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FEMALE YOUNG OFFENDERS IN CANADA: REVISED EDITION

Colleen Anne Dell & Roger Boe
Research Branch
Correctional Service Canada
December, 1998

SUMMARY

The focus of this report is a summary and presentation of recent trends involving female young offenders in Canada. It is a revision of the original report, B-19, published in September, 1997. This updated version includes 1995/96 and 1996/97 Youth Court Survey, 1997 Uniform Crime Report and 1996/97 Corrections Key Indicator Report data. The original report was written in response to a special request, and supplemented a presentation for the Heads of Corrections.

The data used to compile this report is derived from three sources: the Uniform Crime Report Survey, the Youth Court Survey and the Corrections Key Indicator Report, all published by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Where available, the analyses in this report examine female young offender trends over the past 6 years. The analyses were directed toward seven questions:

1. Has there been an increase in female youth charged by the police, 1992 - 1997?

  • At the national level, no. There has been a very slight decrease.
  • At the regional level, the Prairie region remained relatively constant, the Pacific and Ontario regions declined, the Quebec region declined slightly and the Atlantic region increased.
  • By offence category, there was a marked decrease in property crimes, an increase in violent and other crimes and a slight increase in drug offences.

2. Has there been an increase in female youth processed through the youth court system, 1991/92 - 1996/97?

  • At the national level, overall there has been a slight decrease.
  • At the regional level, regions either increased slightly (Quebec) or decreased slightly (Ontario, Prairie, Pacific) with the exception of the Atlantic which notably increased.
  • By offence category, there has been a significant decrease in property crimes, a notable increase in violent and YOA offences, a slight increase in drug offences and relative stability in the category of other crime.

3. Are female youth getting involved with crime at a younger age?

  • At the national level, no.
  • A mean age of 15 has remained stable from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

4. Are female youth getting more violent?

Uniform Crime Report Survey

  • Since 1992, the national rate of violent crime among female youth has increased from 38 per 10,000 to 47 per 10,000.
  • From 1992 - 1997, the Pacific, Prairie, Ontario and Atlantic regions increased in the rate of female youth charged for a violent crime and the Quebec region only slightly increased.
  • By offence, homicide slightly increased over the 6-year period. Abduction and sexual assault and other sexual offences remained relatively stable, non-sexual assault and robbery increased and attempted murder slightly decreased.

Youth Court Survey

  • At the national level, there was an increase from 1991/92 to 1993/94 in the number of youth processed through youth court, followed by a slight decrease in 1994/95 and an increase to 1996/97 similar to the 1993/94 level.
  • Focusing on specific offences over the five year period, there was relative stability for homicide, attempted murder, abduction and sexual assault and other sexual offences, an increase in robbery and a slight increase in non-sexual assault and weapon offences.

5. Has there been an increase in the frequency of female youth remanded into custody pending disposition of a charge?

  • The number of female youth remanded into custody pending disposition of a charge was examined, however, conclusions are tentative because only two provinces are reported.
  • Manitoba had an increase of remands into custody from 34 in 1992/93 to 44 in 1996/97.
  • British Columbia had an increase of remands into custody from 20 in 1992/93 to 44 in 1996/97.

6. Are female youth getting more serious dispositions?

  • At the national level, there was an increase in probation, open custody and secure custody. Fine and community service order and absolute discharge both decreased.
  • At the regional level the most notable findings are: an increase in secure custody and a decrease in probation in the Atlantic region; an increase in probation and decrease in absolute discharge in the Quebec region; a dramatic increase in probation and a dramatic decrease in fine and community service order and a steady increase in secure custody and a stable decrease in absolute discharge in the Ontario region; an increase in probation, open custody and secure custody and a decrease in fine and community service order and absolute discharge in the Prairie region; and in the Pacific region an increase in open and secure custody and a decrease in absolute discharge.

7. Has there been an increase in the number of female youth transferred to adult court?

  • Very few females (a total of 20 female youth cases) were transferred to adult court between 1991/92 and 1996/97.

NOTE

  • The data used to compile this report does not measure the actual number of female youth charged with a crime, processed through the youth court system or remanded into custody, but rather, the unit of analysis is cases (Youth Court Survey), incidents (Uniform Crime Report Survey) or counts (Corrections Key Indicator Report). An explanation and definition of the data sources are presented in Appendix A to Appendix F respectively. For further clarification, please refer to the original source.
  • The Youth Court Survey and Corrections Key Indicator Report data are presented for fiscal years. The Uniform Crime Report Survey data are presented for calendar years. Caution must therefore be made in comparison of the data sources. As well, the Postcensal and updated Postcensal population estimates (Statistics Canada) are for July 1 of the indicated years.
  • The data sources and population estimates used in this report may not be the most recent revision of the data. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics revises data the year following the original release. The changes, however, are small and do not effect the findings of this report. For example, property crime rate comparisons are as follows: 1992 (17,051 / 17,038), 1993 (15,749 / 15,759), 1994 (14,261 / 14,251), 1995 (15,193 / 15,149).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF CHARTS

LIST OF APPENDICES

  • A: Data Sources
  • B: Data Presentation
  • C: Report: Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court. Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995 57
  • D: Report: Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court. Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995
  • Report: A Profile of the Juvenile Justice System in Canada. Sharon Moyer, November 1996
  • E: Report: Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court. Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995
  • F: Data Source Explanations

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN FEMALE YOUTH CHARGED BY THE POLICE, 1992 - 1997?

Canada

  • Examining the 6-year period, there was a very slight decrease. Note, there was a drop in 1994 followed by an increase in 1995 to a rate similar to 1993. This is true both for female youth charged by police and the rate of female youth charged by police per 10,000 female youth population.
  • By offence, one trend was a decrease in property crimes from 1992 to 1994, followed by a slight increase in 1995 and then a decrease to 1997 to substantially below the 1992 level.
  • Both violent and other crimes increased from 1992 to 1997, noting a slight decrease in 1994.
  • Drug offences increased slightly from 1992 to 1997, noting a slight decrease in 1995.

Regions

  • A general fluctuation occurred in 1994 where there was a decrease in all regions, except the Atlantic, which increased.
  • Overall, the rate remained quite steady for the Prairie region.
  • From 1992 to 1997, there was a trend decrease in the Ontario region.
  • In the Atlantic region there was a trend increase from 1992 to 1997.
  • In the Pacific region there was a trend decrease from 1992 to 1997.
  • The Quebec region decreased slightly over the 6-year period.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 female youth population, followed by the Pacific, Ontario, Atlantic and Quebec regions.
Table 1.1: Female Youth Charged by Police*, Canada
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENCE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Crimes of Violence 4,291 38.1 5,096 44.7 4,903 42.6 5,125 44.0 5,191 44.0 5,639 47.2
Property Crimes 17,051 151.4 15,759 138.2 14,261 124.0 15,193 130.6 14,593 123.8 13,298 111.4
Drugs*** 448 4.0 467 4.1 621 5.4 582 5.0 650 5.5 693 5.8
Other**** 6,199 55.0 6,101 53.5 5,739 49.9 6,484 55.7 7,135 60.5 7,450 62.4
TOTAL 27,989 248.5 27,423 240.4 25,524 221.9 27,384 235.4 27,569 233.8 27,080 226.8

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

Table 1.2: Total Female Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Canada
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063 1,193,930

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division.

Chart 1.1A: Total Female Youth Charged by Police, Canada

Chart 1.1B: Female Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada</a>

Chart 1.1C: Female Youth Charged by Police by Offence Category Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Table 1.3: Female Youth Charged by Police*, Regions
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENCE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
ATLANTIC  
Crimes of Violence 286 27.4 373 36.1 394 38.6 365 36.1 344 34.2 386 38.5
Property Crimes 1,055 101.2 1,070 103.7 1,120 109.8 1,036 102.5 1,019 101.3 1,036 103.4
Drugs*** 11 1.1 7 0.68 14 1.4 28 2.8 38 3.8 36 3.6
Other**** 389 37.3 390 37.8 398 39.0 421 41.6 582 57.8 544 54.3
TOTAL 1,741 167.0 1,840 178.3< 1,926 188.8 1,850 183.0 1,983 197.1 2,002 199.9
QUEBEC  
Crimes of Violence 353 12.4 352 12.2 359 12.4 351 12.2 397 13.8 380 13.4
Property Crime 1,732 60.6 1,589 55.0 1,220 42.0 1,366 47.3 1,412 49.2 1,161 40.9
Drugs 62 2.2 117 4.0 152 5.2 124 4.3 154 5.4 172 6.0
Other 293 10.3 228 7.9 186 6.4 249 8.6 265 9.2 248 8.7
TOTAL 2,440 85.4 2,286 79.1 1,917 66.0 2,090 72.4 2,228 77.6 1,961 69.1
ONTARIO  
Crimes of Violence 1,890 47.0 2,093 51.5 1,977 48.2 2,036 48.7 2,012 47.2 2,310 52.9
Property Crimes 6,784 168.8 6,027 148.2 5,243 127.9 5,543 132.6 5,449 127.7 5,081 116.4
Drugs 174 4.3 155 3.8 233 5.7 207 5.0 241 5.6 264 6.0
Other 2,853 71.0 2,743 67.5 2,682 65.4 3,053 73.0 2,957 69.3 2,934 67.2
TOTAL 11,701 291.1 11,018 271.0 10,135 247.2 10,839 259.3 10,659 249.8 10,589 242.5
PRAIRIE  
Crimes of Violence 1,220 59.9 1,546 75.0 1,456 69.8 1,570 74.0 1,594 73.5 1,751 79.1
Property Crimes 4,626 227.0 4,330 210.1 4,053 194.3 4,582 215.8 4,299 198.4 3,955 178.7
Drugs 75 3.7 94 4.6 99 4.7 105 4.9 125 5.8 136 6.1
Other 2,167 106.3 2,211 107.3 1,948 93.9 2,119 99.8 2,662 122.8 2,932 132.5
TOTAL 8,088 396.9 8,181 397.0 7,556 362.2 8,376 394.5 8,680 400.5 8,774 396.5
PACIFIC  
Crimes of Violence 542 41.5 732 54.2 717 51.6 803 56.0 844 57 812 53.4
Property Crimes 2,854 218.4 2,743 203.0 2,625 188.8 2,666 185.9 2,414 163.1 2,065 135.8
Drugs 126 9.6 94 7.0 123 8.8 118 8.2 92 6.2 85 5.6
Other 497 38.0 529 39.1 525 37.8 642 44.8 669 45.2 792 52.1
TOTAL 4,019 307.5 4,098 303.3 3,990 287.1 4,229 294.9 4,019 271.5 3,754 246.8
TOTAL 27,989 248.5 27,423 240.4 25,524 221.9 27,384 235.4 27,569 233.8 27,080 226.8

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total female (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** Figures may not add to totals due to rounding

Table 1.4: Total Female Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Regions
Region 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 104,300 103,300 102,400 101,100 100,610 100,160
Quebec 285,700 289,200 290,400 288,700 286,969 283,768
Ontario 401,900 406,700 409,900 418,000 426,709 436,613
Prairie 203,800 206,200 208,600 212,300 216,729 221,303
Pacific 130,700 135,200 139,000 143,400 148,046 152,086
TOTAL 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063 1,193,930

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

Chart 1.3A: Female Youth Charged by Police Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Regions

QUESTION 2: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN FEMALE YOUTH PROCESSED THROUGH THE YOUTH COURT SYSTEM, 1991/92 - 1996/97?

Canada

  • Per 10,000 female youth population, there has been yearly fluctuation, with a slight overall decrease from 1991/92 to 1996/97.
  • By offence, there was a significant trend decrease in property crimes from 1991/92 to 1996/97. There was an anomalous drop in 1994/95.
  • There was a noteworthy increase in violent and YOA offences, a slight increase in drug offences and relative stability in other crimes from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Regions

  • The rate remained quite stable for most regions with the exception of the Atlantic, which experienced a trend increase from 1992/93 to 1996/97. Minor trends in the other regions are a slight increase in the Quebec and a slight decrease in the Ontario, Prairie and Pacific regions over the 5-year period.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 female youth population, followed by the Ontario, Pacific, Atlantic and Quebec regions.
Table 2.1: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, Canada
  1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
OFFENCE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Crimes of Violence 3,436 32.2 3,947 34.0 4,688 39.9 4,484 37.6 4,684 40.3 4,829 41.0
Property Crimes 10,832 101.4 10,396 92.0 10,178 88.8 8,720 75.7 9,706 83.4 9,314 79.0
Drugs*** 327 3.1 346 3.0 404 3.5 520 4.5 573 4.9 606 5.2
Other**** 3,976 37.2 3,981 36.3 4,191 38.0 4,000 35.7 4,461 38.3 4,308 36.5
Young Offenders Act 2,023 18.9 2,106 19.1 2,431 21.8 2,434 21.7 2,474 21.3 2,895 24.6
TOTAL 20,594 192.8 20,776 184.4 21,892 191.9 20,158 175.2 21,898 188.2 21,952 186.2

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12-17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crimes

Table 2.2: Total Female Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Canada
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
1,068,300 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 2.1A: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Chart 2.1B: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System by Offence Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Table 2.3: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System*, Regions
  1992-1993 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997
Region Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
ATLANTIC  
Crimes of Violence 254 24.4 306 29.6 348 34.0 332 32.8 390 38.8
Property Crimes 617 59.1 624 60.4 634 62.0 659 65.2 812 80.7
Drugs*** 8 0.8 6 0.6 17 1.7 20 2.0 36 3.6
Other **** 179 17.2 160 15.5 188 18.4 203 20.0 244 24.3
Young Offenders Act 121 11.6 129 12.5 150 14.7 184 18.2 238 23.7
Atlantic – Total 1,179 113.0 1,225 118.6 1,337 130.6 1,398 138.2 1,720 171.0
QUEBEC  
Crimes of Violence 213 7.5 188 6.5 215 7.4 216 7.5 250 8.7
Property Crimes 256 9.0 245 7.4 242 8.3 272 9.4 343 11.9
Drugs 27 0.9 53 1.8 103 3.5 91 3.2 119 4.2
Other 84 2.9 100 3.5 76 2.6 81 2.8 90 3.1
Young Offenders Act 42 1.5 44 1.5 49 1.7 61 2.1 43 1.5
Quebec – Total 622 21.8 630 20.7 685 23.6 721 25.0 845 29.4
ONTARIO  
Crimes of Violence 1,914 47.6 2,245 55.2 2,078 50.7 2,118 50.7 2,189 51.3
Property Crimes 4,939 122.9 4,953 121.8 3,987 97.3 4,525 108.7 4,316 101.1
Drugs 157 3.9 184 4.5 226 5.5 275 6.6 259 6.1
Other 1,934 48.1 2,102 51.7 1,855 45.3 2,033 48.6 2,153 50.5
Young Offenders Act 729 18.1 889 21.9 869 21.2 879 21.0 1,001 23.5
Ontario – Total 9,673 240.7 10,373 255.1 9,015 219.9 9,830 235.2 9,918 232.4
PRAIRIE  
Crimes of Violence 1,168 57.3 1,469 71.2 1,393 66.8 1,516 71.4 1,464 67.5
Property Crimes 3,342 164.0 3,309 160.5 2,880 138.1 3,266 153.8 2,923 134.9
Drugs 78 3.8 86 4.2 101 4.8 105 4.9 108 5.0
Other 1,568 77.0 1,651 80.1 1,652 79.2 1,831 86.2 1,485 68.5
Young Offenders Act 921 45.2 1,061 51.5 1,069 51.2 996 46.9 1,121 51.7
Prairie – Total 7,077 347.3 7,576 367.4 7,095 340.1 7,714 363.4 7,101< 327.6
PACIFIC  
Crimes of Violence 398 30.5 480 35.5 450 32.4 502 35.0 536 36.2
Property Crimes 1,242 95.0 1,047 77.4 977 70.3 984 68.8 920 62.1
Drugs 76 5.8 75 5.5 73 5.3 82 5.7 84 5.7
Other 216 16.6 178 13.2 229 16.5 313 21.9 336 22.7
Young Offenders Act 293 22.4 308 22.8 297 21.4 354 24.7 492 33.2
Pacific – Total 2,225 170.2 2,088 154.4 2,026 145.8 2,235 156.2 2,368 160.0
TOTAL 20,776 184.4 21,892 191.9 20,158 175.2 21,898 188.2 21,952 186.2

* Source: Youth Court Statistics

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

**** Other = Other Federal Statutes & Other Crime

***** 1991 YCS not included because the Youth Court Statistics Report does not differentiate between females and males with this data. However, the data may be made available from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.

Table 2.4: Total Female Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population, Regions

Region 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Atlantic 104,300 103,300 102,400 101,100 100,610
Quebec 285,700 289,200 290,400 288,700 286,969
Ontario 401,900 406,700 409,900 418,000 426,709
Prairie 203,800 206,200 208,600 212,300 216,729
Pacific 130,700 135,200 139,000 143,400 148,046
TOTAL 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 2.3A: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Regions

QUESTION 3: ARE FEMALE YOUTH GETTING INVOLVED WITH CRIME AT A YOUNGER AGE?

Canada

  • Overall, it appears females are not getting involved with crime at a younger age. This is true both for female youth charged by police and the rate of female youth charged by police per 10,000 female youth population.
  • A mean age of 15 remained stable from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Regions

  • Examining total rates of female youth processed through youth court, by principle charge and age, the following is characteristic of each region:

Atlantic Region: In 1994/95 and 1996/97, the greatest number of female youth processed through youth court were 15 years of age. In 1995/96 the greatest number were 16 years of age. 1991/92, 1992/93 and 1993/94 revealed a different general trend: overall, the higher the age the greater the number of females processed through youth court.

Quebec Region: From 1991/92 to 1995/96 there was a steady trend with the higher the age the greater the number of female youth processed through the youth court system. In 1996/97, however, the greatest number of female youth processed through court were 15 years of age. Noteworthy as well is the marked increase in 1992/93 of 17 year olds processed through youth court.

Ontario Region: For all years the greatest number of females processed through youth court were 15 years of age.

Prairie Region: In 1991/92, 1992/93, 1994/95 and 1996/97 the greatest number of females processed through youth court were 15 years of age. In 1993/94, however, the greatest number of females processed were 16 years of age. Noteworthy as well is the higher number of 15-year-olds processed through youth court in 1995/96 in comparison to the other years.

Pacific Region: For all years, except 1992/93, the greatest number of females processed through youth court were 15 years of age. In 1992/93, the greatest number were 14 years of age followed closely by 15-year-olds. Additionally, in 1994/95 there was a marked decrease in the number of 16 and 17-year-old females processed through youth court in comparison to the other years. And in 1996/97, there were a notably higher number of 14 to 17-year-old females processed through youth court in comparison to the other years.

* See Appendix C for additional research findings

Table 3.1: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Canada
OFFENCE <12 12 13 14 15 16 17 >17 Unknown
1991/1992  
Crimes of Violence 2 129 361 716 845 764 629 9 92
Property Crimes 4 458 1,170 2,155 2,574 2,401 1,943 14 135
Other Crimes**** 1 82 292 606 848 930 918 117 47
Drugs***** - 2 4 27 58 105 123 6 7
Young Offenders Act - 24 167 412 560 396 323 72 21
Other Federal Statutes - - 2 3 6 11 21 - 2
1991/1992 TOTAL 7 695 1,996 3,919 4,891 4,607 3,957 218 304
Per 10,000 Female Youth******   38.8 113.1 218.3 273.7 256.1 226.4    
1992/1993  
Crimes of Violence - 141 408 808 907 864 719 9 91
Property Crimes 4 447 1,138 2,078 2,405 2,251 1,935 12 126
Other Crimes - 80 272 649 883 895 951 96 52
Drugs - 3 14 39 58 97 129 2 4
Young Offenders Act - 17 184 408 616 451 340 67 23
Other Federal Statutes - 2 3 21 22 21 32 - -
1992/1993 TOTAL 4 690 2,019 4,003 4,891 4,581 4,106 186 296
Per 10,000 Female   36.3 108.4 217.1 262.3 242.5 215.8    
1993/1994  
Crimes of Violence 4 232 598 921 1,083 961 782 14 93
Property Crimes 5 496 1,183 1,950 2,343 2,203 1,833 27 138
Other Crimes 2 85 306 729 927 935 969 87 73
Drugs - 2 10 51 69 129 139 3 1
Young Offenders Act - 20 189 498 641 574 399 83 27
Other Federal Statutes - 1 4 11 19 21 19 2 1
1993/1994 TOTAL 11 836 2,290 4,160 5,082 4,823 4,141 216 333
Per 10,000 Female Youth   43.4 119.5 220.7 272.2 255.2 216.2    
1994/1995  
Crimes of Violence 1 222 531 956 1,026 889 750 5 104
Property Crimes - 390 1,026 1,812 1,978 1,863 1,505 21 125
Other Crimes 1 66 342 707 907 933 862 89 78
Drugs - 7 23 62 92 155 175 4 2
Young Offenders Act - 28 198 519 687 524 382 67 29
Other Federal Statutes - - - 2 2 4 7 - -
1994/1995 TOTAL 2 713 2,120 4,058 4,692 4,368 3,681 186 338
Per 10,000 Female Youth   36.9 108.8 209.8 246.8 232.2 193.1    
1995/1996  
Crimes of Violence - 234 616 1,014 1,143 881 698 12 86
Property Crimes 2 464 1,178 2,024 2,276 1,985 1,661 22 94
Other Crimes 1 120 411 826 1,016 948 950 106 64
Drugs 2 31 213 530 709 507 405 62 15
Young Offenders Act - - - 4 3 5 7 - -
Other Federal Statutes - 4 33 76 108 159 184 1 8
1995/1996 TOTAL 5 853 2,451 4,474 5,255 4,485 3,905 203 267
Per 10,000 Female Youth   43.8 125.7 227.2 269.2 233.8 205.5    
1996/1997  
Crimes of Violence - 228 645 1,062 1,103 961 740 8 82
Property Crimes - 393 1,155 1,985 2,136 2,001 1,542 11 91
Other Crimes - 98 373 852 1,056 926 833 77 63
Drugs - 2 33 61 137 172 190 3 8
Young Offenders Act - 34 228 643 870 621 401 66 32
Other Federal Statutes - - 1 3 6 10 9 1 -
1996/1997 TOTAL - 755 2,435 4,606 5,308 4,691 3,715 166 276
Per 10,000 Female Youth   38.3 124.0 234.7 267.4 238.3 191.7    
TOTAL 29 4,542 13,311 25,220 30,119   27,554 23,505 1,175 1,814

* Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offence, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offences, property offences, other Criminal Code offences, offences under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offences.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Other = Other Crime

***** Drugs = Narcotics Control Act & Food and Drugs Act

****** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

******* - is nil or zero

Table 3.2: Total Female Youth, by Age (12 - 17 Years) Population, Canada
  12 13 14 15 16 17
1991 178,900 176,500 179,500 178,700 179,900 174,800
1992 190,000 186,300 184,400 186,500 188,900 190,300
1993 193,200 191,700 188,500 186,700 189,000 191,500
1994 193,300 194,800 193,400 190,100 188,100 190,600
1995 194,648 195,034 196,727 195,163 191,868 190,060
1996 197,261 196,374 196,284 198,525 196,844 193,775

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 3.1A: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Age, Canada

Chart 3.1B: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, by Age, Canada

  1991/92 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97
MEAN AGE 15.12 15.13 15.08 15.06 15.01 15.01

 

Table 3.3: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court*, by Principle Charge**, by Age***, Regions
  <12 12 13 14 15 16 17 >17 Unknown
ATLANTIC  
1991/1992 3 37 112 262 258 304 314 4 2
1992/1993 - 37 117 166 269 277 300 3 10
1993/1994 - 39 136 194 277 279 285 7 8
1994/1995 - 33 148 245 343 311 249 1 7
1995/1996 - 43 136 238 333 375 264 7 2
1996/1997 - 43 208 338 394 385 342 3 7
QUEBEC  
1991/1992 - 10 28 70 98 138 143 6 -
1992/1993 - 8 48 87 134 144 193 5 3
1993 /1994 1 15 38 104 144 153 166 9 -
1994 /1995 - 13 59 110 157 159 184 2 1
1995/1996 - 8 69 114 176 174 179 1 -
1996/1997 - 9 68 120 220 208 213 6 1
ONTARIO  
1991/1992 1 303 811 1,818 2,468 2,167 1,734 61 289
1992/1993 3 277 863 1,884 2,336 2,162 1,826 47 274
1993 /1994 6 401 979 2,085 2,475 2,186 1,863 73 305
1994 /1995 - 337 869 1,815 2,098 1,942 1,545 76 313
1995/1996 3 381 1,034 2,108 2,418 1,934 1,637 62 253
1996/1997 - 387 1,061 2,099 2,471 2,117 1,486 50 247
PRAIRIE  
1991/1992 3 291 809 1,332 1,556 1,545 1,365 132 13
1992/1993 1 301 747 1,348 1,644 1,531 1,379 117 9
1993 /1994 4 895 1,317 1,664 1,750 1,492 113 20
1994 /1995 2 279 774 1,447 1,577 1,569 1,344 87 17
1995/1996 2 346 946 1,537 1,804 1,549 1,409 111 10
1996/1997 - 281 858 1,476 1,635 1,491 1,219 82 19
PACIFIC  
1991/1992 - 55 235 436 513 452 401 15 -
1992/1993 - 67 245 517 505 468 407 16 0
1993 /1994 - 56 241 455 503 471 345 17 -
1994 /1995 1 51 270 442 512 391 359 20 0
1995/1996 - 75 266 477 524 453 416 22 2
1996/1997 - 35 240 573 588 490 415 25 2

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** By Principle Charge: The principle charge is the most serious charge for a person or case upon entering the youth court process. Where a young person or a case has only one charge, it is defined as the principle charge. Where more than one charge is linked to a person or a case, three criteria are used to select the principle charge: (1) the nature of the offence, (2) the decision of the court, and (3) the disposition of the charge. Violent charges are given first priority in the selection process, followed by drug and narcotic offences, property offences, other Criminal Code offences, offences under the Young Offenders Act, and other federal statute offences.

*** Age at the time the most significant charge was committed

**** Noting the similarity between the actual rate & the per 10,000 female youth population rate (refer to prior table), only the actual rate is referred to for the regions

***** - is nil or zero

Chart 3.3A: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Atlantic Region

Chart 3.3B: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Quebec Region

Chart 3.3C: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Ontario Region

Chart 3.3D: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Prairie Region

Chart 3.3E: Female Youth Processed Through Youth Court, by Principle Charge, by Age, Pacific Region

QUESTION 4: ARE FEMALE YOUTH GETTING MORE VIOLENT?

Canada

Uniform Crime Report:

  • Overall, there was a trend increase from 1992 to 1997.
  • There was a slight increase in the rate of homicide from 1992 to 1997.
  • There was a relatively steady rate of abduction from 1992 to 1995, followed by the highest rate in 1996 and the lowest in 1997.
  • There was a slight decrease in the rate of non-sexual assault from 1993 to 1994, followed by an increase to 1997.
  • There was a decrease in the rate of attempted murder from 1992 to 1996, followed by an increase in 1997 to a rate similar to 1992.
  • There was a decrease in the rate of sexual assault and other sexual offences from 1993 to 1996, followed by an increase in 1997 to a rate similar to 1992.
  • Overall, there was a significant increase in robbery from 1992 to 1997.
  • The highest rate of charges for a violent offence occurred in the order of non-sexual assault, robbery, sexual assault and other sexual offences, attempted murder, homicide and abduction.

Youth Court Survey:

  • There was a steady increase in the number of female youth processed through the youth court system for a violent offence per 10,000 female youth population from 1991/92 to 1993/94, followed by a slight decrease in 1994/95 and an increase to 1996/97 similar to the 1993/94 level.
  • There was relative stability in the six year period for the rate of homicide, attempted murder, abduction and sexual assault and other sexual offences. From 1991/92 to 1992/93, robbery slightly decreased followed by a notable increase to 1996/97. Overall, non-sexual assault slightly increased from 1991/92 to 1996/97, with an anomalous increase in 1993/94. Weapons offences increased slightly from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Regions

Uniform Crime Report

  • Overall, the Quebec region increased slightly from 1992 to 1997. The Atlantic, Ontario and Prairie regions all increased over the 6-year period. The Pacific region increased from 1992 to 1996 and decreased in 1997. As well, there was a notable increase in 1993 for all regions except Quebec, which remained stable.
  • The Prairie region had the highest rate per 10,000 female youth population, followed by the Pacific, Ontario, Atlantic and Quebec regions.

* See Appendix D for additional research findings

Table 4.1: Female Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offence, Canada
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Homicide 4 .04 2 .03 4 .03 12 .10 3 .03 12 .10
Attempted Murder 12 .11 9 .08 9 .08 4 .03 6 .05 14 .12
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences*** 71 .63 111 .98 88 .77 66 .57 57 .49 70 .66
Non-Sexual Assault 3,818 33.9 4,550 39.9 4,389 38.2 4,521 38.9 4,542 38.5 4,899 41.0
****   3.4   4.0   3.8   3.9   3.9   4.1
Abduction 6 .05 5 .04 7 .06 5 .04 9 .08 2 .02
Robbery 380 3.4 418 3.7 406 3.5 517 4.4 574 4.9 642 5.4
TOTAL 4,291 38.1 5,096 44.7 4,903 42.6 5,125 44.0 5,191 44.0 5,639 47.2

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** There may be a difference in the definition for 1996 in comparison to the prior year because 1996 does not include the category of Rape/Indecent Assault, however, it is anticipated to be negligible

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

Table 4.2: Total Female Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

1,126,400

1,140,600

1,150,300

1,163,500

1,179,063

1,193,930

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 4.1A: Total Female Youth Charged for a Violent Offence by Police Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Chart 4.1B: Female Youth Charged for a Violent Offence by Police per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Table 4.3: Female Youth Charged by Police* for a Violent Offence, Regions
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
OFFENSE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
ATLANTIC  
Homicide - - - - - - 2 0.2 - - - -
Attempted Murder - - - - 1 0.1 - - - - - -
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 9 .86 23 2.2 13 1.3 10 1.0 3 0.3 3 .30
Non-Sexual Assault 267 25.6 345 33.4 370 36.1 345 34.1 332 33.0 369 36.8
Abduction - - - - - - - - - - - -
Robbery 10 0.96 5 .48 10 0.98 8 0.79 9 0.9 14 1.4
TOTAL 286 27.4 373 36.1 394 38.5 365 36.1 344 34.2 386 38.5
QUEBEC  
Homicide - - - - - - - - - - 3 .11
Attempted Murder 3 0.11 4 0.14 1 0.03 2 0.07 - - 1 .04
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 2 0.07 5 0.17 3 0.1 2 0.07 2 0.07    
Non-Sexual Assault 310 10.9 293 10.1 313 10.8 316 10.9 344 12.0 310 10.9
Abduction - - 2 0.07 - - - - -   2 .07
Robbery 38 1.3 48 1.7 42 1.4 31 1.1 51 1.8 53 1.9
TOTAL 353 12.4 352 12.2 359 12.4 351 12.2 397 13.8 380 13.4
ONTARIO  
Homicide 2 0.05 1 0.02 2 0.05 4 0.1 - - 1 .02
Attempted Murder 6 0.15 3 0.07 3 0.07 1 0.02 1 0.02 2 .05
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 20 0.5 27 0.66 26 0.63 18 0.43 13 0.3 20 .46
Non-Sexual Assault 1,686 42.0 1,913 47.0 1,835 44.8 1,899 45.4 1,852 43.4 2,137 48.9
Abduction 2 0.05 3 0.07 3 0.07 1 0.02 7 0.16 - -
Robbery 174 4.3 146 3.6 108 2.6 113 2.7 139 3.3 150 3.4
TOTAL 1,890 47.0 2,093 51.5 1,977 48.2 2,036 48.7 2,012 47.2 2,310 52.9
PRAIRIE  
Homicide 2 0.1 - - 1 0.05 6 0.28 2 0.09 3 .14
Attempted Murder - - - - 2 0.1 1 0.05 4 0.18 7 .32
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 26 1.3 42 2.0 37 1.6 23 1.1 29 1.3 26 1.2
Non-Sexual Assault 1,073 52.6 1,365 66.2 1,274 61.0 1,325 62.4 1,308 60.4 1,421 64.2
Abduction 1 0.05 - - 1 0.05 3 0.14 2 0.09 - -
Robbery 118 5.8 139 6.7 141 6.8 212 10.0 249 11.5 294 13.3
TOTAL 1,220 59.9 1,546 74.9 1,456 69.8 1,570 74.0 1,594 73.5 1,751 79.1
PACIFIC  
Homicide - - 1 0.07 1 0.07 - - 1 0.07 5 .33
Attempted Murder 3 0.22 2 0.15 2 0.14 - - 1 0.07 4 .26
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 14 1.1 14 1.0 9 0.64 13 .90 10 0.68 10 .66
Non-Sexual Assault 482 36.9 634 46.2 597 42.9 636 44.4 706 47.7 662 43.5
Abduction 3 0.23 - - 3 0.22 1 0.07 - - - -
Robbery 40 3.1 81 6.0 105 7.6 153 10.7 126 8.5 131 8.6
TOTAL 542 41.5 722 53.2 717 51.6 803 56.0 844 57.0 812 53.4
TOTAL 4,291 38.1 5,085 44.7 4,903 42.6 5,125 44.0 5,191 44.0 5,639 47.2

* Source: Uniform Crime Report

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

**** - is nil or zero

Table 4.4: Total Female Youth (Aged 12 - 17 Years) Population*, Canada

  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Atlantic 104,300 103,300 102,400 101,100 100,610 100,160
Quebec 285,700 289,200 290,400 288,700 286,969 283,768
Ontario 401,900 406,700 409,900 418,000 426,709 436,613
Prairie 203,800 206,200 208,600 212,300 216,729 221,303
Pacific 130,700 135,200 139,000 143,400 148,046 152,086
TOTAL 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063 1,193,930

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Division, Demography Division

Chart 4.4A: Female Youth Charged for a Violent Offence by Police Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Regions

Table 4.5: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System* for a Violent Offence, Canada
  1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
OFFENCE Actual Number Rate per**
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Homicide*** 11 0.10 5 0.04 4 0.04 4 0.03 7 0.06 12 0.10
Attempted Murder 8 0.07 11 0.1 5 0.04 7 0.06 4 0.03 7 0.06
Sexual Assault & Other Sexual Offences 43 0.40 48 0.43 85 0.75 42 0.37 45 0.39 48 0.41
Non-Sexual Assault 2,934 2.8 3,485 30.9 4,142 36.3 3,947 34.3 4,072 35.0 4,147 35.2
****   2.8   3.1   3.7   3.4   3.5   3.5
Abduction 4 0.04 3 0.03 6 0.05 5 0.04 4 0.03 6 0.05
Robbery 288 2.7 243 2.2 286 2.5 288 2.5 369 3.2 407 3.5
Weapon 136 1.3 140 1.2 147 1.3 174 1.5 169 1.5 173 1.5
Other 12 0.11 12 0.11 13 0.11 17 0.15 14 0.12 29 0.25
TOTAL 3,436 33.2 3,947 35.0 4,688 41.1 4,484 39.0 4,684 40.3 4,829 41.0

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Rate per 10,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

*** Offence categorizations are comprised of the following offences:

Homicide: Murder, Manslaughter, Infanticide and Other Related; Attempted Murder: Attempted Murder; Sexual Assault and Other Sexual Offences: Aggravated Sexual Assault, Sexual Assault/Weapon, Sexual Assault, Rasp/Indecent Assault; Non-Sexual Assault: Aggravated Assault, Assault With a Weapon, Cause Bodily Harm/Intent, Minor Assault, Unlawfully Cause Bodily harm, Assaulting Peace Officer; Abduction: Kidnapping/Hostage Taking; Robbery: Robbery; Weapon: Dangerous Use of a Weapon, Possession of a Weapon, Other Weapons Offences; Other: Extortion, Criminal Negligence

Note: Due to possible difference in the definitions of violent crimes, based on the Uniform Crime Report Survey and the Youth Court Survey used in this report, the enclosed tables and charts should be compared on a general level.

**** To accommodate for charting, rate per 1,000 total female youth (aged 12 - 17 years) population

Table 4.6: Total Female Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population*, Canada

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
1,068,300 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063

* Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division

Chart 4.5A: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offence Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

Chart 4.5B: Female Youth Processed Through the Youth Court System For a Violent Offence Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Canada

QUESTION 5: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE FREQUENCY OF FEMALE YOUTH REMANDED INTO CUSTODY PENDING DISPOSITION OF A CHARGE*?

* Due to data only from British Columbia and Manitoba, conclusions are tentative:

Manitoba: There was a decrease from 1992/93 to 1994/95 followed by a marked increase to 1996/97.

British Columbia: There has been a steady increase from 1992/93 to 1996/97.

Table 5.1: Female Youth Remanded into Custody* Per Month**, Select Provinces***
  1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
PROVINCE Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Actual Number Rate per
10,000
Newfoundland 1 0.35 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7 2.6 10 3.8
Prince Edward Island 1 1.8 - - 1 1.7 - - 1 1.7
Nova Scotia 10 2.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A 5 1.3 6 1.6
Manitoba 34 7.4 27 5.8 26 5.6 37 8.0 44 9.3
British Columbia 20 1.5 26 1.9 29 2.1 40 2.8 44 3.0

* Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Young Offenders: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics

** Average Month-End Admission: Data are an indication of the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total by the number of months for the corresponding period.

*** All available information is reported in the tables

**** - is nil or zero

Table 5.2: Female Youth (Aged 12-17 Years) Population, Select Provinces

Province 1992* 1993 1994 1995 1996
Newfoundland 28,900 28,401 27,641 26,850 26,291
Prince Edward Island 5,700 5,801 5,906 5,930 5,918
Nova Scotia 37,200 37,342 37,133 37,337 37,680
Manitoba 46,100 46,204 46,069 46,270 47,369
British Columbia 129,500 133,845 137,803 142,051 146,605

* 1992 figures are rounded

Chart 5.1A: Female Youth Remanded Into Custody Per Month, Per 10,000 Female Youth Population, Select Provinces

QUESTION 6: ARE FEMALE YOUTH GETTING MORE SERIOUS DISPOSITIONS*?

Canada

  • For the most serious disposition, secure custody, there was an increase from 1991/92 to 1996/97. The second most serious disposition, open custody, (and so forth) also increased from 1991/92 to 1996/97. Overall, probation increased from 1991/92 to 1996/97. Fine and Community Service Order decreased from 1991/92 to 1996/97. Absolute discharge decreased steadily from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Regions

  • Examining the percentage of female youth dispositions per total female youth dispositions, the following is characteristic of each region:

Atlantic Region: Stability from 1991/92 to 1996/97 in fine and community service order, but with fluctuation over the 6 year span. Following a slight decrease from 1991/92 to 1993/94, there was a slight increase in open custody to 1996/97. As well, there was an increase in secure custody, an overall slight decrease in absolute discharge and following an increase from 1991/92 to 1993/94, there was a decrease in probation.

Quebec Region: Overall, increase in probation between 1991/92 and 1996/97. Inconsistent fluctuation in open custody. Stability in fine and community service order and secure custody, noting a drop in 1993/94 for the latter. Decrease in absolute discharge.

Ontario Region: Dramatic increase in probation and dramatic decrease in fine and community service order starting in 1993/94. Slight increase in open custody and steady increase in secure custody. Steady decrease in absolute discharge.

Prairie Region: Increase in probation, open custody and secure custody. Overall decrease in fine and community service order and absolute discharge from 1991/92 to 1996/97.

Pacific Region: Relative stability in probation and fine and community service order (except in 1993/94 for the latter where there was anomalous increase). Increase in open custody and secure custody. Decrease over the 6-year period for absolute discharge.

Order of the greatest frequency of dispositions per region:

Atlantic Region: Probation, Open Custody, Fine & CSO, Secure Custody, Absolute Discharge.

Quebec Region: Probation, Fine & CSO, Secure Custody, Open Custody, Absolute Discharge.

Ontario Region: Probation, Open Custody, Fine & CSO, Secure Custody, Absolute Discharge.

Prairie Region: Probation, Fine & CSO, Open Custody, Secure Custody, Absolute Discharge.

Pacific Region: Probation, Open Custody, Fine & CSO, Secure Custody, Absolute Discharge.

Table 6.1: Female Youth Disposition*, Canada
DISPOSITION** 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Secure Custody 706 831 1,086 1,095 1,179 1,376
Detention for Treatment 1 - - - - -
Open Custody 1,468 1,565 1,896 1,795 1,921 2,121
Probation 5,547 5,809 5,886 6,952 7,388 7,913
Fine 868 828 838 686 681 531
Compensation 24 17 17 20 10 19
Pay Purchaser 4 6 7 5 2 3
Compensation (Kind) 4 - - - - 3
Community Service Order 1,854 2,109 2,108 1,123 1,199 1,063
Restitution 16 12 17 7 18 12
Prob./Seizure/Forfeit 4 10 12 2 3 3
Absolute Discharge 921 835 767 668 551 402
Other 571 653 760 255 277 372
TOTAL 11,988 12,675 13,394 12,608 13,229 13,818

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The seriousness of the disposition is determined by the effect it has on the young person. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** - is nil or zero

Table 6.2: Percentage of Female Youth Disposition Per Total Female Youth Dispositions*, Canada
% OF DISPOSITION 1991/1992 1992/1993 1993/1994 1994/1995 1995/1996 1996/1997
Secure Custody 6 7 8 9 9 10
Open Custody 12 12 14 14 15 15
Probation 46 46 44 55 56 57
Fine & Community Service Order 23 23 22 14** 14 12
Absolute Discharge 8 7 6 5 4 3

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Both community service order and fine contributed to the decrease

Chart 6.2A: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Dispostions, Canada

Table 6.3: Female Youth Disposition*, Regions
DISPOSITION** 1991/1992 %*** 1992/1993 % 1993/1994 % 1994/1995 % 1995/1996 % 1996/1997 %
ATLANTIC  
Secure Custody 53 5 62 6 55 6 86 8 86 8 134 10
Open Custody 178 17 143 15 133 13 166 15 216 19 261 19
Probation 679 65 643 67 693 69 698 66 715 62 818 60
Fine & Community Service Order 89 9 72 7 59 6 78 7 98 9 113 8
Absolute Discharge 41 4 44 5 51 5 53 5 30 3 35 3
QUEBEC  
Secure Custody 27 8 34 7 27 5 31 6 18 4 38 6
Open Custody 25 7 24 5 41 8 27 5 45 9 27 4
Probation 209 59 300 64 291 59 337 67 314 62 415 67
Fine & Community Service Order 70 20 88 19 96 20 97 19 114 23 120 19
Absolute Discharge 22 6 23 5 19 4 13 3 13 3 20 3
ONTARIO  
Secure Custody 351 9 395 9 559 10 581 12 648 13 686 12
Open Custody 773 19 903 20 1,084 19 988 20 1,035 20 1,176 21
Probation 1,499 36 1,660 36 1,704 30 2,871 57 2,961 58 3,283 59
Fine & Community Service Order 1,104 27 1,247 27 1,456 25 273 5 240 5 224 4
Absolute Discharge 381 9 415 9 386 7 312 6 230 4 169 3
PRAIRIE  
Secure Custody 236 5 263 6 345 7 309 7 324 6 376 9
Open Custody 315 7 332 7 415 9 413 10 427 8 440 11
Probation 2,145 48 2,166 49 2,226 48 2,081 49 2,403 47 2,312 58
Fine & Community Service Order 1,365 31 1,429 32 1,252 26 1,273 30 1,767 35 755 19
Absolute Discharge 369 8 242 5 212 5 206 5 178 3 134 3
PACIFIC  
Secure Custody 39 3 77 5 100 7 88 6 103 7 142 9
Open Custody 177 12 163 11 223 15 201 14 198 13 217 14
Probation 1,015 70 1,040 70 972 66 965 68 995 67 1,085 69
Fine & Community Service Order 94 7 101 7 183 12 88 6 90 6 82 5
Absolute Discharge 108 8 111 7 99 7 84 6 100 7 44 3

* Source: Youth Court Survey

** Disposition is the most serious disposition for a person or a case. The seriousness of the disposition is determined by the effect it has on the young person. The dispositions above are ordered from most to least serious. If the disposition with the highest priority is a fine, compensation on pay purchases, and there is a combination of these, the disposition with the largest dollar value is selected as the most significant. In the event that multiple charges result in multiple custody orders, the highest priority is assigned to the largest custody order. The same situation applies in the case of multiple probation orders.

*** Percentage of female youth dispositions per total female youth dispositions

Chart 6.3A: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Youth Dispositions, Atlantic Region

Chart 6.3B: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Dispositions, Quebec Region

Chart 6.3C: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Dispositions, Ontario Region

Chart 6.3D: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Dispositions, Prairie Region

Chart 6.3E: Percentage of Female Youth Dispositions Per Total Female Youth Dispositions, Pacific Region

QUESTION 7: HAS THERE BEEN AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF FEMALE YOUTH TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT?

  • Overall, very few female youth are transferred to adult court in Canada: a total of 20 from 1991/92 to 1996/97. From 1991/92 to 1996/97 there was no notable trend: In 1991/92 there were only 3 transfers, in 1992/93 there were 2, in 1993/94 there were 0, in 1994/95 there were 6, in 1995/96 there were 4, and in 1996/97 there were 5. Note that in 1994/95 all 6 transfers were in Manitoba.
Table 7.1: Female Youth Transferred to Adult Court*, Regions & Canada
  1991/1992 Age 1992/1993 Age 1993/1994 1994/1995 Age 1995/1996 Age 1996/1997 Age
Atlantic -   1 16 -     -      
Quebec 1 15 -   - -   -      
Ontario 1 16 1 15 -     1 u/k    
Prairie 1 17 -   - 6** 16, 16, 16, 16, 17, 17 3 16, 16, 17 3 u/k
Pacific -   -   - -   -   2 u/k
Canada Total 3   2   0 6   4   5  

* Youth Court Survey

** All 6 cases were in Manitoba

*** See Appendix E for additional research findings

**** u/k: Unknown

APPENDIX A DATA SOURCES

1. UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY

  • A continuous historical record of crime and traffic statistics that have been investigated and reported by every police agency in Canada since 1962.
  • As of 1995, there were approximately 1,800 separate police locations responding to the Survey, comprising about 420 different police forces. The most significant loss of information occurs in the rare situation where a police force fails to submit data to the Centre. In this situation, estimates are calculated for that particular force.
  • Collected information includes the number of criminal incidents, the clearance status of those incidents and information on persons charged.
  • Data is available for nearly 100 separate criminal offences.
  • Incidents are classified according to the most serious offence occurring in the incident (generally the offence which carries the longest maximum sentence under the Criminal Code of Canada). Violent offences always take precedence over non-violent offences (i.e., an incident involving a breaking and entering offence and an assault is counted as an assault incident).

2. REVISED, OR INCIDENT BASED, UNIFORM CRIME REPORT SURVEY

  • In 1984 the UCR Survey was re-developed to expand the information collected from the UCR Survey.
  • The Revised UCR Survey allows detailed examinations of accused and victim characteristics (e.g., age, sex, alcohol/drug consumption, relationship, level of injury and weapon causing injury), as well as characteristics of the incident itself (e.g., location, targets of violations, secondary violations, the presence of weapons, property type, date and time).
  • In 1996, the Revised UCR Survey had 154 police forces reporting to it, representing about 47% of the national volume of reported crime: 39% of incidents were from Quebec, 38% from Ontario, 10% from Alberta, 8% from British Columbia, 4% from Saskatchewan and 1% from New Brunswick. With the exception of Quebec, the majority of police departments are urban.

3. YOUTH COURT SURVEY

  • National database of statistical information on charges, cases and persons involving accused who are aged 12 to 17 years (up to the 18th birthday).
  • Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against one young person that have the same date of first appearance.
  • Data is collected from all youth courts in Canada and is intended to achieve complete coverage of charges dealt with by youth courts.
  • Is a census of federal statute charges (Criminal Code, Narcotic Control Act, Food and Drugs Act, Young Offender Act, and other federal statutes) heard in youth courts.
  • Excludes appeals, reviews, provincial statutes, and municipal by-law infractions.

4. CORRECTIONS KEY INDICATOR REPORT FOR ADULTS AND YOUNG OFFENDERS

  • Data is quite general in nature.
  • Is used mainly to monitor corrections population trends.
  • Allows for historical comparisons and provides for some indication of current trends and demands.

5. OTHER STUDIES

>A. Report of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Task Force on Youth Justice. A Profile of the Juvenile Justice System in Canada

Sharon Moyer, November 1996

  • Provides a detailed quantitative description of the ways in which young offenders are dealt with by the justice system.
  • Details the characteristics of youth crime and the processing of these crimes by the youth justice system.

B. Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court

Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

  • Provides a statistical profile of a set of young persons who have at least one charge relating to any of the following serious offences adjudicated under the YOA: murder, attempted murder, manslaughter, aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault with a weapon, rape and aggravated assault for an eight year period (1986-1993).

6. CANADIAN CENSUS

  • Source: Statistics Canada, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Demography Division (Final Postcensal Estimates for 1991, 1992; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1993, 1994, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1996 and 1997).
  • Note that the population estimates used in this report are not the most recent. However, the changes are very slight and do not affect the results. To illustrate, the most recent population statistics available are the Final Postcensal Estimates for 1991 and 1992; Updated Postcensal Estimates for 1993, 1994, 1995; and Preliminal Postcensal for 1996 and 1997.
  • Comparison:
  •   1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
    Used 1,126,400 1,140,600 1,150,300 1,163,500 1,179,063
    Updated 1,128,324 1,140,815 1,150,771 1,163,544 1,179,063

    APPENDIX B DATA PRESENTATION

    • This report presents data on the national and regional levels separately and provides comparisons between regions. This is done because there is often disparity between regions and Canadian totals are greatly influenced by what happens in large population provinces, such as Ontario.
    • The wording in this report, specifically the definitions, are often extracted verbatim from the sources (i.e., Uniform Crime Report and Youth Court Survey). If further clarification is needed on any definition, please refer to the original source.

    APPENDIX C REPORT Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court

    Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

    • Lee and Leonard concluded in their research on serious violent youth offenders that "[o]ffenses involving accused under fifteen years of age accounted for only 17% of the charges of serious violence (15% for males and 2% for females). One-fifth of the charges related to offences that occurred when the accused was fifteen, 26% of offences at age sixteen and 35% of offences at age seventeen. Sixteen- and seventeen-year-old accused, therefore, accounted for the bulk (62%) of the charges" (1995:9).

    APPENDIX D REPORTS: Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court

    Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

    A Profile of the Juvenile Justice System in Canada

    Sharon Moyer, November 1996

    • There is widespread consensus among the Canadian populace and research that large portions of young offenders are perpetrators of the most serious forms of violence. This is evident in the extensive media coverage afforded to the topic. However, according to Lee and Leonard (1995), these accounts "belie the fact...that the phenomenon of serious youth violence is actually so infrequent that it tends to elude statistical analysis" (1). Similarly, the research of Moyer (1996:2) concludes that "[e]ven a cursory look at the type of offences which result in system involvement shows that the vast majority of juvenile criminal behavior involved is not, by any definition, very serious in nature" (1996:2).
    • To illustrate, referring to the research of Lee and Leonard (1995), "[b]oth the UCR and YCS indicate very small numbers per year of...[violent] offences....UCR data, from 1986 to 1993, yield the following average numbers of young [male and female] persons charged per year in all provinces and territories:

    Murder: 39

    Manslaughter: 5

    Attempted Murder: 65

    Aggravated Sexual Assault: 20

    Sexual Assault with a Weapon: 51

    Aggravated Assault: 254

    All the above: 434" (2)

    • Lee and Leonard (1995:4) further state that "[t]o put this base into perspective it is worth noting that during the reference period, in the nine jurisdictions included in the study, approximately three million individuals were at risk of being charged under the YOA, that is, they were between the ages of 12 and 17 years at some time during the reference period. The estimated number of young persons identified for this study, therefore, represents a mere 0.06% of the population at risk, and their charges relating to serious offences are approximately 0.3% of the 900,000 charges of all types dealt with by youth courts of the nine jurisdictions in the same period".

    1996 Incident Based Uniform Crime Report Survey

    • Selected Violations Against the Person, by Gender of Victim and Accused, 1996
      Female Accused (%) Male Accused (%) Total Accused (#)
    Female Victims (%) 7.2 48.2 43,328
    Male Victims (%) 5.9 38.7 34,070
    Total Victims (#) 9,958 66,440 76,398

    * Excludes incidents involving multiple accused and incidents where gender in unknown

    ** Counts the number of individual victimizations by sex of victim and accused

    *** Source: Incident Based UCR, Policing Services Program, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics

    APPENDIX E REPORT: Serious Violent Offences and Offenders in Youth Court

    Naomi Lee and Tim Leonard, December 1995

    • Only a small fraction of young persons (females and males) charged with serious violent offences were transferred to adult court.
    • Transfer orders were issued by youth courts in more cases that did not involve violent offences than in cases that did.
    • Youth who were transferred tend to be of the upper limit of the age jurisdiction of the YOA.
    • Youth who were transferred tend to have rather high charge to person ratios in their youth court histories. They share these characteristics, however, with many that remain in the youth justice system and receive dispositions under the Act. The data signal a need for more detailed research into the working and effects of the transfer provisions of the YOA (50).

    APPENDIX F DATA SOURCE EXPLANATIONS

    Youth Court Survey

    • A case is one or more charges against a young person which are presented in court on the same date. Basic charge data are used to ‘create’ cases, a case being all the charges against a young person that have the same date of first appearance. Identifiers used to link charges to cases are the coded name, sex, date of birth, date of first court appearance and court location code. This report uses case counts as the unit of analysis.

    Uniform Crime Report

    • An incident is the basis for counting reported crime. An incident is the set of connected events usually constituting an occurrence report. In the aggregate survey, the incident is used in conjunction with the Most Serious Offence rule to form the aggregate offence counts (see below for definition of the Most Serious Offence rule). In the incident based survey, information for each incident is reported individually. Aggregate most serious offence rules are then applied to these data in order to reconcile them with historical aggregate counts as well as with data from aggregate respondents.
    • Most Serious Offence Rule - The UCR classifies incidents according to the most serious offence in the incident. In categorizing incidents, violent offences always take precedence over non-violent offences. The UCR Survey scores violent incidents differently from other types of crimes. For violent crimes, a separate incident is recorded for each victim (categorized according to the most serious offence against the victim). If, for example, one-person assaults three people, then three incidents are recorded. If three people assault one person, only one incident is recorded. For non-violent crimes, one incident (categorized according to the most serious offence in the incident) is counted for every distinct or separate occurrence.
    • Robbery is one exception to the above ruling. Robbery is categorized as a violent offence. Unlike all other violent offences, one occurrence of robbery is equal to one incident, regardless of the number of victims. The reason for this exception is that robbery can involve many people who could all be considered victims. In a bank robbery with 5 tellers and 20 customers present, 25 incidents of robbery would be counted if the normal scoring rule for violent incidents were applied. This would seriously overstate the occurrence of robbery.
    • Thus, the total number of incidents recorded by the UCR survey is not a census of all violations of the law that come to the attention of the police. Rather, it is equal to the number of victims of violent crimes (other than robberies) plus the number of separate occurrences of non-violent crimes (and robberies).
    • Persons charged - The UCR also records the number of persons charged. For incidents that are cleared, the survey collects the number of adults charged by gender, as well as the number of youths (aged 12 to 17 years) charged by gender. The "persons charged" category includes the number of people charged or recommended for charges by police, not the number of charges laid or recommended or laid against those people. A person who is simultaneously charged with more than one offence is counted according to the most serious offence, even if the offences occurred in more than one incident. In addition, persons may be counted more than once throughout the year; that is, individuals are counted on each occasion that they are charged by the police.
    • Persons charged refers to persons who were charged in connection with a particular incident. These persons, however, may have been charged later with a lesser offence. For example, a person who commits a breaking and entering offence may end up being charged with possession of stolen goods if, for instance, the police have better evidence on the latter offence. Both the actual incident and the person charged are counted under breaking and entering, even though the person was actually charged with possession of stolen goods.

    Corrections Key Indicator Report

    • The data used in this report are the average month-end admission count to a facility. Averages are calculated by adding all month-end admission counts and dividing the total number of months for the corresponding period. Actual in counts includes all youths on remand and temporary detention, sentenced offenders and other young offenders who are legally required to be at a facility and are present at the time the count is taken.