100,027 55,625 21,157 10,638 15,984
Per 10,000 Adult Males 794.8 486.3 284.7 148.1 49.5
1995/1996
Crimes of Violence 17,926 26,285 16,745 6,354 3,157 3,857
Property Crimes 34,265 26,671 14,511 5,395 2,633 3,407
Drugs 8,130 8,581 4,384 936 228 894
Other Crimes 31,172 34,077 21,354 8,975 4,397 6,878
1995/1996 TOTAL 91,493 95,614 56,994 21,660 10,415 15,036
Per 10,000 Adult Males 785.7 471.6 283.9 145.2 47.5
1996/1997
Crimes of Violence 16,766 24,264 16,744 6,103 2,938 3,313
Property Crimes 32,847 25,421 14,974 5,465 2,606 2,826
Drugs 8,310 7,844 4,439 1,044 262 738
Other Crimes 29,474 32,067 21,692 8,833 4,304 6,513
1995/1996 TOTAL 87,397 89,596 57,849 21,445 10,110 13,390
Per 10,000 Adult Males 756.5 451.8 282.0 138.6 45.2

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** By most serious offence: The most serious offence rule is applied when a case involves more than one 3charge. The rule is: all charges in  a case are ranked according to an offence severity scale. If two or more charges have equal severity, sentence type information is considered. If a tie occurs at the level of sentence type, sentence magnitude information is considered.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

***** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

****** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

******* Traffic offences (Criminal Code and Impaired Driving) are excluded

******** - is nil or zero

Table 3.2: Adult Male, by Age (18+ Years) Population, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994 and 1995 and Northwest Territories for 1996)
ADULT POPULATION 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+
1994 1,169,800 2,056,800 1,953,800 1,428,600 2,149,700
1995 1,164,419 2,027,555 2,007,205 1,491,938 2,193,484
1996 1,155,212 1,983,118 2,052,140 1,546,745 2,234,753

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

** 1994, 1995 and 1996 calendar year population statistics are used for the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 fiscal year Adult Criminal Court

Survey data

Chart 3.1A: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Canada

Chart 3.1B: Adult Males Processed Through Court, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Canada

1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
MEAN AGE 32 33 32
Table 3.3: Adult Males Processed Through Court*, by Most Serious Offence**, by Age***, Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
OFFENCE 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Unknown
ATLANTIC
1994/1995 5,086 4,898 2,809 1,289 819 421
Per 10,000 A.M.**** 540.1 346.6 200.8 129.4 54.7
1995/1996 6,307 6,043 3,679 1,606 822 504
Per 10,000 A.M. 697.9 448.0 276.1 154.1 54.4
1996/1997 5,995 5,973 4,047 1,799 794 427
Per 10,000 A.M. 445.1 297.7 174.2 88.3 28.3
QUEBEC
1994/1995 16,081 19,138 10,853 4,300 1,947 2,255
Per 10,000 A.M.**** 470.0 312.6 174.3 92.1 29.6
1995/1996 15,959 19,029 11,640 4,560 2,085 2,782
Per 10,000 A.M. 464.4 311.7 183.3 93.8 31.0
1996/1997 15,380 17,667 11,255 4,440 1,946 2,401
Per 10,000 A.M. 445.1 297.7 174.2 88.3 28.3
ONTARIO
1994/1995 49,739 55,013 30,883 11,529 6,025 12,429
Per 10,000 A.M.**** 920.4 565.8 356.3 176.7 60.2
1995/1996 47,976 49,903 30,466 11,390 5,554 11,021
Per 10,000 A.M. 895.7 520.1 336.5 167.1 53.4
1996/1997 46,126 47,183 30,870 11,116 5,527 9,799
Per 10,000 A.M. 869.4 498.1 330.2 156.9 52.1
PRAIRIE
1994/1995 21,763 20,535 10,846 3,978 1,817 853
Per 10,000 A.M.**** 1,136.4 626.1 337.6 191.9 56.4
1995/1996 20,916 20,086 10,920 3,994 1,915 708
Per 10,000 A.M. 1,083.4 627.9 330.4 183.2 58.5
1996/1997 19,542 18,345 11,352 3,985 1,804 736
Per 10,000 A.M. 1,022.6 597.3 340.5 177.5 54.6
PACIFIC
1994/1995 309 443 234 61 30 26
Per 10,000 A.M.**** 2,060.0 1,527.6 754.8 277.3 176.5
1995/1996 335 553 289 110 39 21
Per 10,000 A.M. 2,349.2 1,977.8 964.9 491.7 228.2
1996/1997 354 428 325 105 39 27
Per 10,000 A.M. 2,387.1 1,500.2 1,050.4 441.5 215.4

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** By most serious offence: The most serious offence rule is applied when a case involves more than one charge. The rule is: all charges in a case are ranked according to an offence severity scale. If two or more charges have equal severity, sentence type information is considered. If a tie occurs at the level of sentence type, sentence magnitude information is considered.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** A.M. = Adult males

***** Traffic offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

****** - is nil or zero

******* Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

Table 3.4: Adult Males (18+ Years) Population*, Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia in the Pacific region, Manitoba in the Prairie region and New Brunswick in the Atlantic region for 1994 and 1995 and Northwest Territories in the Prairie region for 1996
ADULT POPULATION 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+
Atlantic
1994 94,200 141,300 139,900 99,600 149,600
1995 90,373 134,891 133,261 104,228 151,142
1996 86,557 132,469 134,541 108,554 153,403
Quebec
1994 342,200 612,300 622,700 467,000 658,300
1995 343,668 610,541 635,143 486,082 673,258
1996 345,532 593,443 646,271 502,717 688,751
Ontario
1994 540,400 972,300 866,800 652,500 1,018,200
1995 535,623 959,445 905,321 681,435 1,039,981
1996 530,530 947,197 934,861 708,544 1,060,260
Prairie
1994 191,500 191,500 321,300 207,300 321,900
1995 193,059 319,882 330,485 217,956 327,394
1996 191,110 307,156 333,373 224,552 330,528
Pacific
1994 1,500 2,900 3,100 2,200 1,700
1995 1,426 2,796 2,995 2,237 1,709
1996 1,483 2,853 3,094 2,378 1,811

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division

** The 1994, 1995 and 1996 calendar year statistics are used for the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 fiscal year Adult Criminal Court Survey

Table 3.5: Mean Age of Adult Males (18+ Years) Population, Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia in the Pacific region, Manitoba in the Prairie region and New Brunswick in the Atlantic region for 1994 and 1995 and Northwest Territories in the Prairie region for 1996)
1994/95 1995/96 1996/97
Atlantic 32 32 32
Quebec 33 33 33
Ontario 32 32 32
Prairie 31 31 32
Pacific 31 31 33
Chart 3.3A: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Atlantic Region

Chart 3.3B: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Quebec Region

Chart 3.3C: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Ontario Region

Chart 3.3D: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Prairie Region

Chart 3.3E: Adult Males Processed Through Court, by Most Serious Offence, by Age, Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Pacific Region

QUESTION 4:

ARE ADULT MALES GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

Canada

Uniform Crime Report:

  • Overall, there was a trend decrease. Since 1992, the national rate of violent crime among adult males has declined from 107 to 88 per 10,000 adult male population.
  • By offence, there was a relatively steady rate of homicide, fluctuating between 0.5 and 0.3 per 10,000 adult male offenders over the six-year period.
  • There was a steady rate of attempted murder, fluctuating between 0.7 and 0.5 per 10,000 adult male population over the six-year period.
  • There was a slight increase in the rate of sexual assault and other sexual offences from 1992 to 1993, followed by a steady decrease through to 1997.
  • Overall, there was a decrease in the rate of non-sexual assault from 1992 to 1997.
  • There was a relatively steady rate of abduction from 1992 to 1997.
  • There was an overall decrease in robbery from 1992 to 1997.
  • The highest rate of charges for a violent offence occurred in the order of non-sexual assault, sexual assault and other sexual offences, robbery, attempted murder, homicide and abduction.

Adult Criminal Court Survey:

  • From 1994/95 to 1996/97 there was a decrease in the number of adult males processed through the adult court system for a violent offence per 10,000 adult male population.
  • There was stability in the three-year period for the rate of homicide and attempted murder. Sexual assault and other sexual offences decreased from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Major assault and common assault decreased slightly from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Robbery and kidnapping increased slightly from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Abduction remained stable over the three-year period.

Regions

Uniform Crime Report

  • Acknowledging regional variation, there was a decrease in adult males charged by police for a violent offence.
  • Regional variation: The Atlantic region decreased from 1992 to 1995, and remained relatively stable through to 1997. The Pacific region increased from 1992 to 1994, followed by a decline in 1995 with relative stability through to 1997. The Prairie region increased from 1992 to 1993, followed by an overall decrease to 1997. The Ontario region decreased from 1992 to 1996, followed by a slight increase through to 1997. The Quebec region decreased from 1992 to 1997.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 adult male population, followed by the Pacific, Ontario, Atlantic and Quebec regions.
Table 4.1: Adult Males Charged by Police* for a Violent Offence, Canada
OFFENCE 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Homicide 495 0.5 440 0.4 378 0.3 440 0.4 392 0.4 324 0.3
Attempted Murder 710 0.7 610 0.6 553 0.5 645 0.6 563 0.5 565 0.5
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences*** 12,438 11.9 12,965 12.1 11,612 10.7 10,009 9.1 9,232 8.3 8,739 7.7
Non-Sexual Assault
****
90,097 85.9
8.6
93,056 86.7
8.7
91,184 84.2
8.4
85,654 77.8
7.8
82,562 74.0
7.4
84,181 74.5
7.5
Abduction 117 0.2 175 0.2 156 0.1 151 0.1 108 0.1 111 0.1
Robbery 7,751 7.40.2 6,894 6.4 6,196 5.7 5,905 5.4 6,240 5.6 5,691 5.0
TOTAL 111,668 106.6 114,140 106.4 110,079 101.5 102,804 93.4 99,097 89.9 99,611 88.1

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** There may be a difference in the 1996 definition in comparison to the prior year because 1996 does not include the category of Rape/Indecent Assault, however, it is anticipated to be negligible

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total adult males (aged 18+ years) population

***** Traffic offences (Criminal Code Traffic and Impaired Driving) are excluded

4.2: Total Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population*, Canada
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
10,487,200 10,712,100 10,833,300 11,004,228 11,155,618 11,305,795

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 4.1A: Total Adult Males Charged for a Violent Offence by Police Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Chart 4.1B: Adult Males Charged for a Violent Offence by Police Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Table 4.3: Adult Males Charged by Police* for a Violent Offence, Regions
OFFENCE 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
ATLANTIC
Homicide 28 0.3 30 0.3 31 0.4 27 0.3 27 0.3 22 0.2
Attempted Murder 16 0.2 19 0.2 18 0.2 18 0.2 18 0.2 21 0.2
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 1,310 15.0 1,365 15.4 1,143 12.7 933 10.4 904 10.0 886 9.8
Non-Sexual Assault***** 6,338 7.3 6,256 7.1 6,016 6.7 5,502 6.1 5,655 6.3 5,583 6.2
Abduction 9 0.1 13 0.5 6 0.1 3 0.03 4 0.04 8 0.1
Robbery 279 3.2 231 2.6 238 2.7 219 2.4 288 3.2 237 2.6
TOTAL 7,980 91.5 7,914 89.1 7,452 83.1 6,702 74.6 6,896 76.5 6,757 74.6
QUEBEC
Homicide 106 0.4 98 0.4 68 0.3 95 0.3 27 0.3 66 0.2
Attempted Murder 217 0.8 98 0.4 68 0.3 93 0.3 95 0.3 66 0.2
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 1,310 15.0 1,365 15.4 1,143 12.7 933 10.4 904 10.0 886 9.8
Non-Sexual Assault***** 6,338 7.3 6,256 7.1 6,016 6.7 5,502 6.1 5,655 6.3 5,583 6.2
Abduction 9 0.1 13 0.5 6 0.1 3 0.03 4 0.04 8 0.1
Robbery 279 3.2 231 2.6 238 2.7 219 2.4 288 3.2 237 2.6
TOTAL 7,980 91.5 7,914 89.1 7,452 83.1 6,702 74.6 6,896 76.5 6,757 74.6
ONTARIO
Homicide 161 0.4 150 0.4 120 0.3 133 0.3 113 0.3 101 0.2
Attempted Murder 206 0.5 166 0.4 211 0.5 231 0.6 194 0.5 183 0.4
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 4,368 11.1 4,649 11.6 4,202 10.4 3,478 8.4 3,030 7.2 2,808 6.6
Non-Sexual Assault***** 35,106 8.9 35,088 8.7 33,771 8.3 32,097 7.8 29,098 7.0 30,995 7.3
Abduction 64 0.2 59 0.2 66 0.2 48 0.1 36 0.1 36 0.1
Robbery 2,364 6.0 2,090 5.2 1,726 4.3 1,778 4.3 1,651 3.9 1,740 4.1
TOTAL 42,269 107.7 42,202 105.2 40,096 99.0 37,765 91.6 34,122 81.6 35,863 84.4
PRAIRIE
Homicide 124 0.7 94 0.5 97 0.5 101 0.6 107 0.6 75 0.4
Attempted Murder 164 1.0 146 0.8 69 0.4 117 0.6 91 0.5 105 0.6
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 2,866 16.6 2,948 16.7 2,587 14.5 2,262 12.5 2,346 12.9 2,199 11.9
Non-Sexual Assault***** 19,366 11.2 20,687 11.7 19,826 11.1 18,738 10.4 18,508 10.1 19,648 10.6
Abduction 48 0.3 47 0.3 36 0.2 41 0.2 33 0.2 33 0.2
Robbery 1,285 7.4 1,223 6.9 1,237 6.9 1,102 6.1 1,207 6.6 1,095 5.9
TOTAL 23,853 137.8 25,145 142.5 23,851 133.9 22,361 124.0 22,292 122.1 23,155 124.9
PRAIRIE
Homicide 76 0.6 68 0.5 62 0.5 86 0.6 50 0.3 60 0.4
Attempted Murder 107 0.8 71 0.5 69 0.5 88 0.6 88 0.6 109 0.7
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 1,841 14.1 2,071 15.3 1,952 14.0 1,852 12.9 1,577 10.7 1,616 10.8
Non-Sexual Assault 11,714 9.0 13,409 9.9 14,317 10.3 13,673 9.5 14,179 9.6 14,444 96.2
Abduction 18 0.1 27 0.2 23 0.2 30 0.2 18 0.1 23 0.2
Robbery 955 7.3 990 7.3 960 6.9 947 6.6 1,180 8.0 1,027 6.8
TOTAL 14,711 112.6 16,636 122.7 17,383 125.0 16,676 116.4 17,092 116.2 17,279 115.1

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 adult male (aged 18+ years) population

*** - is nil or zero

**** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

***** Rate per 1,000 adult male (aged 18+ years) population

Table 4.4: Total Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population*, Canada
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 871,900 888,500 896,900 898,491 901,606 905,672
Quebec 2,653,300 2,690,100 2,713,100 2,748,692 2,776,714 2,799,215
Ontario 3,924,800 4,013,000 4,050,300 4,121,805 4,181,392 4,246,682
Prairie 1,306,300 1,355,600 1,391,300 1,432,602 1,470,708 1,500,681
TOTAL 10,487,200 10,712,100 10,833,300 11,004,228 11,155,618 11,305,795

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

Chart 4.4A: Adult Males Charged for a Violent Offence by Police Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Regions

Table 4.5: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System* for a Violent Offence, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and the Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
OFFENCE 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Actual
Number
Rate per**
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Actual
Number
Rate per
10,000
Homicide 371 0.4 377 0.4 375 0.4
Attempted Murder 342 0.4 351 0.4 348 0.4
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences*** 8,621 9.8 8,072 9.1 8,072 8.0
Non-Sexual Assault
****
62,465 7.1 61,504 6.9 58,049 6.5
Abduction 99 0.1 88 0.1 67 0.1
Kidnapping 259 0.3 286 0.3 326 0.4
Robbery 3,424 3.9 3,646 4.1 3,745 4.2
TOTAL 75,581 86.3 74,324 83.6 70,128 78.1

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** Rate per 10,000 total adult males (aged 18+ years) population

*** Offence categorizations are comprised of the following offences:

Homicide: First degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter, infanticide; Attempted Murder: Attempted murder; Sexual Assault and Other Sexual Offences: Aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault with a weapon, causing bodily harm, threats to a third party, sexual interference, invitation to sexual touching, sexual exploitation, incest, bestiality; Major Assault and Common Assault: Aggravated assault (level 3), assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm (level 2), discharging firearm with intent,   unlawfully causing bodily harm, assault against a police/peace officer, assault level 1; Abduction: Abduction of a person under 16, abduction of a person under 14, abduction in contravention of a custody order, abduction where no custody order; Kidnapping: Kidnapping, forcible confinement, hostage taking; Robbery: Robbery with firearms, with other offensive weapons, other robbery.  Note: Due to possible difference in the definitions of violent crimes, based on the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report, the enclosed tables and charts should be compared on a general level.

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total adult male (aged 18+ years) population

Table 4.6: Adult Male (Aged 18+ Years) Population*, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994 and 1995 and the Northwest Territories for 1996)
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1994 1995 1996
8,758,700 8,884,601 8,971,968

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

** 1994, 1995 and 1996 calendar year population statistics are used for the 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 fiscal year Adult Criminal Court Survey Data

Chart 4.5A: Total Adult Male Processed Through The Court System For a Violent Offence Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

Chart 4.5B: Adult Males Processed Through the Court System For a Violent Offence Per 10,000 Adult Male Population, Canada

QUESTION 5:

ARE ADULT MALES GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS?

Canada

  • For the most serious disposition, prison, and the second most serious disposition, probation, there was relative stability from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Fine, restitution and other dispositions also remained fairly stable from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Unknown dispositions were fairly stable from 1994/95 to 1995/96 and then decreased significantly in 1996/97.

Regions

Atlantic Region: Prison dispositions increased significantly from 1994/95 to 1995/96 and decreased in 1996/97 to slightly above the 1994/95 level.
Probation decreased slightly from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a slight increase in 1996/97.
Fine decreased and then remained stable while restitution remained relatively stable throughout the three-year period.
The category of other dispositions decreased from 1994/95 to 1995/96 and increased in 1996/97.
Quebec Region: Relative stability in prison, probation, and restitution from 1994/95 to 1996/97.
Slight decrease in fine and stability in other dispositions from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by an increase in 1996/97.
Ontario Region: Relative stability in prison and fine.
Relative stability in probation from 1994/95 to 1995/96 with an increase in 1996/97.
Stability in restitution from 1994/95 to 1995/96 with a slight increase in 1996/97.
Stability in the category of other crimes from 1994/95 to 1995/96 with a substantial increase in 1996/97.
Prairie Region: Prison remained relatively stable from 1994/95 to 1996/97.
A slight increase in restitution from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a slight decrease in 1996/97.
Increase in fine and decrease in probation from 1994/95 to 1995/96, followed by stability in 1996/97.
Overall stability in the category of other crimes from 1994/95 to 1996/97.
Pacific Region: Overall stability in restitution from 1994/95 to 1996/97. Stability in fine from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a dramatic decrease in 1996/97.
Dramatic increase in the category of other crimes from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by relative stability through to 1996/97.
Increase in prison from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a decrease through to 1996/97.
Notable decrease in probation from 1994/95 to 1995/96 followed by a substantial increase in 1996/97.

Order of greatest frequency of dispositions per region:


Atlantic & Prairie Regions:
Fine, Prison, Probation,Other, Restitution

Quebec Region:
Probation, Fine, Prison, Other, Restitution

Ontario Region:
Prison, Fine, Probation, Other, Restitution

Pacific Region:
Prison, Fine, Probation, Other, Restitution
Table 5.1: Adult Male Disposition*,Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
TOTAL ADULT MALE POPULATION 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Prison 66,108 78,806 74,758
Probation 47,102 53,502 56,301
Fine 64,089 79,437 75,917
Restitution 53 193 191
Other*** 2,208 2,689 5,497
Unknown 6,325 9,041 2,005
TOTAL 185,885 223,668 214,669

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. When there is more than one charge the following rule applies: Dispositions are ordered from most to least serious: 1) Found guilty; 2) Transfer to Superior Court; 3) Other (acquitted due to insanity, waived out of province); 4) Stay, 5) Acquitted, Withdrawn, Dismissed, Discharged at Preliminary; and 6) Unknown. The most serious sentence order of ranking is: 1) Prison; 2) Probation; 3) Fine, 4) Restitution/compensation, 5) Other (absolute or conditional discharge, suspended sentence, other).

*** "Other" most serious sentences include absolute and conditional discharge, suspended sentence, payment of legal costs and suspension of drivers license.

Table 5.2: Percentage of Adult Male Disposition Per Total Adult Male Dispositions*, Canada
(The Canada total does not include British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick for 1994/95 and 1995/96 and Northwest Territories for 1996/97)
% OF DISPOSITION 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Prison 36 35 35
Probation 25 24 26
Fine 34 36 35
Restitution 0.03 0.1 0.1
Other** 2 1 3
Unknown 3 4 0.9

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** "Other" most serious sentences include absolute and conditional discharge, suspended sentence, payment of legal costs and suspension of drivers license.


Chart 5.2A: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Canada

Table 5.3: Adult Male Disposition*,Regions
(The regional totals do not include British Columbia in the Pacific region, Manitoba in the Prairie region and New Brunswick in the Atlantic region in 1994/95 and 1995/96 and the Northwest Territories in the Prairie region in 1996/97)
OFFENCE 1994/1995 %*** 1995/1996 % 1996/1997 %
ATLANTIC
Prison 3,568 25.9 6,404 35.6 4,358 28.8
Probation 2,996 21.7 14,312 5,235 2,773 3,477
Fine 7,480 8,710 4,117 853 201 1,020
Restitution 32,409 36,685 20,575 8,653 4,391 7,094
Other***** 92,978 100,027 55,625 21,157 10,638 15,984
Unknown 794.8 486.3 284.7 148.1 49.5 89
Total 13,797 17,967 15,146
QUEBEC
Prison 12,983 28.8 15,815 31.2 14,819 30.5
Probation 15,705 34.9 17,578 34.7 17,092 35.2
Fine 15,435 34.3 16,279 32.1 15,295 31.5
Restitution 19 0.04 23 0.1 38 0.1
Other***** 780 1.7 882 1.7 1,217 2.5
Unknown 92 0.2 83 0.2 57 0.1
Total 45,014 50,660 48,518
ONTARIO
Prison 44,414 40.5 40,821 39.2 41,728 40.1
Probation 24,587 22.4 23,530 22.6 26,890 25.8
Fine 34,453 31.4 30,905 29.7 31,668 30.4
Restitution 17 0.02 24 0.02 59 0.1
Other***** 410 0.4 322 0.3 2,275 2.2
Unknown 5,842 5.3 8,523 8.2 1,497 1.4
Total 109,723 104,125 104,115
PRAIRIE
Prison 4,727 28.9 15,285 30.6 13,396 29.2
Probation 3,564 21.8 8,368 16.8 7,931 17.3
Fine 7,177 43.8 24,509 49.1 22,483 49.0
Restitution 8 0.1 139 0.3 71 0.2
Other***** 579 3.5 1,162 2.3 1,580 3.4
Unknown 315 1.9 429 0.9 424 0.9
Total 16,370 49,892 45,885
PACIFIC
Prison 416 42.4 481 47.0 459 45.7
Probation 250 25.5 211 20.6 308 30.6
Fine 308 31.4 307 30.0 208 20.7
Restitution 2 0.2 1 0.1 2 0.2
Other***** 5 0.5 24 2.3 28 2.8
Unknown -- -- -- -- -- --
Total 981 1,024 1,005
Total 185,885 223,668 214,669

* Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. When there is more than one charge the following rule applies: Dispositions are ordered from most to least serious: 1) Found guilty; 2) Transfer to Superior Court; 3) Other (acquitted due to insanity, waived out of province); 4) Stay; 5) Acquitted, Withdrawn, Dismissed, Discharged at Preliminary; and 6) Unknown. The most serious sentence ranking is: 1) Prison; 2) Probation, 3) Fine, 4) Restitution/compensation, 5) Other (absolute or conditional discharge, suspended sentence, other).

*** Percentage of adult male dispositions per total adult male dispositions

**** "Other" most serious sentences include absolute and conditional discharge, suspended sentence, payment of legal costs and suspension of drivers license.

***** Totals may not add to 100 due to rounding

****** - is nil or zero

Chart 5.3A: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Atlantic Region

Chart 5.3B: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Quebec Region

Chart 5.3C: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Ontario Region

Chart 5.3D: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Prairie Region

Chart 5.3E: Percentage of Adult Male Dispositions Per Total Adult Male Dispositions, Pacific Region

APPENDIX A

DATA SOURCES

  1. UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY (UCR)
    • A continuous historical record of crime and traffic statistics that have been investigated and reported by every police agency in Canada since 1962.
    • As of 1995, there were approximately 1,800 separate police locations responding to the Survey, accounting for approximately 420 different police forces. The most significant loss of information occurs in the rare situation where a police force fails to submit data to the Centre. In this situation, estimates are calculated for that particular force.
    • Collected information includes the number of criminal incidents, the clearance status of those incidents and information on persons charged.
    • Data is available for nearly 100 separate criminal offences.
    • Incidents are classified according to the most serious offence occurring in the incident (generally the offence which carries the longest maximum sentence under the Criminal Code of Canada). Violent offences always take precedence over non-violent offences (i.e., an incident involving a breaking and entering offence and an assault is counted as an assault incident).

  2. REVISED, OR INCIDENT BASED, UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY
    • In 1984 the UCR Survey was re-developed to expand the information collected from the UCR Survey.
    • The Revised UCR Survey allows detailed examinations of accused and victim characteristics (e.g., age, sex, alcohol/drug consumption, relationship, level of injury and weapon causing injury), as well as characteristics of the incident itself (e.g., location, targets of violations, secondary violations, the presence of weapons, property type, date and time).
    • In 1996, the Revised UCR Survey had 154 police forces reporting to it, representing about 47% of the national volume of reported crime: 39% of incidents were from Quebec, 38% from Ontario, 10% from Alberta, 8% from British Columbia, 4% from Saskatchewan and 1% from New Brunswick. With the exception of Quebec, the majority of police departments are urban.

  3. ADULT CRIMINAL COURT SURVEY
    • A national database of statistical information on charges, cases and persons involving accused who are aged 18 years or older, companies and youths that have been raised to adult criminal court.
    • The data on completed federal statute charges are collected by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics in collaboration with provincial and territorial government departments responsible for provincial criminal courts.
    • The primary unit of analysis is the case, which is defined as one or more charges laid against an individual and disposed of in court on the same day.
    • Coverage is of provincial criminal courts in seven provinces and two territories (representing approximately 80% of the national provincial criminal court caseload). They are Newfoundland (2.0%), Prince Edward Island (0.4%), Nova Scotia (4.1%), Quebec (20.6%), Ontario (50.9%), Saskatchewan (6.5%), Alberta (14.3%), Yukon (0.5%) and the Northwest Territories (0.7%).
    • Data for federal statute offences heard in Quebec’s municipal courts are not currently available. It is estimated that approximately 20 percent of federal statute charges in Quebec are heard in municipal court.
    • In Quebec, sex is determined on the basis of the accused’s name, producing a relatively higher rate of sex unknown.

  4. CANADIAN CENSUS
    • Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division (Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1992, 1993, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1994, 1996 and 1997).
    • Note that the population estimates used in this report are not the most recent. However, the changes are very slight and do not affect the results. To illustrate, the most recent population statistics available are the Final Postcensal Estimates for 1992; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1993, 1994, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1996 and 1997.

APPENDIX B

DATA PRESENTATION

  • This report presents data on the national and regional levels separately and provides comparisons between regions. This is done because there is often disparity between regions and Canadian totals are greatly influenced by what occurs in large population provinces, such as Ontario.
  • The wording in this report, specifically the definitions, are often extracted verbatim from the sources (i.e., Uniform Crime Report and Adult Criminal Court Survey). If further clarification is needed on any definition, please refer to the original source.

APPENDIX C

DATA SOURCE EXPLANATIONS

Adult Criminal Court Survey
  • A case is one or more charges against a person or corporation, where the charges are disposed of in the same court on the same date. Charges are linked to a case on the basis of court location, accused identifier and date of last court appearance. The offences listed in each "case-based" table contain offence information on the one offence defined as the most serious in each case.
Uniform Crime Report
  • An incident is the basis for counting reported crime. An incident is the set of connected events usually constituting an occurrence report. In the aggregate survey, the incident is used in conjunction with the Most Serious Offence rule to form the aggregate offence counts (see below for definition of the Most Serious Offence rule). In the incident based survey, information for each incident is reported individually. Aggregate most serious offence rules are then applied to these data in order to reconcile them with historical aggregate counts as well as with data from aggregate respondents.

  • Most Serious Offence Rule - The UCR classifies incidents according to the most serious offence in the incident. In categorizing incidents, violent offences always take precedence over non-violent offences. The UCR Survey scores violent incidents differently from other types of crimes. For violent crimes, a separate incident is recorded for each victim (categorized according to the most serious offence against the victim). If, for example, one person assaults three people, then three incidents are recorded. If three people assault one person, only one incident is recorded. For non-violent crimes, one incident (categorized according to the most serious offence in the incident) is counted for every distinct or separate occurrence.

  • Robbery is an exception to the above ruling. Robbery is categorized as a violent offence. Unlike all other violent offences, one occurrence of robbery is equal to one incident, regardless of the number of victims. The reason for this exception is that robbery can involve many people who could all be considered victims. For example, in a bank robbery with 5 tellers and 20 customers present, 25 incidents of robbery would be counted if the normal scoring rule for violent incidents were applied. This would seriously overstate the occurrence of robbery.

  • Thus, the total number of incidents recorded by the UCR survey is not a census of all violations of the law that come to the attention of the police. Rather, it is equal to the number of victims of violent crimes (other than robberies) plus the number of separate occurrences of non-violent crimes (and robberies).

  • Persons charged - The UCR also records the number of persons charged. For incidents that are cleared, the survey collects the number of adults charged by gender, as well as the number of youths (aged 12 to 17 years) charged by gender. The "persons charged" category includes the number of people charged or recommended for charges by police, not the number of charges laid or recommended to be laid against those people. A person who is simultaneously charged with more than one offence is counted according to the most serious offence, even if the offences occurred in more than one incident. In addition, persons may be counted more than once throughout the year; that is, individuals are counted on each occasion that they are charged by the police.

  • Persons charged refers to persons who were charged in connection with a particular incident. These persons, however, may have been charged later with a lesser offence. For example, a person who commits a breaking and entering offence may be charged with possession of stolen goods if, for instance, the police have stronger evidence on the latter offence. Both the actual incident and the person charged are counted under breaking and entering, even though the person was actually charged with possession of stolen goods.