Research Highlights: Indigenous men who participate in Section 84 releases have a unique profile compared to non-Section 84 Indigenous men.
Section 84 Releases: Profile of Federal Indigenous Men Offenders
Indigenous communities play an integral role in the rehabilitation and reintegration of Indigenous offenders following incarceration, especially through Section 84 releases.Footnote 1 An evaluation completed by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)Footnote 2 indicates that Section 84 releases are associated with lower rates of failure on conditional release and cost-effective. Although results indicate positive public safety outcomes, little is known about the profile of this subset of offenders. Therefore, this study explored the profile of federal men offenders who have participated in Section 84 releases relative to men who did not participate in Section 84 releases.
In total, 4,780 federal Indigenous men offenders were released on conditional releaseFootnote 3 between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2017.Footnote 4 First Nations men accounted for 68% of the release cohort, while 27% were Métis and 4% were Inuit. Analyses by Indigenous group and region of supervision were conducted, when possible.
Twenty-three percent (n = 1,084) of Indigenous men offenders participated in Section 84 releases during the study period. A greater proportion of Inuit offenders (34%) were released under Section 84 when compared with First Nations or Métis offenders (26% and 12%, respectively). Offenders in the Prairie and Pacific regions were most likely to participate in a Section 84 release (26%) while those in the Atlantic region were least likely (11%).
In comparison to non-Section 84 Indigenous men, those who participated in Section 84 releases were:
More Likely To
Equally Likely To
Less Likely To
Regardless of Indigenous group or region, the same pattern emerged when comparing section 84 participants with those who did not participate. Inuit offenders who participated in Section 84, however, were less likely to be on discretionary release, be at minimum security at release or to have participated in Indigenous interventions/programs than First Nations or Métis Section 84 participants.
Section 84 Indigenous men offenders were involved in Indigenous programs and services and were deemed a lower risk at release than non-participants. Future research will explore post-release success of these two groups.
Please e-mail the Research Branch or contact us by phone at (613) 995-3975.
You can also visit the Research Publications section for a full list of reports and one-page summaries.
Prepared by: Shanna Farrell MacDonald